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RUGBY, TENNESSEE BEING SOME ACCOUNT OF THE SETTLEMENT FOUNDED ON THE CUMBERLAND PLATEAU BY THE BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP, LIMITED A COMPANY INCORPORATED IN ENGLAND, AND AUTHORISED TO HOLD AMD DEAL, IN LAND BY ACT OF THE LEGISLATURE OF TIIE STATE OF TENNE3SEJS BY THOMAS HUGHES PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD WITH A REPORT ON THE SOILS OF THE PLATEAU BY THE HON. F. W. KILLEBBKW, A.M. Ph.D COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE FOB THE STATE MACMILLAN AND CO. 1881 "There need be no hesitation in affirming that colonisation in the present state of the world is the very best affair of business in which the capital of an old and wealthy country can possibly engage." JOHN STUART MILL. "Is it possible that I, who get indefinite quantities of sugar - hominy, cotton, buckets, crockery ware, and letter paper, by simply signing my name once in three months to a cheque in favour of John Smith and Co., traders, get the fair share of exercise to my faculties by that act, which nature intended for me in making all these far- fetched matters important to my comfort ? It is John Smith himself, and his carriers, and dealers, and manufacturers ; it is the sailor, the hide-dresser, the butcher, the negro, the hunter, and the planter, who have intercepted the sugar of the sugar and the cotton of the cotton. They have got the education, I only the commodity. This were all very well if I were necessarily absent, being detained by work of my own, like theirs, work of the same faculties, then should I be sure of my hands and my feet ; but now I feel some shame before my wood- chopper, my ploughman, and my cook, for they have some sort of self- sufficiency, they can contrive without my aid to bring the day and year round, but I depend on them, and have not earned by use a right to my arms and feet" E. W. EMEKSOK. PREFACE. THIS book is the best answer which the founders of Rugby, Tennessee, can at present make to the large and rapidly increasing number of questions which fc reach them from all parts of the United Kingdom CO >_ about that settlement. These inquiries, speaking < roughly, are addressed mainly to three points (1) The class of persons for whom the place is intended ; (2) What it is like ; (3) Its prospects. ^ Part I. of the book deals with the first question ; "if, and I hope will sufficiently indicate the views of the g founders. They will gladly welcome any persons who like to join them; but those whom they have specially in their minds are, young men of good education and o small capital, the class which, of all others, is most x> overcrowded to-day in England. The experience of the past six months has proved that such an outlet PB uj indeed that many such are needed. It has also q proved that, except in rare instances, the young men < who go out are not able at once to earn their living, and that they should not be sent out under the age of eighteen at earliest. The Board strongly recom- mend that boys and young men should be placed, for a year at least, with one of the present settlers to 448066 VI PREFACE. learn their business, which can be done at a cost of from 60 to 70 for the year's board, lodging, and teaching. The letters to the Spectator, which form Part II., written on the spot last autumn (and reprinted by kind permission of the Editors), give my own first impressions of the site and surroundings, more accu- rately, I believe, than anything I could now write on the subject. They are printed without alteration, in order that they may remain, and be taken as, first impressions only. At the same time I may add that on going over the proofs I see scarcely anything which I should have to modify were I to sit down now to write them over again. Part III., and especially Colonel K {Hebrew's report and the glossary, will enable readers to judge of the present condition and prospects of the settlement. Colonel Ivillebrew is the Minister of" Agriculture of the State of Tennessee, and the highest authority on all matters connected with land in those parts. The Board is glad to take this opportunity of thanking him for his valuable paper, which, corning from an entirely independent quarter, may be safely relied on as to the quality and capabilities of the soil on the plateau, in and around Hugby. They have always warned intending settlers that they will have to work hard, and with intelligence, in order to suece< ;tnitcs led forth nine saddle-horses, bearing the comfortable half -Mexican saddles, with wooden stirrups, in use CHAP, n.] THE CUMBEKLAND MOUNTAINS. 41 here. Our choice was quickly made ; and, throwing coats and waistcoats into the wagon, which the man- ager good-naturedly got into himself, surrendering his horse for the time, we joined the cavalcade in our shirts. A lighter- hearted party has seldom scrambled through the Tennessee mountain roads on to this plateau. We were led by a second Etonian, also six feet and upwards in his stockings, whose Panama straw hat and white corduroys gleamed like a beacon through the deep shadows cast by the tall pine trees and white oaks. The geologist brought up the rear, and between rode the rest of us all public schoolmen, I think, another Etonian, two from Eugby, one Harrow, one Wellington through deep gullies, through four streams, in one of which I nearly came to grief from not following my leader (but my gallant little nag picked himself up like a goat from his floundering amongst the boulders) ; and so up through more open ground till we reached this city of the future, and in the dusk saw the bright gleam of light under the verandahs of two sightly wooden houses. In one of these, the temporary restaurant, we were seated in a few minutes at an excellent tea (cold beef and mutton, tomatoes, rice, cold apple tart, maple syrup, etc.); and during the meal the news passed round that the hotel, being as yet unfurnished, and every other place filled with workpeople, we must all (except the geologist and the Wellingtonian, who had a room over the office) pack away in the next frame house, which had been with difficulty reserved for us. If it had been a question of men only, no one would have given it a thought ; but our party had now been swollen by two young ladies, who 42 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPKESSIONS. [PAHT n. had hurried down before us to visit their brother, a settler on the plateau, and by another young English- man, who had accompanied them. A puzzle, you will allow, when you hear a descrip- tion of our .tenement. It is a four -roomed timber house, of moderate size, three rooms on the ground floor, and one long loft upstairs. You enter through the verandah on a common room, 20 feet long by 1 4 feet broad, opening out of which are two chambers, 14 feet by 10 feet. One of these was, of course, at once appropriated to the ladies. The second, in spite of my remonstrances, was devoted to me, as the Nestor of the party ; and on entering it I found an excellent bed (which had been made by two of the Etonians), and a great basin full of wild-flowers on the table. There were four small beds in the loft, for which the seven drew lots ; two of the losers spread rugs on the floor of the common room, and the third swung a hammock in the verandah. Up drove the mule wagon with luggage, and the way in which big and little boxes were dealt with and distributed filled me with respect and admiration for the rising generation. The house is ringing behind me with silvery and bass laughter, and jokes as to the shortness of accommodation in the matter of washing appliances, while I sit here writing in the verandah, the light from my lamp throwing out into strong relief the stems of the nearest trees. Above, the vault is blue br.yond all description, and studded with stars as bright as though they were all Venuses. The katydids are making delightful music in the trees, and the summer lightning is playing over the Western heaven; while a gentle breeze, cool and refreshing as if it CHAP, ii.] THE CUMBERLAND MOUNTAINS. 43 came straight off a Western sea, is just lifting, every now and then, the corner of my paper. Were I young again, but as I am not likely to be that, I refrain from bootless castle-building, and shall turn in, leaving windows wide open for the katydid's chirp and the divine breeze to enter freely, and wish- ing sleep as sound as they have all so well earned, to my crowded neighbours in this enchanted solitude. VACUUS VIATOR. CHAPTEK IIL LIFE IN TENNESSEE. RUGBY, TENNESSEE. I "WAS roused at five or thereabouts on the morning after our arrival here by a visit from a big dog belong- ing to a native, not quite a mastiff, but more like that than anything else, who, seeing my window wide open, jumped in from the verandah, ^nd came to the bed to give me good-morning with tail and muzzle. I was glad to see him, having made friends the previous evening, when the decision of his dealings with the stray hogs who came to call on us from the neighbour- ing forest had won my heart ; but as his size and atten- tions somewhat impeded my necessarily scanty ablutions, I had to motion him apologetically to the window, when I turned out. He obeyed at once, jumped out, laid his muzzle on the sill, and solemnly, and, I thought, somewhat pityingly, watched my proceedings. Meantime, I heard sounds which announced the up- rising of " the boys," and in a few minutes several appeared in flannel shirts and trousers, bound for one of the two rivers which run close by, in gullies 200 feet, below us. They had heard of a pool 1 feet deep, and found it, too ; and a most delicious place it is, sur- rounded by great rocks, lying in a copse of rhodo- dendrons, azaleas, and magnolias, which literally form CHAP, m.] LIFE IN TENNESSEE. 45 the underwood of the pines and white oak along these gullies. The water is of a temperature which allows folk whose blood is not so hot as it used to be to lie for half an hour on its surface, and play about without a sensation of chilliness. On this occasion, however, I preferred to let them do the exploring, and so at 6.15 went off to breakfast. This is the regular hour for that meal here, dinner at twelve, and tea at six. There is really no difference between them, except that we get porridge at breakfast and a great abundance of vegetables at dinner. At all of them we have tea and fresh water for drink, plates of beef or mutton, apple sauce, rice, tomatoes, peach pies or puddings, and several kinds of bread. As the English garden furnishes unlimited water and other melons, and as the settlers young Englishmen, who come in to see us bring sacks of apples and peaches with them, and as, moreover, the most solvent of the boys invested at Cincinnati in a great square box full of tinned viands of all kinds, you may see at once that in this matter of provender we are not genuine objects either for admiration or pity. I must confess here to a slight disappointment. Having arrived at an age myself when diet has become a matter of indifference, I was rather chuckling as we came along over the coming short-commons up here, when we got fairly loose in the woods, and the excellent discipline it would be for the boys, especially the Londoners, to discover that the human animal can be kept in rude health on a few daily crackers and apples, or a slap-jack and tough pork. And now, behold, we are actually still living amongst the flesh- pots, which I had fondly believed we had left in your 46 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n. Eastern Egypt ; and I am bound to add, " the boys " seem as provokingly indifferent to them as if their beards were getting grizzled. One lives and learns; but I question whether these States are quite the place to bring home to our Anglo-Saxon race the fact that we are an over-fed branch of the universal brotherhood. Tanner, I fear, has fasted in vain. Breakfast was scarcely over when there was a muster of cavalry. Every horse that could be spared or requisitioned was in demand for an exploring ride to the west, and soon every charger was bestrid by "a boy" in free-and-easy garments, and carrying a blanket for camping out. Away they went under the pines and oaks, a merry lot, headed by our geologist, who knows the forest by this time like a native, and whose shock- ing old straw blazed ahead in the morning sun like, shall we say, "the helmet of Navarre," or Essex's white hat and plumes before the Train Bands, as they crowned the ridge where Falkland fell, and his monument now stands, at the battle of Newbury. Charles Kingsley's lines came into my head, as I turned pensively to my table in the verandah to write to you : " When all the world is young, lad, and all the trees are green, And every goose a swan, lad, and every lass a queen, Then heigh for boot and horse, lad, and round the world away, Young blood must have its course, lad, and every dog his day!" Our two lasses are, undoubtedly, queens out here. The thought occurs, are our swans our visions, already so bright, of splendid crops, and simple life, to be raised and lived in this fairyland to prove geese ? I hope not. It would be the downfall of the last castle in Spain I am ever likely to build. On reaching our abode I was aware of the forester CHAP, m.] LIFE IN TENNESSEE. 47 coming across from the English garden, of which he has charge, followed by a young native. He walked up to me, and announced that they were come across to tidy up, and Hack the boots. Here was another shock, that we should be followed by the lumber of civilisation so closely ! Will boots be blacked, I wonder, in the New Jerusalem? I was at first inclined to protest, while they made a collection, and set them out on the ver- andah, but the sight of the ladies' neat little high-lows made me pause. These, at any rate, it seemed to me, should be blacked, even in the Millennium. Next minute I was so tickled by a little interlude between the forester and the native, that all idea of remonstrance vanished. The latter, contemplating the boots and blacking-pot and brushes from under the shapeless piece of old felt which he wore by way of hat, of the same mys- terious colour as the ragged shirt and breeches, his only other garments joined his hands behind his back, and said, in their slow way, " Look 'ere, Mr. Hill, ain't this 'ere pay-day ? " The drift was perfectly obvious. This citizen had no mind to turn shoeblack, and felt like discharging himself summarily. Mr. Hill, who was , already busily sweeping the verandah, put down his broom, and after a short colloquy, which I did not quite catch, seized on a boot and brush, and began shining away with an artistic stroke worthy of one of the Shoeblack Brigade at the London Bridge Station. The native looked on for a minute, and then slowly unclasped his hands. Presently he picked up a boot, and looked round it dubiously. I now took a hand myself. If there was one art which I learned to per- fection at school, and still pride myself on, it is shining a boot. In a minute or two my boot was beginning 48 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n. "to soar and sing," while the forester's was already a thing of beauty. The native, with a grunt, took up the spare brush, and began slowly rubbing. The victory was complete. He comes now and spends two hours every morning over Ids new accomplishment, evidently delighted with the opportunity it gives him for loafing and watching the habits of the strange occupants, for whom also he fetches many tin pails of water from the well, in a slow, vague manner. He has even volun- teered to "fix up" the ladies' room and fill their bath (an offer which has been declined with thanks), but I doubt whether he will ever touch the point of a genuine " shine." They are a curious people, these natives, the forester (an Englishman some thirty years in this country), told me, as we walked off to examine the English garden, but I must keep his experiences and my own observation for separate treatment. The English gar- den is the most advanced, and, I think, the most im- portant and interesting feature of this settlement. If young Englishmen of small means are to try their fortunes here, it is well that they should have trust- worthy guidance at once as to what are the best crops to raise. "With this view Mr. Hill was placed, in the spring of this year, in charge of the only cleared space available. All the rest is beautiful open forest- land. You can ride or drive almost anywhere under the trees, but there is no cultivated spot for many miles, except small patches here and there of carelessly sown maize and millet, and a rood or two of sweet potatoes. The forester had a hard struggle to do anything with the garden at all this season. He was only put CHAP, in.] LIFE IN TENNESSEE. 49 in command in May, six weeks at least too late. He could only obtain the occasional use of a team, and his duties in the forest, and in grading and superintending the walks, interfered with the garden. Manure was out of the question, except a little ashes, which he painfully gathered here and there from the reckless log-fires which abound in the woods. He calls his garden a failure for the year. But as half-an-acre, which was wild forest-land in May, is covered with water-melons and cantalupes, as the tomatoes hang in huge bunches, rotting on the vines for want of mouths enough to eat them, as the Lima beans are yielding at the rate of two hundred and fifty bushels an acre, and as cabbages, sweet potatoes, beets, and squash, are in equally prodigal abundance, the prospect of making a good living is beyond all question, for any one who will set to work with a will. In the afternoon I inspected the hotel, nearly com- pleted, on a knoll in the forest, between the English garden and this frame house. It is a sightly building, with deep verandahs prettily latticed, from which one gets glimpses through the trees of magnificent ranges of blue forest-covered mountains. We have named it the Tabard, at the suggestion of one of -our American members, who, being in England when the old South- wark hostelry from which the Canterbury Pilgrims started was broken up and the materials sold by auction (to make room for a hop store), bought some of the old banisters, which he has reverently kept till now. They will be put up in the hall of the new Tabard, and marked with a brass-plate and inscription, telling, I trust to many generations, of the place from which they came. The Tabard, when finished, as it will be E 50 A NEW HOME FIEST IMPRESSIONS. MI " in a few days, will lodge some fifty guests ; and, in spite of the absence of alcoholic drinks, has every chance, if present indications can be trusted, of har- bouring and sending out as cheery pilgrims as followed the Miller and the Host, and told their world-famous stories as they rode through Kent five hundred years ago. The drink question has reared its baleful head here, as it seems to do all over the world. The various works had gone on in peace till the last ten days, when two young natives "toted over" some barrels of whisky, and broached them in a shanty, on a small lot of no- man's land in the woods, some two miles from hence. Since then there has been no peace for the manager. First, one or two labourers were suddenly missing from the work on the road ; then a mechanic became incom- petent here and there, on the hotel, or at the saw-mills; till on Saturday last the crisis came, and some twenty men got drunk and gambled all through Sunday, get- ting very near a free fight in the end ; and on Monday half the work collapsed. Happily the feeling of the community is vigorously temperate, so energetic mea- sures are on foot -to root out the pest. A wise State law enacts that no liquor store shall be permitted, under heavy penalties, within four miles of an incor- porated school; so we are pushing on our school-house and organising a board to govern it. Meantime, we have evidence of unlawful sale (in quantities less than a pint) and of encouraging gambling, by these pests, and hope to make an example of them at the next sitting of the County Court. This incident l:as decided the question for us. If we are to have influ- encQ with the poor whites and blacks, we must be CHAP, in.] LIFE IN TENNESSEE. 61 above suspicion ourselves. So no liquor will be pro- curable at the Tabard, and those who need it will have to import for themselves. A bridle-path leads from the hotel down to the Clear Fork, one of the streams at the "junction of which the town site is situate. The descent is about 200 feet, and the stream, when you get to it, from 3 feet to 5 feet wide, a mountain stream, with deep pools and big boulders. Your columns are not the place for descrip- tions of scenery, so I will only say that these gorges of the Clear Fork and White Oak are as fine as any of their size that I know in Scotland, and not unlike in character, with this difference, that the chief under- wood consists of rhododendron (called laurel here), azalea, and a kind of magnolia I have not seen before, and of which I cannot get the name. I passed huge faggots of rhododendron, 12 feet and 14 feet long, lying by the walks which had been cleared away ruthlessly while grading them. They are three miles long, and cost under 100, a judicious outlay, I think, even before an acre of land has been sold. They have been named the Lovers' Walks, appropriately enough, for no more well-adapted place could possibly be found for that time-honoured business, especially in spring, when the whole gorges under the tall pines and white oak are one blaze of purple, yellow, and white blossom. On my return to the plateau, my first day's experi- ences came to an end in a way which no longer sur- prised me, after the boot -blacking and the Lovers' Walks. I was hailed by one of " the boys," who had been unable to obtain 'a mount, or had some business which kept him from exploring. He was in flannels, with racquet in hand, on his way to the lawn-tennis 52 A NEW HOME FIEST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n ground, to which he offered to pilot me. In a minute or two we came upon an open space, marked, I see on the plans, " Cricket Ground," in which rose a fine strong paling, enclosing a square of 150 feet, the up- rights being six "feet high, and close enough to keep not only hogs out but tennis-balls in. Turf there was none, in our sense, within the enclosure, and what there must have once been as a substitute for turf had been carefully cleared off on space sufficient for one full-sized court, which was well marked out on the hard sandy loam. A better ground I have rarely seen, except for the young sprouts of oak and other scrub, which here and there were struggling up, in a last effort to assert their " ancient, solitary reign." At any rate then and there, upon that court, I saw two sets played in a style which would have done credit to a county match (the young lady, by the way, who played far from the worst game of the four, is the champion of her own county). This was the opening match, the racquets having only just arrived from England, though the court has been the object of ten- der solicitude for six weeks or more to the four Eng- lishmen already resident here, or near by. The Rugby Tennis Club consists to-day of seven members, five English and two native, and will probably reach two figures within a few days, on the return of the boys. Meantime the effect of their first practice has been that they have resolved on putting a challenge in the Cin- cinnati and Chatanooga papers offering to play a match best out of five sets with any club in the United States. Such are infant communities in these lati- tudes ! You may have been startled by the address at the CHAP, in.] LIFE IN TENNESSEE. 53 head of this letter. It was adopted unanimously on our return 'in twilight from the tennis -ground, and application at once made to the State authorities for registration of the name, and establishment of a post- office. It was sharp practice thus 'to steal a march on the three Etonians, still far away in the forest. Had they been present, possibly Thames might have pre- vailed over Avon. VACUUS VIATOE. CHAPTER IV. A FOREST RIDE. EUGBY, TENNESSEE. THERE are few more interesting experiences than a ride through these southern forests. The scrub is so low and thin, that you can almost always see away for long distances amongst pine, white oak, and chestnut trees; and every now and then at ridges where the timber is thin, or where a clump of trees has been ruthlessly "girdled," and the bare, gaunt skeletons only remain standing, you may catch glimpses of mountain ranges of different shades of blue and green, stretching far away to the horizon. You can't live many days up here without getting to love the trees even more, I think, .than we do in well-kempt England; and this outrage of " girdling," as they call it stripping the bark from the lower part of the trunk, so that the trees wither and die as they stand strikes one as a kind of household cruelty, as if a man should cut off or disfigure all his wife's hair. If he wants a tree for lumber or firewood, very good. He should have it. But he should cut it down like a man, and take it clean away for some reasonable use, not leave it as a scarecrow to bear witness of his recklessness and lazi- ness. Happily not much mischief of this kind has been done yet in the neighbourhood of Rugby, and a CHAP, iv.] A FOEEST HIDE. 55 stop will now be put to the wretched practice. There is another, too, almost as ghastly, but which, no doubt, has more to be said for it. At least half of the largest pines, alongside of the sandy tracts which do duty for roads, have a long, gaping wound in their sides, about a yard from the ground. This was the native way of collecting turpentine, which oozed down and accumu- lated at the bottom of the gash ; but I rejoice to say it no longer pays, and the custom is in disuse. It must be suppressed altogether, but carefully and gently. It seems that if not persisted in too long, the poor, dear, long-suffering trees will close up their wounds, and not be much the worse ; so I trust that many of the scored pines, springing forty or fifty feet into the air before throwing out a branch, which I passed in sorrow and anger on my first long ride, may yet out- live those who outraged them. Having got rid of my spleen, excited by these two diabolic customs, I can return to our ride, which had otherwise nothing but delight in it. The manager, an invaluable-guest from New York, a doctor who had served on the Sanitary Commission through the war, and I, formed the party. The man- ager drove the light buggy, which held one of us also, and the hand-bags ; while the other rode by the side, where the road allowed, or before or behind, as the fancy seized him. We were bound for a solitary guest- house in the forest, some seventeen miles away, in the neighbourhood of a cave and waterfall, which even here have a reputation, and are sometimes visited. We allowed three and a half hours for the journey, and it took all the time. About five miles an hour on wheels is all you can reckon on, for the country roads, sandy 56 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. IPABT n tracks about 1 feet broad, are just left to take care of themselves, and whenever there is a sufficient declivity to give the rain a chance of washing all the surface off them, are only a heap of boulders of different sizes. But, after all, five miles an hour is as fast as you care to go, for the play of the sunlight amongst the varied foliage, and the new flora and fauna, keep you con- stantly interested and amused. I never regretted so much my ignorance of botany, for I counted some four- teen sorts of flowers in bloom, of which golden-rod and Michaelmas daisy were the only ones I was quite sure I knew and, by the way, the daisy of Parnassus, of which I found a single flower growing by a spring. The rest were like home flowers, but yet not identical with them, at least I think not ; and the doubt whether one had ever seen them before or not was provoking. The birds few in number were all strangers to me ; buzzards, of which we saw five at one time, quite within shot, and several kinds of hawk and woodpecker, were the most common ; but at one point, quite a number of what looked like very big swifts, but without the dash in their flight of our bird, and with wings more like curlews', were skimming over the tree tops. I only heard one note, and that rather sweet, a cat-bird's the doctor thought \ but he was almost as much a stranger in these woods as I. Happily, however, he was an old acquaintance of that delightful insect the " tumble-bug," to which he intro- duced me on a sandy bit of road. My new acquaint- ance took no notice of me, but went on rolling his lump of accumulated dirt three times his own size backwards with his hind legs, as if his life depended on it. Presently his lump came right M$ against a CHAP, iv.] A FOREST RIDE. 57 stone, and stopped dead. It was a " caution " to see that bug strain to push it further, but it wouldn't budge all he could do. Then he stopped for a moment or two, and evidently made up his small mind that something must be wrong behind, for no bug, he well knew, could have pushed harder than he. So he quitted hold with his hind legs, and turned round to take a good look at the situation, in order, I suppose, to see what must be done next. At any rate he pre- sently caught hold again on a different side, and so steered successfully past the obstacle. There were a number of them working about, some single and some in pairs, and so full of humour are their doings that I should have liked to watch for hours. We got to our journey's end about dusk, a five- roomed, single-storied, wooden house, built on sup- ports, so as to keep it off the ground. We went up four steps to the verandah, where we sat while our hostess, a small thin New Englander, probably seventy or upwards, but as brisk as a bee, bustled about to get supper. The table was laid in the middle room, which opened on the kitchen at the back, where we could see the stove, and hear our hostess's discourse. She boiled us two of her fine white chickens admirably, and served with hot bread, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and several preserves, of which I can speak with special praise of the huckleberry, which grows, she said, in great abundance all round. The boys, we heard, had been there to breakfast after sleeping out, and not having had a square meal since they started from Eugby. Luckily for us her chickens are a very numerous as well as beautiful family, or we should have fared badly. She and her husband supped after us, and then 58 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART 11. came and sat with us in the balcony, and talked away on all manner of topics, as if the chances of discourse were few, and to be made the most of. They had lived during the war at Jamestown close by, a village of some eight or ten houses, and had seen the Federal and Con- federate cavalry pass through again and again. They had never molested her or hers in any way, but had a fancy for poultry, which might have proved fatal to her white family but for her Yankee wit. She and her husband managed to fix up a false floor in one of their rooms in which they fed the roosters ; so whenever a picket came in sight her call would bring the whole family out of the woods and clearing into the refuge, where they remained peacefully amongst corn-cobs till the danger had passed. She had nothing but good to say of her native neighbours, except that they could make nothing of the country. " The Lord had done all he could for it," she summed up, and " Boston must take hold of the balance." We heard the owls all night, as well as the katydids, but they only seemed to empha- sise the forest stillness. The old lady's beds, to which we retired at ten, after our long gossip in the balcony, were sweet and clean, and I escaped perfectly scathe- less, a rare experience, I was assured, in these forest shanties. I was bound however to admit, in answer to our hostess's searching inquiries, that I had seen and slain, though not felt, an insect suspiciously like a British B flat. The cave which we sought out after breakfast was well worth any trouble to find. We had to leave the buggy and horses hitched up and scramble down a glen, where presently, through a tangle of great rhodo- dendron bushes, we came out in front of a huge rock, CHAP, tv.] A FOREST RIDE. 59 with" the little iron-stained stream just below us, and beyond, at the top of a sandy slope of perhaps 1 5 or 2 feet, the cave, like a long black eye under a red eye- brow, glaring at us. I could detect no fissure in the sandstone rock (the eyebrow), which hung over it for its whole length. The cave is said to run back more than 300 feet, but we did not test it. There would be good sitting room for 300 or 400 people along the front, and it is so obviously fitted for a conventicle that I could not help peopling it with fugitive slaves, and fancying a black Moses preaching to them of their coming exodus, with the rhododendrons in bloom all round. Maidenhair grows in tufts about the damp floor, and a creeping fern, with a bright red berry, the name of which the doctor told me, but I have forgotten, on the damp red walls. What the nook must be when the rhododendrons are all ablaze with blossom I hope some day to sea We had heard of a fine spring somewhere in this part of the forest, and, in aid of our search for it, pre- sently took up a boy whom we found loafing round a small clearing. He was bareheaded and barefooted, and wore an old, brown, ragged shirt turned up to the elbows, and old, brown, ragged trousers turned up to the knees. I was riding, and in answer to my invita- tion he stepped on a stump and vaulted up behind me. He never touched me, as most boys would have done, but sat up behind with perfect ease and balance as we rode along a young centaur. We soon got intimate, and I found he had never been out of the forest, was fourteen, and still at (occasional) school. He could read a little, but couldn't write. I told him to tell his master, from me, that he ought 60 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n. to be ashamed of himself, which he promised to do with great glee ; also, but not so readily, to consider a pro- posal I made him, that if he would write to the man- ager within, six months to ask for it, he should be "paid one dollar. I found that he knew nothing of the flowers or butterflies, of which some dozen different kinds crossed our path. He just reckoned they were all butterflies, as indeed they were. He knew, however, a good deal about the trees and shrubs, and more about the forest beasts. Had seen several deer only yester- day, and an old opossum with nine young, a number which took the doctor's breath away. There were lots of foxes in the woods, but he did not see them so often. His face lighted up when he was promised two dollars for the first opossum he would tame, and bring across to Eugby. After guiding us to the spring, and hunting out an old wooden cup amongst the bushes, he went off cheerily with two quarter-dollar bits in his pocket, an interesting young wild man. Will he ever bring the opossum ? I doubt : but shall be sorry not to see his open wondering face again. We got back without further incident (except flush- ing quite a number of quail, which must be lovely shooting in these woods), and found the boys at home, and hard at lawn-tennis and well-digging. The hogs are becoming an object of their decided animosity; and having heard of a Yankee notion a sort of tweezers, which ring a hog by one motion, in a second they are going to get it, and then to catch and ring every grunter who shows his nose near the asylum. Out of this there should come some fun shortly. VACUUS VIATOR, CHAPTEE V. THE NATIVES. RUGBY, TENNESSEE. WHEN all is said and sung, there is nothing so inter- esting as the men and women who dwell on any corner of the earth ; so, before giving you any further details of our surroundings, or doings, or prospects, let me introduce you to our neighbours, so far as I have as yet the pleasure of their acquaintance. And I am glad at once to acknowledge that it, is a, pleasure, not- withstanding all the talk we have heard of "mean whites," "poor white trash," and the like, in novels, travels, and Newspapers. It may possibly be that we have been fortunate, and that our neighbours here are no fair specimens of the " poor whites " of the South. This, and the next three counties, are in the north- western corner of Tennessee, bordering on Kentucky. They are entirely mountain land. There are very few negroes in them, and they were strongly Unionist during the war. At present they are Eepublican, almost to a man. There is not one Democratic official in this county, and, I am told, that only three votes were cast for the Democratic candidates at the last State elections. They are overwhelmed by the vote of -western and central Tennessee, which carries ,/the State with the solid South ; but here Union men can 62 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n. speak their minds freely, and cover their walls with pictures in coloured broad-sheet of the heroes of the war, Lincoln, Governor Brownlow, Grant and his captains. They are poor almost to a man, and live in log-huts and cabins which, at home, could scarcely be rivalled out of Ireland. Within ten miles of tin's place there are possibly half-a-dozen (I have seen two) which are equal in accommodation and comfort to those of good farmers in England. The best of these belongs to our nearest neighbour, with whom a party of us dined, at noon, the orthodox hour in the moun- tains, some weeks since. He is a wiry man, of middle height, probably fifty-five years of age, upright, with finely cut features, and an eye that looks you right in the face. He has been on his farm twenty years, and has cleared some fifty acres, which grow corn, millet, and vegetables, and he has a fine apple orchard. We should call his farming very slovenly, but it produces abundance for his needs. He sat at the head of his table like an old nobleman, very quiet and courteous, but quite ready to speak on any subject, and especially of the five years of the war through which he carried his life in his hand, but never flinched for an hour from his faith. His wife, a slight, elderly person, whose regular features showed that she must have been very good-looking, did not sit down with us, but stood at the bottom of the table, dispensing her good things. Our drink was tea and cold spring water; our viands, chickens, ducks, a stew, ham, with a pro- fusion of vegetables, apple and huckleberry tarts, and several preserves, one of which (some kind of cherry, very common here) was of a lovely gold colour, and of a flavour which would make the fortune of a CHAP, v.] THE NATIVES. 63 London pastry-cook. A profusion of water-melons and apples finished our repast ; and no one need ask a better ; but I am bound to add that our hostess has the name for giving the best square meal to be had in the four counties. It would be as fair to take this as an average specimen of farmers' fare here, as that of a nobleman with a French cook of fare of the gentry at home. Our host is a keen sportsman, and showed us his flint-lock rifle, six feet long, and weighing 1 8 Ibs. ! He carries a forked stick as a rest, and, we were assured, gets on his game about as quickly as if it were a handy Westley-Kichards, and seldom misses a running deer. The vast majority of these mountaineers are in very different circumstances. Most, but not all of them, own a log cabin and minute patch of corn round it, probably also a few pigs and chickens, but seem to have no desire to make any effort at further clearing, and quite content to live from hand to mouth. They cannot do that without hiving themselves out when they get a chance, but are most uncertain and exasperating labourers. In the first place, though able to stand great fatigue in hunt- ing, and perfectly indifferent to weather, they are not physically so strong as average English or Northern men. Then they are never to be relied on for a job. As soon as one of them has earned three or four dollars, he will probably want a hunt, and go off for it then and there, spend a dollar on powder and shot, and these on squirrels and opossums, whose skins may possibly bring him in ten cents, as his week's earnings. It is useless to remonstrate, unless you have an agree- ment in writing. An Englishman, who came here lately to found some manufactures, left in sheer 64 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n. despair and disgust, saying he had found at last a place where no one seemed to care for money. I do not say that this is true, but they certainly seem to prefer loafing and hunting to dollars, and are often too lazy, or unable, to count, holding out their small change and telling you to take what you want. Temperate as a rule, they are sadly weak when wild-cat whisky or " moonshine," as the favourite illicit beverage of the mountains is called crosses their path. This is the great trouble on pay nights at all the works which are starting in this district. The inevitable booth soon appears, with the usual accompaniment of cards and dice, and probably a third of your men are thence- forth without a dime, and utterly unfit for work on Mondays, if you are lucky enough to escape dangerous rows amongst the drinkers. The State laws give summary methods of suppressing the nuisance, but they are hard to work, and though public sentiment is vehemently hostile to whisky, the temptation proves in nine cases out of ten too strong. The mountaineers are in the main well-grown men, though slight, shock- ingly badly clothed, and sallow from chewing tobacco ; suspicious in all dealings at first, but hospitable, making everything they have in the house, including their own beds, free to a stranger, and frequently refusing payment for lodging or food. They are also very honest; crimes against property being of very rare occurrence. The other day, a Northern gentleman visiting here expressed his fears of being robbed to a native farmer. The latter, after inquiring whether there were any prisons and police in New England, what these were for, and whether his interrogator had locks to his own doors and safes and bars to his window- CHAP, v.] THE NATIVES. 65 shutters in Boston, remarked, " Wai, I've lived here man and. boy for forty year, and never had a bolt to my house, or corn loft, or smoke-house ; and I'll tell you what ; I'll give you a dollar for every lock you can find in Scott county." The cattle, sheep, and hogs wander perfectly unguarded through the forest, and I have not yet heard of a single instance of a stolen beast. There is a rough water mill on a creek close by, called Buck's Mill, which was run by the owner for years until he sold it a few months ago on the fol- lowing system : He put the running gear and stones up, and above the latter a wooden box, with the charge for grinding meal marked outside. He visited the mill once a fortnight, looked to the machinery, and took away whatever coin was in the box. Folks brought their corn down the steep bank if they chose, ground it at their leisure, and then, if they were honest, put the fee in the box ; if not, they went off with their meal, and a consciousness that they were rogues. I presume Buck found his plan answer, as he pursued it up to the date of sale. In short, sir, I have been driven to the conclusion, in spite of all traditional leanings the other way, that the Lord has much people in these mountains, as I think a young English deacon, lately ordained by the Bishop of Tennessee, will find, who passed here yester- day on a buggy, with his young wife and child, and two boxes and ten dollars of the goods of this world, on his way to open a church mission in a neighbour- ing county. I heard yesterday a story which should give him hope as to the female portion, at any rate, of his possible flock. They are dreadful slatterns, with- F 66 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n, out an inkling of the great Palmerstonian truth that dirt is matter in its wrong place. A mountain girl, however, who had, strange to say, taken the fancy to go as housemaid in a Knoxville family, gave out that she had been converted. Doubts being expressed and questions asked as to the grounds on which she based this assurance, she replied that she knew it was all right because now she swept underneath the rugs. When one gets on stories of quaint and ready replies in these parts, one " slops over on both shoulders. " Here are a couple which are current in connection with the war, upon which, naturally enough, the whole mind of the people is still dwelling, being as much occupied with it as with their other paramount subject, the im- mediate future development of the unbounded resources of these States, which have been really opened for the first time by that terrible agency. An active Seces- sionist leader in a neighbouring county, in one of his stump speeches before the war had announced that the Southerners, and especially Tennessee mountain men, could whip the white-livered Yanks with pop- guns. Not long since, having been amnestied and re- constructed again to a point when he saw his way to running for a State office, he was reminded of this saying at the beginning of his canvass : " Wai, yes," he said, " I own to that, and I stand by it still, only those mean cusses [the Yanks] wouldn't fight that way." The other is of a very different stamp, and will hold its own with many world-wide stories of graceful compliments to former enemies by kings and other bigwigs. General Wilder, one of the most successful and gallant of the Northern corps commanders in the CHAP, v.] THE NATIVES. 67 war, has established himself in this State, with whose climate and resources he became so familiar in the campaign which ended under Look-out Mountain. He has built up a great iron industry at Chatanooga, in full sight of the battle-fields from which 14,000 bodies of Union soldiers were carried to the national cemetery. Early in his Chatanooga career he met one of the most famous of the Southern corps commanders (Forrest, I believe, but am not sure as to the name), who, on being introduced, said, " General, I have long wished to know you, because you have behaved to me in a way for which I reckon you owe me an apology as between gentlemen." Wilder replied in astonishment that to his knowledge they had never met before, but that he was quite ready to do all that an honourable man ought. "Well, now, General," said the other " you remember such and such a fight [naming it]. By night you had taken every gun I had, and I con- sider that quite an ungentlemanly advantage to take of a man anyhow." By the way no man bears more frank testimony to the gallantry of the Southern soldiers than General Wilder, or admits more frankly the odds which the superior equipment of the Federals threw against the Confederate armies. His corps, mounted infantry armed with repeating rifles, were equal, he thinks, to at least three times their number of as good soldiers as them- selves with the ordinary Southern arms. There are few pleasanter things to a hearty well-wisher, who has not been in America for ten years, than the change which has taken place in public sentiment, indicated by such frank admissions as the one just referred to. In 1870, any expression of admiration for the gallantry 68 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PAKT n. of the South, or of respect or appreciation of such men as Lee, Jackson, Longstreet, or Johnson, was re- ceived either silently or with strong disapproval. Now it is quite the other way, so far as I have seen as yet, and I cannot but hope that the last scars of the mighty struggle are healing up rapidly and thoroughly, and that the old sectional hatred and scorn lie six feet under ground, in the national cemeteries : " No more shall the war-cry sever, Or the inland rivers run red ; We have buried our anger for ever, In the sacred graves of the dead. Under the sod and the dew, Waiting the Judgment-day ; Love and tears for the blue ! Tears and love for the gray !" No man can live for a few weeks on these Cumberland Mountains without responding with a hearty " Amen." VACUUS VIATOR. CHAPTER VI. OUR FORESTER. RUGBY, TENNESSEE. NOTHING would satisfy our forester but that some of us should ride over with him, some nine miles through the forest, to see Glades, the farm upon which he has been for the last eight years. He led the way, on his yellow mare, an animal who had nearly given us sore trouble here. The head stableman turned all the horses out one day for a short run, and she being amongst them, and loving her old home best, went off straight for Glades through the woods, with every hoof after her. Luckily, Alfred, the forester's son, was there, and guessing what was the matter, just rode her back, all the rest follow- ing. The ride was lovely, glorious peeps of distant blue ranges, and the forest just breaking out all over into golds, and vermilions, and purples, and russets. We only passed two small farms on the way, both ram- shackle, and so the treat of coming suddenly on some hundred acres cleared, drained, with large though rough farm buildings, and bearing the look of being cared for, was indescribably pleasant. Mrs. Hill and her son Alfred received us, both worthy of the head of the house ; more I cannot say. They run the farm in his absence with scarcely any help, Alfred having also to attend to a grist and saw mill in the neigh- 70 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n. Injuring creek. There were a fine mare and filly in the yard, as tame as pet dogs, coming and shoving their noses into your pockets and coaxing you for apples. The hogs are good Berkshire breed, the sheep Cotswolds. The cows (it is the only place where we have had cream on the mountains) Alderney or short- horns. The house is a large log cabin, one big room, with a deep open fireplace, where a great pine-log smouldered at the back across plain iron dogs ; a big hearth in front, on which pitch-pine chips are thrown when you feel inclined for a blaze. The room is carpeted and hung with photographs and prints, a rifle and shot gun, and implements of one kind or another. A small collection of books, mostly theological, and founded on two big Bibles ; two rocking and half a dozen other chairs, a table, and two beds in the corners farthest from the fire, complete the furniture of the room, which opens on one side on a deep verandah, and on the other on a lean-to, which serves for kitchen and dining-room, and ends in a small, spare bedroom. A loft above, into which the family disappeared at night, completes the accommodation. I need not dwell on our supper, which included tender mutton, chickens, apple tart, custard pudding, and all manner of vegetables and cakes. Mrs. Hill is as notable a cook as her husband is a forester. After supper we drew round the big fire- place, and soon prevailed on our host to give us a sketch of his life, by way of encouragement to his three young countrymen who sat round, and are going to try their fortunes in these mountains : " I was born and bred up in one of Lord Denbigh's cottages, at Kirby, in Warwickshire. My father \\as employed on the great place, that's Nuneharn Paddocks, CHAP, vi.] OUR FORESTER. 71 you know. He was a labourer, and brought up sixteen children, not one of whom, except me, has ever been summonsed before a Justice, or got into any kind of trouble. I went to school till about nine, but I was always longing to be out in the fields at plough or bird- keeping ; so I got away before I could do much reading or writing. But I kept on at Sabbath school, and learnt more there than I did at t'other. The young ladies used to teach, and they'd set us pieces and things to learn for them in the week. ' My Csesar ' [the only ejacula- tion Amos allows himself; he cannot remember where he picked it up], how I would work at my piece to get it for Lady Mary ! I've fairly cried over it sometimes, but I always managed to get it, somehow. After a bit, I was taken on at the house. At first I did odd jobs, like cleaning boots and carrying messages ; and then I got into the garden, and from that into the stable ; and then for a bit with the keepers ; and then into livery, to wait on the young ladies. So you see I learnt some- thing of everything, and was happy and earning good wages. But I wanted to see the world, so I took ser- vice with a gentleman who was a big railway contractor. I used to drive him, and do anything a'most that he wanted. I stayed with him nine years, and 'twas while going about with him that I met my wife here. We got married down in Kent, thirty-six years ago. Yes [in answer to a laughing comment by his wife], I wanted some one to mind me, in those days. That poaching trouble came about this way. I had charge for my master of a piece of railway that ran through Lord 's preserves, in Wales. There were very strict rules about trespassing on the lines then, because folks there didn't like our line, and had been putting things 72 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n. on it to upset the trains. One day I saw two keepers coming down the line, with a labourer I knew between them. He was all covered with blood from a wound in his head. * Why/ said I, ' what's the matter now ? ' ' I've been out of work,' he said, ' this three weeks, and I was digging out a rabbit to get something to eat, when they came up and broke my head.' From that time the keepers and I quarrelled. I summonsed them, and got them fined for trespassing on the line; and then they got me fined for trespassing on their covers. We watched one another like hawks. I'd often lie out at night for hours in the cold, in a ditch, where I knew they'd want to cross the line, and then jump up and catch them; and they'd do the same by me. Once they got me fined 3 : 10s. for poaching. I remember it well I was that riled, I said to the justices right out, ' How long do you think it'll take me, gentlemen, to pay all that money, with hares only Is. a-piece ? ' Then I weut in for it. I remembered the text, ' What thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might.' I did it. I used to creep along at night, all up the fences, and feel for the places whe're the hares came through and set my wires; and I'd often have ten great ones scream- ing and flopping about like mad. And that's what the keepers were, too. I've given a whole barrowful of hares away to the poor folk of a morning. Well, I know [in answer to an interpellation of Mrs. Hill] yes, 'twas all wrong, and I was a wild chap in those days. Then I began to hear talk about America, and all there was f( >r a man to see and do there, so I left my master, and we came over, twenty-seven years ago. At first I took charge of gentlemen's gardens in New York and New Jersey. Then we went to Michigan, where I could earn all I CHAP, vi.] OUK FORESTER. 73 wanted. Money was of no account there for a good limn in those days, but the climate was dreadful sickly, and we had our baby, the first we had in twelve years, and wanted to live on bread and water so as we could save him. So we went up right amongst the Indians, to a place they call Grand Travers, a wonderful healthy place, on a lake in the pine-forest country, as it was then. I went on to a promontory, where the forest stood, not like it does here, but the trees that thick you had scarce room to swing an axe. Well, it was a beautiful healthy place, and we and baby throve, and I soon made a farm; and then folk began to follow after us ; and before I left there were twenty-three saw-mills, cutting up from 80,000 to 150,000 feet a day, week in and out. They've stripped the country so now that there's no lumber for those mills to cut, and most of them have stopped. 1^ used to have a boat, with just a small sail, and I'd take my stuff down in the morning, and trade it off to the lumber-men, and then sail back at night, for the wind changed and blew back in the evenings most part of the year. Well, then, the war came, and for two years I kept thinking whether I oughn't to do my part to help the Government I'd lived under so long. Besides, I hated slavery. So in the third year I made up my mind, and listed in the Michigan Cavalry. I took the whole matter before the Lord, and prayed I might do my duty as a soldier, and not hurt any man. Well, we joined the Cavalry, near 60,000 strong down in these parts; and I was at Knoxville, and up and down. It was awful, the language and the ways of the men many of them at least swearing, and drinking, and stealing any kind of thing they could lay hands on. Many's the plan for 74 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n. stealing I've broken upon, telling them they were there to sustain the flag, not to rob poor folks. I spoke very plain all along, and got the men, many of them any way, to listen. I got on famously, too, because I was never away plundering, and my horse was always ready for any service. An officer would come in, after we had had a long day's work, to say a despatch or mess- age must go, and no horse in our company was fit tt go but mine, so the orderly must have him ; but I always said no, I was quite ready to go myself, but would not part company from my horse. The only time I took what was not mine was when we surprised a Confederate convoy, and got hold of the stores they were carrying. There they were lying all along the roads, greatcoats and blankets, and meal bags, and good boots, with English marks on them. My Caesar, how our men were destroying them ! I got together a lot of the poor starving folk out of the woods that both sides had been living on, and loaded them up with meal and blankets. My Cffisar, how I loved to scatter them English boots ! They never had seen such before. No, sir [in reply to one of us], I never fired a shot all that time, but I had hundreds fired at me. I've been in the rifle pits, and now and again seen a fellow drawing a bead on me, and I'd duck down and hear the bullet pinge into the bank close above. " They got to employ me a good deal carrying de- spatches and scouting. That's how I got took at last. We were at a place called Strawberry Plains, with Breckenbridge's Division pretty near all round us. I was sent out with twelve other men, to try and draw them out, to show their force and position ; and so we did, but they were too quick for us. Out they came, CHAP, vi.] OUR FORESTER. 75 and it was a race back to our lines down a steep creek. My horse missed his footing, and down we rolled over and over, into the water. When I got up, I was up to my middle, and, first thing I knew, there was a rebel, who swore at me for a G d d Yankee, and fired his six-shooter at me. The shot passed under my arm, and, before he could fire again, an officer ordered him on, and gave me in charge. I was taken to the rear, and marched off with a lot of prisoners. The rebels treated me as if I'd been their father, after a day or two. I spoke out to them about their swear- ing and ways, just as I had to our men ; and I might have been tight all the time I was a prisoner, only I'm a temperance man. They put me on their horses on the march, and I was glad of it, for I was hurt by my roll with my horse, and bad about the chest. After about six days I got my parole, with five others. They were hard pressed then, and didn't want us toting along. Then we started north, with nothing but just our uniforms, and they full of vermin. The first house we struck I asked where we could find a Union man about there. They didn't know any one, didn't think there was one in the county. I said that was bad, as we were paroled Union soldiers, and then all was changed. They took us in and wanted us to use their beds, which we wouldn't do, because of the vermin on us. They gave us all they had, and I saw the women, for I couldn't sleep, covering us up with any spare clothes they'd got, and watching us all night long. They sent us on to other Union houses, and so we got north. I was too ill to stay north at my old work, so I sold my farm and came south to Knoxville, where I had come to know many kind, good people in the war. 76 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART it. They were very kind, and I got work at the improve- ments on Mr. Dickenson's farm (a model farm we had gone over), and in other gentlemen's gardens. But I didn't get my health again, so eight years ago I came to this place on the mountains, which I knew was healthy, and would suit me. Well, they all said I should be starved out in two years and have to quit, but before three years were out I was selling them corn, and better bacon than they'd ever had before. Some of 'em begin to think I'm right now, and there's a deal of improvement going on, and if they'd only, as I tell 'em, just put in all their time on their farms, and not go loafing round gunning, contented with corn- dodgers and a bit of pork, and give up whisky, they might all do as well as I've done. I should like to go back once more and see the old country ; but I mean to end my days here. There's no such country that I ever saw. The Lord has done all for us here. And it seems like dreams that I should live to see a Rugby up here on the mountains. I mean to take a lot in the town, or close by, and call it Nuneham Paddocks. So I shall lay my bones, you see, in the same place, as it were, that I was reared in." I do not pretend that these were his exact words, the whole had to be condensed to come within your space, but they are not far off. It was now past nine, the time for retiring, when Amos told us that he always ended his day with family prayers. A psalm was read, and then we knelt down, and he prayed for some minutes. Extemporary prayers always excite my critical faculty, but there was no thought or expression in this I could have wished to alter. Then we turned in, I, after a pipe in the verandah, in one clean white bed, and . two of the boys in the big one in the oppo- CHAP, vi.] OUR FORESTER, 77 site corner. There I soon dozed off, watching the big, smouldering white pine-log away in the depth of the chimney-nook, and the last flickerings of the knobs of pitch-pine in front of it, between the iron dogs, and wondering in my mind over the brave story we had just been listening to, so simply told (of which I fear I have succeeded in giving a very poor reflection), and whether there are not some there cannot, I fear, be many such lives lying about in out-of-the-way cor- ners, of mountain, or plain, or city. My last conscious speculation was whether, after all, the Union would have been saved if all Union soldiers had been Amos Hills. I waked early, just, before dawn, and was watching alternately the embers of the big log, still aglow in the deep chimney, and the white light beginning to break through the honeysuckles and vines which hung over the verandah, and shaded the wide-open window, when the clock struck five. The door opened softly, and in stepped Amos Hill in his stockings. He cam 3 to the foot of our beds, picked up our dirty boots, and stole out again as noiselessly as he had entered. The next minute I heard the blacking brushes going vigor- ously, and knew that I should appear at breakfast with a shine on in which I should have reason to glory, if I were preparing to walk in Bond Street, instead of through the scrub on the Cumberland Mountains. I turned over for another hour's sleep (breakfast being at 6.30 sharp), but not without first considering for some minutes which of us two if things were fixed up straight in this blundering old world ought to be blacking the other's boots. The conclusion I came to was that it ought not to be Amos Hill. VACUUS VIATOR. CHAPTEE VII. THE NEGEO "NATIVES." RTJGBT, TEITOESSEE. THEKE is one inconvenience in this desultory mode of correspondence, that one is apt to forget what one has told already, and to repeat oneself. I have written something of the white native of these mountains ; have I said anything of his dark brother? The subject is becoming a more and more interesting and important one every day, through all these regions. In these mountains, the negro, perhaps, can scarcely be called a native. Very few black families, I am told, were to be found here a year or two since. My own eyes assure me that they are multiplying rapidly. I see more and more black men amongst the gangs on roads and bridges, and come across queer little encamp- ments in the woods, with a pile of logs smouldering in the midst, round which stand the mirth -provoking figures of small black urchins, who stare and grin at the intruder on horseback, till he rides on under the gold and russet and green autumnal coping of hickories, chestnuts, and pines. I am coming to the conclusion that wherever work is to be had, in Tennessee, at any rate, there will the negro be found. He seems to gather to a contractor like the buzzards, which one sees over the tree-tops, to CHAP, vn.] THE NEGRO " NATIVES." 79 carrion. And unless the white natives take to "putting in all their time," whatever work is going will not lon<* remain with them. The negro will loaf and shirk o o as often as not when he gets the chance, but he has not the white craving for knocking off altogether as soon as he has a couple of dollars in his pocket ; has no strong hunting instinct; and has not acquired the art of letting his pick drop listlessly into the ground with its own weight, and stopping to admire the scenery after every half-dozen strokes. The negro is much more obedient, moreover, and manageable, obedient to a fault, if one can believe the many stories one hears of his readiness to commit small misdemeanours and crimes, and not always small ones, at the bidding of his employers. There is one tiling, however, which an equally unanimous testimony agrees in declaring that he will not do, and that is, sell his vote, or be dragooned into giving it for any one but his own choice ; he may, indeed, be scared from voting, but cannot be " squared ; " a singular testimony, surely, of his prospective value as a citizen. Equally strong is the evidence of his resolute deter- mination to get his children educated. In some Southern States the children are, I believe, kept apart, but in the only mountain school I have had the chance of seeing, black and white children were together. They were not in class, but in the front of the barn-like building used both for church and school, having just come out for the dinner-hour. There was a large, sandy, trampled place under the trees, by no means a bad play-ground, on which a few of the most energetic, the blacks in the majority, were playing at some game as we came up, the mysteries of which I should have liked to study. But the 80 A. NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART n. longer we stayed the less chance there seemed of their going on, and the game remains a mystery to me still. "Where these children, some fifty in number, came from, is a problem ; but there they were from somewhere. And everywhere, I hear, the blacks are forcing the running with respect to education, and great numbers of them are showing a thrift and energy which are likely to make them formidable competitors in the struggle for existence, at any rate in all States south of Kentucky. In one department (a very small one, no doubt), they will have crowded out the native whites in a very short time, if I may judge by our experience in this house. We number two ladies and six men, and our whole service is done by one boy. Our first experiment was with a young native, who " reared up " on, the first morning at the idea of having to black boots. This prejudice, I think I told you, was removed for the moment, and he stayed for a few days. Where it was he "weakened on us" I could not learn for certain, but incline to the belief that it was either having to carry the racquets and balls to the lawn-tennis ground, or to get a fire to burn in order to boil the water for a four o'clock tea. Both these services were ordered by the ladies, and I thought I saw signs (though I am far from certain) that his manly soul rose against feminine command. Be that as it may, off he went without warning, and soon after Amos Hill arrived, with almost pathetic apologies and a negro boy, short of stature, huge of mouth, fabulous in the apparent age of his garments, named Jeff. He had no other name, he told us, and did not know whether it signified Jefferson or Geoffrey, or where or how he got it, or anything about CHAP, vii.] THE NEGRO " NATIVES." 81 himself, except that he had got OUT place at $5 a mouth, at which he showed his ivory, "some !" From this time all was changed. Jeff, it is true, after the first two days, gave proofs that he was not converted, like the white housemaid who had learned to sweep under the mats. His sweeping and tidying were decidedly those of the sinner ; and he entirely abandoned the only hard work we set him, as soon as it was out of sight from the asylum. It was a path leading to a shallow well, which the boys had dug at the bottom of the garden. The last twenty yards or so are on a steeper incline than the part next the house : so Jeff studiously completed the piece in sight of the house, and never put pick or shovel on the remainder, which lay behind the friendly brow of the slope. But in all other directions, where the work was mainly odd jobs, a respectable kind of loafing, Jeff was always to the fore, acquitting himself to the best, I think, of his ability. We did not get full command of him till the arrival of a young Texan cattle -driver, who taught us the peculiar cry for the negro, by appending a high " Ho " to his name, or rather running them together, so that the whole sounded " Hojeff ! " as nearly as possible one syllable. Even the ladies picked up the cry, and thenceforward Jeffs substitute for the " Anon, anon, sir ! " of the Elizabethan waiter was instantaneous. He built a camp -oven, like those of the Volunteers at Wimbledon, and neater of construction, from which he supplied a reasonably constant provision of hot water from 6 A.M., of course cutting his own logs for the fire. His highest achievement was ironing the ladies' cotton dresses, which they declared he did not very G 82 . A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART it badly. Most of us entrusted him with the washing of flannel shirts and socks, which at any rate were faithfully immersed in suds, and hung up to dry under our eyes. The laundry was an army tent, pitched at the back of the asylum, where Jeff spent nearly all his time when not under orders, generally munching an apple, of which there was always a sack lying about, a present from some ranch-owner, or brought over from the garden, and open to mankind at large. I never could find out whether he could read. One evening he came up proudly to ask whether " his mail" had come, and sure enough when the mail arrived there was a post-card, which he claimed. We thought he would ask one of us to read it for him, but were disappointed. He had a habit of crooning over and .over again all day some scrap of a song. One of these excited my curiosity exceedingly, but I never succeeded in getting more than two lines out of him, " Oh my ! oh my ! I've got a hundred dollars in a mine ! " One had a crave to hear what came of those hundred dollars. It seems it is so almost universally. The near- est approach to a complete negro ditty which I have been able to strike is one which the Texan gives, with a wonderful roll of the word " chariot," which cannot be expressed in print. It runs : The Debbie he chase me round a stump, Gwine for to carry me home; He grab for me at ebery jump, Gwine for to carry me home. Swing low, sweet cha-y-ot. Gwine for to carry me home. The Debbie he make one grab at me, Gwine, etc. CHAP, vn.] THE NEGRO " NATIVES." 83 He missed me, and my soul goed free, Gwine, etc. Swing low, etc. Oh ! wun't we have a gay old time, Gwine, etc. A eatin' up o' honey, and a drinkin' up o' wine. Gwine, etc. Swing low, etc. This, Sir, I think you will agree with me, though precious, is obviously a fragment only. It took our Texan many months to pick it up, even in this muti- lated condition. But, after all, Jeff's character and capacity come out most in the direction of boots. It is from his attitude with regard to them that I incline to think that the Black race have a great future in these States. You may have gathered from previous letters that there is a clear, though not a well marked, division in this settlement as to blacking. Amos Hill builds on it decidedly, and would have every farmer appear in blacked boots, at any rate on Sunday. The opposition is led by a young farmer of great energy and famous temper, who, having been " strapped," or left without a penny, three hundred miles from the Pacific coast, amongst the Mexican mines, and having made his hands keep his head in the wildest of earthly settle- ments, has a strong contempt for all amenities of clothing, which is shared by the geologist and others. How the point will be settled at last I cannot guess. It stands over while the ladies are still here, and I havo actually seen the " strapped " one giving Ms wondrous boots a sly lick or two of blacking on Sunday morning. But, anyhow, the blacks will be cordially on the 84 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART u, side of polish and the aristocracy. This one might perhaps have anticipated; but what I was not pre- pared for was Jeffs apparent passion for boots. I own a fine strong pair of shooting -boots, which he worshipped for five minutes at least every morning. As my last day in the asylum drew on I could see he was troubled in his mind. At last, out it came. Watching his chance, when no one was near, he sidled up, and pointing to them on the square chest in the verandah which served for blacking -board, he said, " I'd HI: 3 to buy dem boots." After my first astonish- ment was over, I explained to him that I couldn't afford to sell them for less than about six weeks of his wages, and that, moreover, I wanted them for myself, as I could get none such here. He was much disap- pointed, and muttered frequently, " I'd Hke to buy dem boots ! " but my heart did not soften. Perhaps I ought rather to be giving your readers more serious experiences, but somehow the negro is apt to run one out into chaff. However, I will con- clude with one fact, which seems to me a very striking confirmation of my view. All Americans are reading the Foots Errand, a powerful novel, founded on the state of things after the war in the Kuklux times. It is written by a Southern Judge, obviously a fair and clever man, but one who has no more faith in the negro's power to raise himself to anything above hew- ing wood and drawing water for the " Caucasian " than Chief-Justice Taney himself. In all that book there is no instance of the drawing of a mean, corrupt, or depraved negro; but they are represented as full of patience, trustfulness, shrewdness, and power of many kinds. VACUUS VIATOR, THE OPENING DAY. KUGBY, TENNESSEE. OUR opening day drew near, not without rousing the most serious misgivings in the minds of most of us whether we could possibly be ready to receive our guests. Invitations had been issued to our neigh- bours friends, as we had learnt to esteem them in Cincinnati, Knoxville, Chatanooga, whose hospi- talities we had enjoyed, and who had expressed a cordial sympathy with our enterprise, and a desire to visit us. We looked also for some of our own old members from distant New England, in all probability seventy or eighty guests, to lodge and board, and convey from and back to the railway, seven miles over our new road, no small undertaking, under our circumstances. But the hotel was still in the hands of the contractor, from whom, as yet, only the upper floors had been rescued. The staircase wanted banisters, and the hall and living-rooms were still only half-wainscoted, and full of carpenters' benches and plasterers' trays ; wbile the furniture and crockery lumbered up the big barn, or stood about in cases on the broad verandah. As for our road, it was splendid, so far as it went, but some two miles were still merely a forest track, from which all trees and stumps had been removed, but that was 86 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PAKT it all. The bridge, too, over the Clear Fork stream, by which the town site is entered, had only the first cross- timbers laid from pier to pier, while the approaches seemed to lie in hopeless weltering confusion, difficult on horseback, impossible on wheels. HoWevor, the manager declared that we should drive over the bridge on Satur- day afternoon, and that the contractor should be out of the hotel by Monday mid-day. With this we were obliged to be content, though it was running things fine, as we looked for our guests on that Monday after- noon, and the opening was fixed for the next morning. However, as the manager said, so it came to pass. Bridge and road were declared passable by the named time, though nervous persons may well have thought twice before attempting the former in the heavy omni- buses hired for the occasion ; and we were able to get possession, and move furniture and crockery into the hotel, though the carpenters still held the unfinished staircasa So far, so good ; but still everything, we felt, depended on the weather. If the glorious days we had been having held, all would be welL The promise was fair up to Sunday evening, but at sunset there was a change. Amos Hill shook his head, and the geologist's aneroid barometer gave ominous signs. They proved only too correct. Early in the night the rain set in, and by daybreak, when we were already astir, a steady, soft, searching rain was coming down perpendicularly, which lasted, with scarcely a break, clear through the day, and till midnight. With feelings of blank despair we thought of the new road, softened into a Slough of Despond, and the hastily thrown-up approaches to the bridge giving way under the laden omnibuses, and CHAP, vm.j THE OPENING DAY. 87 waited our fate. It was, as usual, better than we looked for. The morning train from Chatanooga would bring our southern guests in time for early dinner, if no break-down happened; and sure enough, within half- an-hour of the expected time, up came the omnibuses, escorted to the hotel door by the manager and his son, on horseback; and the Bishop of Tennessee, with his chaplain, the Mayor of Chatanooga, and a number of the leading citizens of that city and of Knoxville, de- scended in the rain. In five minutes we were at our ease and happy. If they had all been Englishmen on a pleasure-trip, they could not have taken the down- pour more cheerily as a matter of course, and pleasant, rather than otherwise, after the long drought. They dined, chatted, and smoked in the verandah, and then trotted off in gum coats to look round at the walks, gardens, streets, and buildings, escorted by "the boys." The manager reported, with pride, that they had come up in an hour and a quarter, and without any kind of contretemps, though, no doubt, the new road was deep in places. All anxiety was over for the moment, as the northern train, bringing our Cincinnati and New-England friends, was 'not due till after dark. We sat down to tea in detachments from six to eight, when, if all went well, the northerners would be about due. The tables were cleared, and relaid once more for them, and every pre- paration made to give them a warm welcome. "Nine struck, and still no sign of them ; then ten, by which time, in this early country, all but some four or five anxious souls had retired. We sat round the stove in the hall, and listened to the war stories of the Mayor of Chatanooga, and our host of the Tabard, who had 88 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PART u served on opposite sides in the terrible campaigns in the south of this State, which had ended at Missionary Ridge, and filled the national cemetery of Chatanooga with 14,000 graves of Union soldiers. But neither the interest of the stories themselves, nor the pleasure of seeing how completely all bitterness had passed out of the narrators' minds, could keep our thoughts from dwelling on the pitch-dark road, sodden by this time with the rain, and the mauvais pas of the bridge. Eleven struck, and now it became too serious for anything but anxious peerings into the black night, and considerations as to what could be done. We had ordered lanterns, and were on the point of starting for the bridge, when faint sounds, as of men singing in chorus came through the darkness. They grew in volume, and now we could hear the omnibuses, from which came a roll of "John Brown's body lies mouldering in the grave," given with a swing and precision which told of old campaigners. That stirring melody could hardly have been more welcome to the first line waiting for supports, on some hard-fought battle-ground, than it was to us. The omnibuses drew up, a dense cloud rising from the drenched horses and mules, and the singers got out, still keeping up their chorus, which only ceased on the verandah, and must have roused every sleeper in the settlement. The Old Bay State, Ohio, and Ken- tucky had sent us a set of as stalwart good fellows as ever sang a chorus or ate a beefsteak at midnight ; and while they were engaged in the latter operation they told how, from the breakdown of a freight -train on the line, theirs had been three hours late; how the darkness had kept them to a foot's-pace ; how the last omnibus had given out in the heavy places, and had to CHAP, viii.] THE OPENING DAY. 89 be constantly helped on by a pair of mules detached from one of the others. " All's well that ends well," and it was with a joyful sense of relief that we piloted such of our guests as the hotel could not hold across to their cots in the barracks at one in the morning. By nine, the glorious southern sun had fairly vanquished rain and mist, and the whole plateau was ablaze with the autumn tints, and every leaf gleaming from its recent shower-bath. Rugby outdid herself, and " leapt to music and to light" in a way which astonished even her oldest and most enthusiastic citizens, some half- dozen of whom had had nearly twelve months' experi- ence of her moods and tempers. Breakfast began at six, and ended at nine, and for three hours batches of well-fed visitors were turned out to saunter round the walks, the English gardens, and lawn-tennis grounds, until the hour of eleven, fixed by the bishop for the opening service. The church being as yet only some six feet above ground, this ceremony was to be held in the verandah of the hotel. Meantime, bishop and chap- lain were busy among "the boys," organising a choir to sing the hymns and lead the responses. The whole population were gathering round the hotel, some four or five buggies, and perhaps twenty horses haltered to the nearest trees, showed the interest excited in the neighbourhood. In addition to the seats in the ver- andah, chairs and benches were placed on the ground below for the surplus congregation, behind whom a fringe of white and black natives regarded the pro- ceedings with grave attention. Punctual to time, the bishop and his chaplain, in robes, took their places at the corner of the verandah, and gave out the first verses of the " Old Hundredth." There was a moment's pause, 90 A NEW HOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS. [PAR* 11 \vhile the newly-organised choir exchanged glances as to who should lead off, and the pause was fatal to them. For on the bishop's left stood the stalwart New-Eng- lander who had led the pilgrims of the previous evening in the " John Brown " chorus. He, unaware of the episcopal arrangements, and of the consequent vested rights of " the boys," broke out with, " All people that on earth do dwell," in a voice which carried the whole assembly with him, and at once reduced " the boys," to humble followers. They had their revenge, however, when it came to the second hymn at the end of the service. It was " Jerusalem, the golden," which is apparently sung to a different tune in Boston to that in use in England ; so, though our musical guest struggled manfully through the first line, and had almost discom- fited "the boys" by sheer force of lungs, numbers pre- vailed, and he was brought into line. The service was a short one, -consisting of two psalms. "Lord, who shall dwell in thy tabernacle?" and "Except the Lord build the house," the chapter of Solomon's prayer at the dedication of the Temple, half a dozen of the Church collects, and a prayer by the bishop that the town and settlement might be built up in righteous- ness and the fear and love of God, and prove a blessing to the State. Then, after the blessing, the gathering resolved itself into a public meeting after American fashion. The Board spoke through their representa- tives, and bishop, judge, general manager, and visitors exchanged friendly oratorical buffets, and wishes and pro- phecies for the prosperity of " the New Jerusalem " in the southern highlands. A more genuine or healthier act of worship it has not been our good fortune to attend in these late years. CHAP, vin.] THE OPENING DAY. 91 Dinner began immediately afterwards, and then the company scattered again, some to select town lots, some to the best views, the bishop to organise a vestry, and induce two of " the boys " to become lay readers, pend- ing the arrival of a parson (in which he was eminently successful) ; the chaplain to the Clear Fork, with one of the boys' fishing-rods, after black' bass; and a motley crowd to the lawn-tennis ground, to see some sets played which would have done no discredit to Wimbledon, and excited much wonder and some enthusiasm amongst natives and visitors. A cheerful evening followed, in which the new piano in the hotel sitting-room did good service, and many war and other stories were told round the big hall stove. Early the next morning the omnibuses began carrying off the visitors, and by night Rugby had settled down again to its ordinary life, not, however, without a sense of strength gained for the work of building up a community which shall know how to comport itself in good and bad times, and shall help, instead of hindering, its sons and daughters in leading a brave, simple, and Christian life. 1 am, Sir, etc. VACUUS VIATOR. -PART III. BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. OPENING THE TOWN SITE OF RUGBY, OCTOBER 5, 1880. CHAPTEE I. ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. I AM anxious to take this opportunity the first public one I have had to remove an impression which seems to have got abroad, that the settlement we are planting on these mountains and opening to-day is intended to be an English colony in a somewhat ex- clusive sense. Nothing can be further from the wishes and intentions of the founders. In a sense it is an English colony, no doubt, because at present all the settlers are English ; but we hope that this will very soon cease to be so. Our settlement is open to all who like our principles and our ways, and care to come here to make homes for themselves : freely, without reserve or condition of any kind which does not bind us English also. Although the majority of us the members of this board are English, we have already amongst us a large, and I am happy to say an increas- ing number of American citizens. Leading men, not only in Boston where the enterprise was first under- CHAP, i.] OPENING ADDEESS. 93 taken but in New York, Philadelphia, and Cincinnati belong to us, and are as earnest and active in the work as any of our English members. They are as firmly convinced as we, that the future of our own race ; and indeed of the world, in which our race is so clearly destined to play the leading part ; can never be what it should be, until the most cordial alliance, the most intimate relations, have been established firmly, with- out any risk or possibility of disturbance or misunder- standing between its two great branches. We know of no way in which this can be brought about better than by such efforts as this we are making, in which Englishmen and Americans can stand shoulder to shoulder, and work with one mind and one heart for the same great end. If we knew of any such better ways we would gladly exchange our own for them. These, then, are our views, which we have already endeavoured to express on more than one occasion in this State. And here let me take the opportunity of expressing our cordial thanks for, and appreciation of, the more than friendly spirit with which we have been met here, in our adopted home of Eastern Tennessee. We have been the guests already, by special invitation, of the citizens of Chattanooga and Knoxville, and have received invitations from Memphis, Nashville, and Louisville, which we greatly regret not to have been able to accept. In short, we have on all sides met not only with a lavish and thoughtful hospitality, but with assurances of sympathy and cordial understanding and appreciation, which have gone far to strengthen our purpose and remove all fears of failure in this mountain home, where we are trying our 'prentice hands on problems which we shall need all the strength and all 94 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART in. the wisdom we can get hold of to solve satisfactorily. And while expressing our thanks, let me add my own confident belief that our kind neighbours, many of whom I trust are here to-day, will not find any reason to re- gret the frank and generous welcome which they have given to a band of strangers. And now, turning to the business on hand, let me say, at least for myself, that I do not know how any group of men and women, gathered together to-day in any part of the world, can be engaged in a more ab- sorbingly interesting, or indeed in a more responsible, and I will add solemn, work than that to which I hope most of us have now made up our minds to put our hands earnestly, here, in this place, at this time. For we are about to open a town here in other words, to create a new centre of human life, human interests, human activities in this strangely beautiful solitude ; a centre in which, as we trust, a healthy, hopeful, reverent, or in one word godly, life shall grow up from the first, and shall spread itself, so we hope, over all the ' neighbouring region of these southern highlands. Now surely, just to put this idea into words ought to be enough to sober the spirits and brace up the energies of the lightest-hearted and strongest amongst us. He to whom the work does not commend itself in this light had better not put his hand to it at all in this place. We are here, then, to-day in this year 1880 as pioneers ; following, I hope and believe, as true an instinct, or I should rather say as true a call, as any that has been leading our fathers across the Atlantic to this land of promise for the last quarter of a millennium. There seem to be as clear indications now, as in the early years of the seventeenth century, in the political CHAP, i.] OPENING ADDRESS. 95 and social conditions of all the old settled nations of Christendom and in none more than our own England that this is a swarming time of the race ; a time of great movements of population, which no human power can check, but which may be eitljer left to work themselves out by rule of thumb, without intelligent direction and guidance, or ordered and directed from the first on distinct principles. Well, those who are interested in this enterprise have no doubt as to which of these alternatives is to be preferred. We are to do our best to organise our infant community on such lines and principles as our own experience and observ- ation, and the study of the efforts of those who have gone before us, seem to point out as the right and true ones. Well, then, how are we to set about this great work ? What is to be our starting-point ? What the idea which we are to try to realise ? This is our first need. We must spare no pains to clear our minds on this point. Unless we do so, we shall get no coher- ence and consistency in our later efforts. We shall be pulling different ways, and building up a Babel and not a community, which sooner or later will share the fate of all Babels, which the Lord will come down and scatter abroad. In this search, then, let us see whether the word I have already used will not give us our clue. We want to establish a community. What does that imply ? This much, at any rate, that we should all have something in common ; that we should recognise some bond which binds us all together, and endeavour, each and all of us, to keep this in view, to strengthen it in all ways. But what bond what is it to be that those who come to live here are to have in common? This 96 BOARD "OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART in. word community has gained an unenviable character in our day. We can scarcely think of a community without coming upon the traces of those who have kept and are keeping the Old World in a state of dangerous distrust and alarm, and even in the New World have given some ominous signs of sinister life. Certainly we can all agree at once that we have no sympathy whatever with the state communism of Europe, repre- sented by Lasalle and Karl Marx, and on this continent by very inferior, and even more violent and anarchic, persons. We have no vision whatever to realise of a paternal state, the owner of all property, finding easy employment and liberal maintenance for all citizens, reserving all profits for the community, and paying no dividends to individuals. Again, while respecting the motives and lives of many of those who have founded or are carrying on communistic experiments here and in Europe, we have no desire or intention to follow in their steps. We are content with the laws relating to private property and family life as we find them, feel- ing quite able to modify them for ourselves in certain directions as our corporate conscience ripens, and be- comes impatient of some of the evils which have resulted from that overstrained desire of possession and worship of possessions which marks our day. But it is time to leave negation and to get upon positive ground. As a community, we must have something in common. What is it to be, and how are we going to treat it ? Well, in the first place, there is this lovely corner of God's earth which has been intrusted to us. What, as a community, is our first duty with regard to it ? There can be no hesitation about the answer. It is, to CHAP, i.] OPENING ADDRESS. 97 treat it lovingly and reverently. We can add little, perhaps, to its natural beauty, but at least we can be careful to spoil it as little as possible. We may take care that our children, or whoever our successors may be here, shall not have cause to say " See what a glorious chance those old fellows had when they came here in 1880, and how they threw it away! This town might have been the most beautiful on this con- tinent, and look what they made of it !" How, then, are we going to treat our site, so that this reproach may never follow our memories ? First as to the laying out of our town here. We must do this with a view to the common good, and with care that neither convenience nor beauty is neglected. And as the guiding rule we may start with this, that there shall be ample provision for all public wants from the first. We have here two beautiful streams which will be a delight for ever to those who dwell here, if they are left free for the use and enjoyment of alL There- fore, in laying out the town we have reserved a strip of various widths along the banks, which will remain common property, and along which we hope to see walks and rides carefully laid out, and kept in order by the municipal authorities. We have already in a rough way, made a beginning by carrying a ride along the banks of the Clear Fork and White Oak Streams. Then there must be reservations for parks, gardens, and recreation grounds. In the present plans, provision has been made for these purposes. There is Beacon Hill, the highest point, from which there is a view of the whole surrounding country such as few towns in the old or new world can boast. This also will be common property, and the English H 98 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART m. gardens, lawn tennis, and cricket ground, whenever the municipality are able to take them off the hands of the Board. What, if anything more is required, I hope we may consider and determine at once, and I can assure you that the Board is anxious to consult with, and meet the wishes of, those who propose to make homes here. Our wish is to preserve the natural beauties of this place for the people who live and visit here, and make them a constant means of educating the eye and mind. With this example and ideal before their eyes, we may hope that the lots which pass into the hands of private owners will also be handled with an eye to the common good. Private property must be, of course, fenced in, but the fences may surely be made with some regard to others than the owners. It is hoped that the impervious walls and fences, so common in England, may be avoided, and that, in dealing with lawns and trees, we may each of us bear his part in producing a beautiful picture. Next comes the question of buildings, and here we must bear in mind that these are, in fact, or should be, the expression in timber, brick, and stone, of the thought of men and women as to the external con- ditions under which folk should live. Consider for a moment the different impressions in this matter which the visitor carries away from the streets of Chester, or Wells, or Salisbury, and from those of a town in our manufacturing districts. Now we hope that from the first visitors will carry away from this place the feel- ing that we here have understood something of what homes should be. Of course we must act prudently and cut our coats according to our cloth. We have no money to spare for superfluous decoration, and our CHAP. i.j OPENING ADDRESS. 99 first buildings, both public and private, must be simple and even rough in materials and construction. But there is no reason whatever why they should not, at the same time, be sightly and good in form and pro- portion. And at this I hope we shall all aim. We shall try to set you a good example in the public buildings. These will* consist, in the first instance, of a church and school house, and then of a court-house and town-hall, which will be built as soon as we can see our way to doing so prudently, and can make arrangements with the Government of the State for our establishment as a county town. We shall also promote, so far as we can, good habits in this matter of building, by providing plans and models of houses of different sizes, such as we think will suit the site, and do us credit as a community. Of course every man will build his house according to his own fancy, and use it for whatever purpose he pleases, except for the sale of intoxicating liquors, which will be strictly prohibited ; but if, as a community, we can guide his fancy in certain directions, we shall be glad, and con- sider that we have done good service. So far, then, I hope, we have travelled the same road without disagreement. We shall be all of one mind, I think, as to the preservation of all natural beauty here in the treatment of grounds and buildings ; and the sense of a common interest and life which an ample provision of public buildings and grounds will secure to our community. Shall I carry you with me in the next step ? Hitherto we have been concerned only in the first and most necessary work of housing ourselves, but now, we have to ask whether, after we are housed, and living in 100 BOAED OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PABT in, our houses, the idea of a common life and common interests must cease, and the isolated struggle for existence, in which every man's hand will be for him- self and against his neighbour, must begin. The sur- vival of the fittest is recognised as a natural law, which means that men will always live upon, and not for, one another. Are we prepared to accept it uncon- ditionally, or to try how far it can be modified by reason and agreement ? I, myself, have no doubt that it can and ought to be so modified, and that we have a good opportunity here for making the attempt. And there is, fortunately, no question as to the direction which that effort should take in the first instance. We have all of us a number of imperative wants which must be provided for and satisfied day by day. We want food, clothes, furniture, and a great variety of things besides, which our nurture and culture have made all but essential to us. These must all be provided here, either by each of us for himself, or by some common machinery. Well, we believe that it can be done best by a common machinery, in which we should like to see every one take a hand. We have a "commissary" already established, and have used that word rather than " store " to indicate OUT own wishes and intentions, as a " commissary " is espe- cially a public institution. Our wish is to make tin's commissary a centre of supply, and. that every settler, or, at any rate, every householder here, should become a member and part owner of it. The machinery by which this can be done is perfectly familiar in England. If it is adopted, the cost price of establishing the pre- sent commissary, as it stands, will be divided into small shares of five dollars each, so that the poorest CHAP, i.] OPENING ADDRESS. 101 settler may not be inconvenienced by the outlay for membership. Every one will get whatever profits are made on his own consumption, ad the business will be directed and superintended by a board or council chosen by the members themselves. In this way again we shall have a common interest and common property, and in the supplying of our own daily wants shall feel that if one member suffers, all suffer ; if one rejoices, all rejoice. In this way, too, if we please, we may be rid once for all of the evils which have turned retail trade into a keen and anxious and, generally, a dishonest scramble in older communities : rid of adul- teration, of false pretences, of indebtedness, of bank- ruptcy. Trade has been a potent civiliser of mankind, but only so far and so long as it has been kept in its place as a servant. As a master and an idol, it has proved a destroyer in the past, like all other idolatries, and is proving itself so in the present in many places we know of. Let us, as a community, take hold of it and master it here from the first, and never release our grasp and control of it. There is another direction in which like common action may be taken at once. The company will for many years own large tracts of land round the town site which are well adapted to raising and pasturing cattle. We intend to establish this industry here at once, and desire to do so on the same lines as those already indicated with respect to the commissary. When it has been settled, therefore, what amount of capital will be required to make the experiment on the most favourable conditions, settlers will be invited to subscribe in small shares for such portion as they please, and the balance will be taken by the company. 102 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PAET HI, The common herd will be managed by a committee elected by the shareholders. It is probable that con- siderable difficulty majfcoccur in managing a large herd in this country, but the experiment can be made gradually and at once, and the Board are ready to give all the help in their power. As time goes on, many other openings of a like kind may occur, but these will, for the present, be sufficient to establish and keep alive the corporate feeling, which is the main strength of all healthy communities. If any of you should doubt whether such arrange- ments as these will not interfere with, and dwarf, the energy and enterprise of an infant community, and keep from it the ablest and most vigorous kind of men, I would submit that there will be full scope for all energy in other directions. No doubt there is a healthy and worthy rivalry wliich should exist in every community ; but surely this may well be satisfied in the develop- ment of the numberless productive industries for which this region offers so wide a field. Who shall grow the best corn, tobacco, fruit ; who shall raise the best stock on their own farms ; produce the best articles, be they what they may ; write the best books or articles ; teach best, govern best ; in a word, live most nobly, surely here may well be scope enough for all energy, without the rivalry of shop-keeping, and the tricks of trade, the adulteration, puffing and feverish meannesses which follow too surely in its train. I must take you yet one step higher, and then I have done. Hitherto, we have been dealing with the outside only of our lives here, and questioning how far the idea of a community can be healthily realised in relation to these visible material things which we can CHAP, i.] OPENING ADDRESS. 103 see and taste and handle. But we all know, and confess to ourselves, if not to others, that no success in dealing with or handling these can satisfy us as men or at any rate ought to satisfy us that we are one and all in contact with and living in a world in which we. have to do with other things than those which rust and moth can corrupt. But here at once, it may be urged, we are fighting against the Zeit Geist the spirit of our time nowhere so strong and so decided as here in America if we make any effort to deal as a community with the invisible. Here, at any rate, we may be told, experience speaks emphatically that men must be left free to follow the guidings of their own consciences. You may possibly succeed, we may be told, in supplying the material wants of all by one central organisation started at once, but the spiritual wants you will leave, if you are wise, to find their own satisfaction, and to develop in such directions and by such methods as chance may determine. Now let me say at once, and with emphasis, that there will be no attempt here to interfere with indi- vidual freedom. Every one will be free to worship in his own way, and to provide for whatever religious ministrations he requires, out of his own funds, and according to his own ideas. But, this being granted, is there not still something which we may profitably attempt as a community ? We think there is, and have accordingly appropriated certain lots as a means of supporting public worship and religious ministra- tions here. We are putting up a temporary building as a church, in which the experiment will be tried whether the members of different Christian denominations can 104 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PARJ m not agree well enough to use one building for their several acts of worship. In it, I trust, there will always be heard the Common Prayer of that Liturgy, which both in England and America has proved itself the best expression through many generations of the joys, hopes, and aspirations of a large portion of those who speak our language, and has risen from innumer- able gatherings all round the globe laden with confes- sions of our shortcomings, and appeals for guidance and strength in the mighty work which has been laid upon our race. I am, personally, not without hope that the meaning, and beauty, and value of common prayers will commend themselves to our community, and that all our citizens may learn to feel their pathos and their grandeur, and to use them with comfort and profit, though they may not be members of the National Church of England, or of the Episcopal Church of this country. But, as there will undoubtedly be also a desire for other forms of worship in which more direct expression can be given (in the opinion of the worshippers) to the fleeting as well as the permanent hopes and fears of erring, and rejoicing, and penitent, men and women, we shall be glad if they will use the same building with us, as a pledge of Christian brotherhood and an acknowledg- ment that, however far apart our courses may seem to lie, we steer by one compass and seek one port. I take it that some at least amongst you may have detected a noteworthy gap in what I have been saying in this opening address. The prospectuses and pam- phlets of the numerous corporations and individuals who are just now engaged in this work of settling and develouing the unoccupied lands on this glorious con- CHAP, i.] OPENING ADDRESS. 105 tinent are full of figures and statements showing the rapidity with which enormous gain will be made in the several regions to which they desire to attract settlers. This being so, you may fairly ask, what have I, standing here as the representative of the founders of this settlement, to say upon this subject ? I answer them broadly and frankly : we have nothing to say. We believe that our lands have been well bought, and that those who settle here and buy from us will get good value for their money, and will find it as^ easy as it is at all well that it should be to make a living here. Beyond this we are not careful to travel. Whether the lands will double or quadruple in value before you have fairly learned how to live on them ; whether you will make five, or twenty, or one hundred, per cent on your investments, we offer no opinion. You can judge for yourselves of the chances, if these are your main aims. Speaking for myself~however, I must say that I look with distrust rather than with hope on very rapid pecuniary returns. I am old- fashioned enough to prefer slow and steady growth. I like to give the cream plenty of time to rise before you skim it. The wise men wait ; it is the foolish haste, r And, ere the scenes are in the slides would play, And while the instruments are tuning, dance. So far as I have been able to judge, these new settle- ments are being, as a rule, dwarfed and demoralised by hurrying forward in the pursuit of gain, allowing this to become the absorbing propensity of each infant com- munity. Then follows, as surely as night follows day, that feverish activity of mercantile speculation which is 106 BOAKD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART HI. the great danger and, to my mind, the great disgrace of our time. If it must come it must, but, so far as we are concerned, it shall get no help or furtherance here. On the other hand, all that helps to make healthy, brave, modest, and true men and women will get from us all the cordial sympathy and help we are able to give. In one word, our aim and hope are to plant on these highlands a community of gentlemen and ladies ; not that artificial class which goes by those grand names, both in Europe and here, the joint product of feudalism and wealth, but a society in which the hun^- blest members, who live (as we hope most if not all of them will to some extent) by the labour of their own hands, will be of such strain and culture that they will be able to meet princes in the gate, without embarrass- ment and without self-assertion, should any such strange persons ever present themselves before the gate tower of Rugby in the New World CHAPTER H. LATEST VIEWS. (Reprinted from February Number of Macmillan's Magazine. ) So many persons have shown a desire to know more of this enterprise than can be gathered from the original prospectus, or the pamphlets which have followed it, that it may be well to give here some further account of what has been done hitherto, and what is contemplated. First, as to the class of persons who may be advised to go to Rugby, Tennessee, with a view to settlement there. Every one not of independent means intending . to make the experiment should ask himself seriously the question, " Am I prepared for some years, during the working hours of the day, to live the life of a peasant ? or, in other words, to earn my living out of the soil by my own labour ? " Unless he can answer, and answer confidently, in the affirmative, he had better not go. If he can, he may go safely, as he will find there as great variety of occupations . to choose from as in any part of the United States, or our colonies. Soil, climate, situation, all point to a varied industry. The settler may raise sheep, cattle, or hogs ; he may grow any kind of fruit or vegetables, or (should he prefer to follow the lead of the few native 108 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART in. farmers of the district) corn, maize, and other cereals ; he may devote himself to the culture of poultry, or bees ; he may take to lumbering, and help to supply the saw-mills with logs, or the merchants with staves for casks. One or more of these industries he will have to learn to live by, unless indeed he chances to be a good mechanic. For carpenters, masons, and brickmakers, who know their business, there is a good opening at good wages ; but these are in demand everywhere in new countries. I have said that the settler will have to lead a peasant's life during working hours ; and it is this limitation, " during working hours," which forms one of the chief attractions of the settlement. For at other times, when his work is done, he will find himself in a cultivated society, within easy reach of all the real essentials of civilisation, beginning with a good library. In short, whoever is ready "to put himself into primary relations with the soil and nature, and to take his part bravely with his own hands in. the manual labour of this world " (as Mr. Emerson, puts it in his counsels to young Americans, in Man the Reformer}, will find here as favourable conditions for his very sensible experiment as he is likely to get in any part of the world. Assuming then our young Englishman ready to accept these conditions, and to start in life, resolute to prove that he can make his two hands keep his head, and need be under obligations to no one for a meal or a roof, how is he to get to the scene of his experiment, and what should he take with him in the shape of outfit ? First, as to outfit. The less of it he takes the CHAP, ii.] LATEST VIEWS. 109 better. One of the first and most valuable lessons which his new life will teach him is, that nine-tenths of what he has been used to consider the necessaries of life are only lumber. A good chest, or even a big leather bag, ought to hold all his worldly goods for the time being. Two or three stout suits of clothes, and several pairs of strong boots and gaiters, with flannel shirts, and a good supply of underclothing (including a leather waistcoat for the few bitterly cold winter days) and socks, will be ample. Slop clothes of all kinds he can get in America as cheap as at home, and not much worse; but they won't wear, especially the boots. These latter, I take it, it will always answer his purpose to get from England, paying the very heavy duty. If he is a sportsman he may take his shot gun and rifle, but these must not be new, or they will be liable to duty. If he has none of his own, he had better buy in the United States, where all kinds of sporting weapons are very good, and cheaper than the English would be after payment of duty. For a revolver he will have no more occasion than in England. In this part of Tennessee they are only silly and somewhat dangerous toys ; and I am glad to say that the magis- trates of this, and all the neighbouring counties, are fining severely when cases of wearing arms are brought before them. As to a fishing-rod and tackle, I am doubtful what to advise. There are two most tempting-looking streams, with pools and stickles which vividly excite one's piscatorial nerves at first sight, and give reason- able hope that monsters of the deep must haunt there. But further acquaintance dispels the pleasant illusion. Whatever the cause may be probably because there 110 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART in. has never been, a close -time in these streams since the creation, and the natives are wasteful as well as very keen sportsmen a bass of three or four inches long is the biggest fish to be heard of. That some sensible understanding will soon be established as to the fishing there is much reason to hope ; but, as it will take some years in any case before it can be worth while to throw a line there, the young settler had better perhaps leave his angling gear at home. And the same may be said for tool chests, and implements of all kinds. If a youngster has a favourite set which he has been using in those excellent work- shops which some of our public schools have at last established, sentiment may be allowed to carry the day, and he may find it worth while to take his proved tools with him. Otherwise, he will avoid much trouble and annoyance at the custom-house by going without, and will get the articles when he wants them quite as good and not much dearer, at Cincinnati. His chest or bag will of course find a corner for some photographs and other home memorials, and possibly for a favourite book or two. But of these latter he may be saving, as he will find a good free library already on the spot. The great thing is to remember in all his prepara- tions that he is going to try an experiment, which may not succeed. If it should, he can easily run home in a year or two for his " lares and penates." If not, it will be very much better for him not to have to bring them away. This would look like defeat, while no such inference could fairly be drawn from the packing up of one box, and the distribution amongst CHAP, ii.] LATEST VIEWS. Ill those whom he leaves behind him in the settlement of whatever will not fit into it. But he must have some money also ? Yes, but very little will serve his turn ; in fact I had almost said the less the better. If he is at all in earnest about what he is doing, a week or two will be enough to turn round in, see the place and the neighbourhood, settle what he is best fitted for, and make arrange- ments to begin working at that particular business. If for that week he even takes a room at the hotel, and lives there the most costly course open to him it will only cost him some 2. For a much smaller sum he can be put up at one of the boarding-houses. At the end of that time he ought to be able at least to earn enough to keep himself. 1 He will, if he is wise, at once become a shareholder in the town com- missary (or supply association), which will cost him $5 or 1 ; and he may also like to join the club (which controls the lawn -tennis ground and the musical gatherings, and otherwise caters for the social life of the settlement), and to support the vestry or the choir. But we may take 5 as the maximum sum which it will need to make him free of all the nascent institutions of the infant settlement ; and if he can command another 10 to tide him over a week or two's failure of employment or health, he will have quite as much of the mammon of unrighteousness as is at all likely to be good for him at starting. I am speaking now only of young men not yet of age, who Seem likely to be the great majority of the 1 The experience of the last few months has proved that young men going out without previous training cannot earn enough to support themselves at once. They should arrange to board for a year at least with one of the farmers, which they can do for 60. 112 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART nu settlers at present. For older men no longer under disability, who control their own funds and may be supposed to know their own minds, of course the case is different. Command of capital may make a great difference to them in their start, as many openings are occurring of which a man with funds under his im- mediate control will be able to avail himself. And even for younger men, where they or their friends can afford such an outlay, it will probably be desirable to make some arrangement with one of the present settlers, by which board and instruction may be obtained at a very reasonable cost, with the prospect possibly of a partnership in future. I only wish to say that, so far as I can judge, any young man who can command such an outfit and sum as I have named, in addition to his journey money, and goes out with a resolute determination to get on by hard work, may start for Eugby with good prospects of making an independence under pleasant and wholesome conditions of life. The cost of getting out will depend in some measure on whether the emigrant is able, or desirous, to avail himself of the arrangements made by the Board. If he can do this, he may get to Sedgemoor, the Rugby station on the Cincinnati Southern Railway, for fifteen guineas, first-class; 1 2 : 1 Os. intermediate, and 8 : 1 Os. steerage. This route is by Philadelphia, and the train for Cincinnati is in waiting alongside the pier, where the steamers of the American line land their passengers. If he prefers, or is obliged, to go by New York, his sea-voyage will be at the ordinary fares ; but the agent of the Board at New York will furnish him with tickets to Sedgemoor at a reduced charge. CHAP, ii.] LATEST VIEWS. 113 Going as fast as he can, he has thirty-six hours' railway after landing to get to Sedgemoor. As, how- ever, he will probably like, at any rate, to sleep at Cincinnati on his road (even if he should be able sternly to waive aside the attractions of the eastern cities), we may look for him there some three days after his arrival in America. Sedgemoor is a small clearing in the middle of the forest, through which the railway has been running for the last thirty miles. He is already some 1200 feet above the sea level, as he has been creeping up by gentle inclines ever since he entered the forest country. From this point the line descends again gradually to the South, till it reaches the Tennessee river and its terminus at Chatanooga. But when he is landed at Sedgemoor he is still some 600 feet below the level of Rugby, and he commences the ascent at once. There is a broad road, graded right away from the station to the town for six miles and upwards, through land belonging to the Board, and he begins the ascent within one hundred yards of the line. As soon as he is up this first ascent the road runs almost all the way along the ridge of a water-shed, to the Clear Fork river, upon the further bank of which the town of Rugby lies. The drive should be instructive to him, not mainly for the charin of the scenery, or the glimpses he will get here and there of the distant blue moun- tains of North Carolina away to the east, but for the specimen it will give him of the sort of work he will soon be employed on. Most likely his first job will be to clear similar land at so many dollars an acre, either for the Board or some of the settlers. The whole of the ridge on either side this road is specially I 114 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNEKSHIP. [PART nt. adapted for fruit-growing ; so the farms are laid out in forty or fifty acres, with only a small frontage to the road. Settlers who wish to start in fruit and vegetable culture, can buy larger tracts to the rear at smaller prices, if they wish to secure a larger area for future use. A year hence, it is hoped that, on crossing the Clear Fork Bridge, the visitor will find himself opposite to a public building which will serve as a gate-house to the town, and where a register will be kept of all the in- habitants for the convenience of strangers ; but as the gate-house at present only exists on paper, he will have to go to the office of the Board, some three-quarters of a mile further on, in the centre of the town of the future, for any information he may need. On the way he will pass the church, fronting the main avenue along which his way lies, and will see the commissary and the boarding-houses lying back on what will be important side streets. A number of private houses in different stages of buildings few, I fear, finished as yet, the supply of building materials being sadly behind the demand line the main avenue, till it terminates in a sweep which will bring him to the Tabard, the hotel, which stands almost on the highest point at the west end of the town, within a couple of hundred yards or so of the thickly-wooded gully, some two hundred feet deep, through which the second stream, the White Oak, runs to its junction with the Clear Fork half a mile away. At the Tabard, if not at the office, he will find the manager and other officials of the Board, and will obtain all such advice and assistance as he may need, both with respect to his immediate housing, and to his future plans. CHAP. ii. 1 LATEST VIEWS. 115 It may be well to refer shortly, in conclusion, to several points on which a good deal of misunderstand- ing seems still to exist. And first as to the commissary, to which reference has been already made. Doubts seem still to haunt some minds as to the intentions of the Board in re- spect of the freedom of trade at Kugby. We can best answer, perhaps, by repeating what was said in the* address delivered by the representative of the Board on the 5th of October 1880, which contains the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth : "We have all of us a number of imperative wants which must be provided for and satisfied day by day. We want food, clothes, furniture, and a great variety of things besides, which our nurture and culture have made all but essential to us. These must all be provided here, either by each of us for him- self or by some common machinery. Well, we believe that it can be done best by a common machinery, in which we should like to see every one take a hand. We have a ' commissary ' already established, and have used that word rather than ' store ' to indicate our own wishes and intentions, as a commissary is especially a public institution. Our wish is to make this com- missary a centre of supply, and that every settler, or at any rate every householder here, should become a member and part- owner of it The machinery by which this can be done is perfectly familiar in Englante in waggon-loads this year all round here for want of bands to pick them. One man offered me 200 bushels of splendid apples if I would come and fetch them away. Timber is going to be a big thing. I am now making in- quiries as to the possibility of supplying the north country collieries from here, and hope to bring the British timber- merchant to a sense of his sins. Settling on these heavily timbered lands means hard work for the first few years : but seeing that your timber is worth many times the price you give for your land, and that you increase the value of your land many times more by clearing it, you evidently get a considerable quid for your quo in the shape of hard work. All this mountain is coal land, and every ton will have to be got out some time or another, though the date cannot be given as yet. But seeing that here alone of the American continent or of the world as far as I know coal and red hematite lie cheek by jowl along a big fault, which throws carboniferous against lower silurian rocks, it is not difficult to infer blast furnaces at no distant date ; and the thing is improved by the recent discovery and partial development in the mountains east of here, of heavy beds of magnetic ore, which are said to show a higher percentage of metallic iron than any ore hitherto handled here or elsewhere. Just round the town here there is no great development of coal, but building stone and fire and brick clay enough to build London, which is all as it should be, as it is to be feared that the Smoke Prevention Act would not work well in this section. But there is a very pretty water power on the two streams Clear Fork and White Oak, which meet here. We are moving to get the first to work for a water supply, which ia urgently needed. The present population of Rugby is about 120. The hotel has been running since the 5th inst., and has hardly had a bed vacant since that time. There is a " boarding-house," a " bar- racks," an " asylum," an office, and various shanties, and a " com- missary " or store, which has been put on a co-operative footing. K 130 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART 111. A library has been formed, and we have already got promises, private and official, of nearly 4000 volumes ! This necessitates a good building, for which we are pending round the hat. It it reaches you I hope the tile will depart heavier by a few coppers. As for the tennis club, whist, etc., and the rest, they are written in the books of Vacuus Viator, so you will see that we have what is known as a " bully time " on this continent. If you know of any good fellows who are thinking of the States, I believe they can't do better than come here, for a look at the place at any rate. Sheep is the thing, in the opinion of good judges at any rate, to begin with ; then mixed farming as the place gets cleared. Then, in answer to the question what kind of life will have to be led there, I will read you the last letter received from a nephew of mine, aged twenty- one, a Marlburian, who with his younger brother, late a scholar of Westminster, aged nineteen, whose health broke down at school, is settled on a Texan ranche, a long way from Rugby no doubt, but with far less advantageous surroundings than settlers at Rugby will have : 7th March 1881. The success of Hal and myself is now assured, and we know it The first spring I was here was the drought, when nobody raised anything, which was discouraging. Last year we did fairly for our first year of farming and sheep, but this year finds us well ahead of our business. Our sheep could not be doing better. Last year's experience in the lambing season taught us what was necessary to have for the proper management of the lambs, and our system of lambing-pens and pasturing is superb. The lambs are dropping like hail (eight to-day), and they are at once drafted off into the pasture, where they remain for a few days till the ewes "take" properly to them. Each, lamb is marked with a red spot or line on a part of its body, and the ewe is marked in the panie way on the fame part of its body, so that we know exactly which lamb belongs to which ewe ; and a record is kept of the date the lamb is born, and of its mark, so as 10 know when it can with safety be allowed to run with the CHAP, in.] ADDRESS TO RUGBY SCHOOL. 131 flock. When a few days old, and the ewe has taken properly to the lamb, they are turned into the field where the oats are coming up splendidly. This brings a flush of milk on the ewe, and gives the lamb a good start. The last lamb born to-day made our fiftieth lamb. We have had several weeks of the most glorious weather ; in our shirt sleeves from morning to night, and yet not too hot to work all through the day, and we have had a tremendous lot of work lately. We have about four acres of oats growing well, and two days ago I put in about an acre of corn ; and tp-day I hauled up the " camp tricks-" to the tent at the Schulz field, as I am going to camp up there and plough up for corn. Our spring onions are coming up splendidly, and this morning I put in our seed sweet potatoes, from which grow the vines which are planted out later on. The vines produce the potatoes, so to speak. I have a seed-bed with beets, cabbages, lettuces, squashes, and cauliflowers in, and some of them are beginning to come up ; and I have a bed of very early corn in, and I expect we shall be the first round here to have roasting ears ; and my ground for beans, melons, and tomatoes, etc., is all ploughed and ready to be planted as soon as spring has regularly set in at least as soon as all chance of cold has gone, for spring has set in some time ; the grass is growing up green, and the wild flowers and bushes are all opening, and the nights are getting quite warm. We planted out sixteen fruit trees apples and peaches, and they are all doing well ; and the com- freys have been green for weeks, and we are planting out a large patch of them this spring ; you have no idea how useful they are in case of a sick ewe. I forget whether I told you that the grass seeds did not come to anything, but that the clover is all coming up and looking well. I think it is going to prove a very valuable addition to the herbage here. We planted it on about half an acre in the pasture, and have fenced off a little patch to keep the sheep and calves off, and let it run to seed. We are still getting plenty of milk from old " Gentle," and within a few weeks we shall have more milk than we shall know what to do with, unless we get a pig, as we have several good cows going to calve. The English ewes begin to lamb the day after to-morrow, and Flora, the collie that Mr. Hewett sent me, pups to-morrow ; and we have two hens hard at work sitting, and the whole " boiling" of them are cackling and laying, so we are increasing to a great extent And lastly, I forgot old Molly the mare. 132 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART m. She has gone off to her old range preparatory to having a colt ; and another mare of ours who runs between here and Boerne is also going to have a colt. Oh ! and then the cat ; she's going to have kittens. I think I've told you about everything now. We have all had a fit of letter-writing to-night. At this time of year I fear we neglect it a good deal. From daylight to late at night we are kept agoing I assure you. First it's cooking breakfast, and milking, and separating newly-born lambs and their ewes from the flock, then turning out the flock and draft- ing the older lambs and ewes into the field, and holding refract- ory ewes for the lambs to suck. Then there's ploughing or planting all day ; then the flock comes in, and more new lambs to fix, and more suckling and feeding ; then supper to cook and washing-up to do ; and by the time one has finished supper one feels as though one could fall asleep at the table. It's glorious fun though, and we enjoy the life immensely. I have to shave now ; it is my Sunday morning's job. Hal is just off (11 P.M.) to his tent up by the sheep-pen, where he has his cot and sleeps every night now. You have no idea how well he ia looking ; you would hardly know him. You will have gathered from the latter that they are settlers of two years' standing, and, I may add, that they have had about 700 of capital between them. You may take this, then, as a fair sample of the sort of life which settlers at Rugby will have to lead, at any rate for several years. It means hard and con- stant manual labour at one or another kind of farming operations. Unless a young man is prepared for this he had better not go. Does it cross your minds that if this be so your present education is a mistake ; and a very bad preparation for the life to which many of you will have to turn in the future? That is natural enough, but an error. Depend upon it, the higher culture of all kinds you can get now, the happier and better backwoodsmen you will be,- if that should prove to be your destiny. And let me remind you that the CHAP, in.] ADDRESS TO RUGBY SCHOOL. 1 33 worth of manual labour, as a part of the highest educa- tion, is getting to be more and more openly recognised by the most successful and laborious men in all ranks. Mr. Gladstone, for instance, has again and again advo- cated its claims, and bears practical testimony to the sin- cerity of his belief in his own method of taking relaxation. The late Mr. Brassey invariably gave the advice " above all, teach him some handicraft thoroughly," to the crowds of people who used to consult him about their sons. One of the most rising of the junior members of the present Government goes straight to digging in his garden whenever he gets a holiday. Besides, is the truth not admitted now in this, and I believe almost all the other public schools, by the establishment of workshops, in which carpentering, turning, and other handicrafts are taught ? I only wish it had been so in my day, for I have felt the want of such training all my life. In my last year at school I was head of big side, both of cricket and football ; and if the boys who fill those onerous and responsible posts happen to be present, they will bear me out, that he who holds them has very limited time to give to inferior industries, such, for instance, as the cultivation of Greek Iambics or Latin Alcaics. And, looking back over much that one has to regret in the shape of misspent time, I am not at all sure that I repent the hours taken from Greek and Latin verses and given to organising big side matches and playing them. But of this I am quite sure, that I should have been a better and happier, as well as a handier, man all my life, if I had been able to give a good portion of those hours to such work as you have all of you the chance of learning on the other side of the school close. 134 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART 111. " But is there nothing more than this ? Surely we have heard of lawn tennis, and bathing, and shooting parties coming home carrying deer on poles through the forest ? " Yes, you have heard such stories no doubt more than enough of them most likely. Writers who have never been near the place and know nothing of the circumstances, have been funny and severe on the fact that the first settlers made a tennis ground before they began clearing, or digging, or ploughing. They did so, in fact, because they had nothing else to do. The titles were not perfected, so we couldn't sell them land, and they couldn't work on it. And I doubt if they could have done a more sensible thing. In the same way they did bathe a good deal, in a famous pool, ten feet deep, lying in the rhodo- dendron bushes just below the town site ; and every now and then went out shooting and brought back a deer. There will always be slack times in the busiest lives, when such pastimes are excellent, and I should advise every settler to take a good shot gun and rifle with him, and fisliing-rod too, for before long we hope to have fine bass and other fish in our two fine streams. But these will only be the fringe of the life ; the staple of it will be hard continuous work, for some years at anyrate, till farms are cleared, fruit trees bearing, and flocks and herds have multiplied. Those who prefer other ways of passing any leisure time they may have on their hands will find a famous library on the spot, contributed by the publishers, and various public so- cieties, in America. I don't 'know that there is anything more that I need say, and I have already outrun my time. I would only beg you all, in conclusion, to remember that I am CHAP, in.] ADDRESS TO RUGBY SCHOOL. 135 not here to preach an exodus to any of you boys who can see your way to an honest living by honest work at home here in England. That is the best life for yourselves and for your country. But for those who . find after leaving school that they have no such out- look in England, I undoubtedly believe that they can't do better than go back to the land ; and that they will not easily find a brighter or more hopeful place in which to try such an experiment than Rugby, Tennes- see ; while the name of their new home will keep up not only a sense of continuity in their lives, but the memory of this old world Rugby, to which, as the years go on, they will feel an ever-growing debt of affection and gratitude. CHAPTEE IV. COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. THE following report has been prepared by the Minister of Agriculture for the State of Tennessee : The Soil. It is not claimed that the soil of Bugby, or the Cum- berland plateau, is rich. On the contrary, it is gener- ally poor, or at most only of medium quality. It is a rare thing in the United States to find rich soil, plenty of timber, perfect healthfulness and desirableness of climate, cheap land, convenient markets, and easy access to means of transportation, all combined. That Bugby possesses all these essentials to a happy home, except rich soil, no one, it is believed, will deny. It is equally true that the soil, by proper culture and handling, can be improved and made to yield re- munerative crops. The soil may be divided into five classes: 1. Thin sandy soil, resting upon sandstone, which comes near the surface. This is unfruitful, bothjrom original poverty of constitution and from a want of depth. Fortunately it does not occupy a large area, but is confined for the most part to the high lands adjoining streams. Timber scrubby. 2. Sandy soil, light, but deep. Upon this the most JHAP. iv.] COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. 137 succulent and nutritious grasses grow, and furnish a large amount of excellent pasturage. The prevailing timber is chestnut, oak, and pine. 3. Sandy soil, incumbent upon a mulatto clay. This, by reason of its clayey foundation, which enables it to catch and preserve fertilising material, is the best of all the upland soils of the mountain, and covers by far the largest area, especially on the lands belonging to the Rugby colony. It is naturally fertile upon the north hill-sides, having in such places a black colour, resembling the black prairie lands of Illinois. The black soil however is very limited. The general characteristics of this class of soil is a light grayish or yellowish colour, with a mulatto subsoil. The latter is very retentive, and holds all fertilisers applied. Extensive white oak forests occur upon it. Where there is a modification of this soil by the presence of small angular gravel the timber varies, and red oak, black oak, hickory, and pine, are associated with the white oak. Grape vines grow abundantly upon such soils. 4. The alluvium along the water courses, which is black in colour, friable and productive. The amount of this soil is inconsiderable. 5. Glebe lauds the beds probably of old marshes, in which has accumulated a large mass of vegetable debris. The soil of this is sometimes black, more often ashen in colour, and always charged with humic acid to such a degree as to be unproductive, unless thoroughly drained and sweetened by aeration. No timber will flourish in such places except swamp maple, sweet gum, and other kinds adapted to wet lands. 138 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART in. The most important, because the most abundant in quantity, is the third class mentioned. Though com- paratively thin and infertile, nothing is risked in say- ing that, in original strength and productiveness, it is far superior to any soils found in New England outside the valleys, and not one -half the expense need be incurred in bringing it to a higher degree of fertility, for three reasons : 1st, The subsoil is not so porous as the subsoil in New England, where the drifted pebbles commingled with sand lie beneath all the soils on the elevated lands. 2d, This soil under consideration will, on account of the climate, grow a much larger number of green crops, which can be utilised in adding humus. 3d, Both the soil of New England and the soil of the plateau need the application of lime, and this article can be burned and applied for one-third the cost to the_ lands of the plateau that it can be applied to the soils of New England : 1st, because lime- rack is abundant and cheap, and is found in many valleys belonging to and contiguous to the lands of the com- pany; and 2d, because fuel both coal and wood, exists in such quantities as to be practically without cost. The land can further be improved by sowing the cowpea and turning under the vines. The climate and soil are both adapted to the growth of this legume, and, in the experience of the best planters south, no reno- vator not even clover is equal to the haulm of the pea. But clover also grows well on this soil. The writer has seen it growing at Greutli three feet high, upon a soil far more sandy and far less productive CHAP, iv.) COLONEL KILLKBKEW'S REPORT. 139 naturally, than upon the lands of the company. No fertiliser was applied to it except two bushels of plaster per acre, at a cost of less than $1 per acre. Rye is another green crop that may be grown with success upon the silico-argillaceous soils of the plateau, also buckwheat, both of which are regarded as excel- lent crops for renovating the soil. The most rapid improvement in the soil, however, can be obtained by the sowing of one or two crops of cowpeas during the year. One of these may be taken off for fodder and % the other turned under. In this way the soil may be continually improved without the loss of a single crop. Nor is this mere surmise. It has been done again and again, not only on the plateau but on the sandy soils of West Tennessee. It may be laid down as a general rule that all lauds which rest upon a clayey foundation can be rapidly improved by the application of manures, green or dry ; and after manures have been applied for several years in succession, the land becomes a garden mould rich enough to produce any crop, and as easy to keep up thereafter as the most fertile virgin soil. The lands of the plateau have been kept in a condition of compara- tive infertility by the pernicious habit of annually burning the leaves, thus destroying the material for humus, and exposing the soil to the parching influence of the sun, drawing away all humidity, without which- there can be no improvement in the productive capacity of any soil. The Grasses which do well. Herde grass (Agnostis wdyaris) and orchard grass (Dactylis glimevata) both grow well upon the moun- 140 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PAKT IIL tain. The first, when occasionally top-dressed with stable manure, will yield grand crops for many years in succession. Clover, as has been mentioned, will also grow well by the application of a small quan- tity of sulphate of lime (plaster of Paris) in the spring. Esparsette or sanfoin (Onobrychis sativa) will suit the sandy soils of the plateau, and furnish an article of hay equal in every particular to the best clover hay. Gama grass would also be found to be a valuable acces- sion to the forage crops of the plateau. Crops. It is not assumed that corn and wheat will do remarkably well, or be very profitable on the Cumber- land plateau. The first requires rich alluvial soil for a heavy crop. In the natural state of the soil in this region, large yields of corn cannot be expected. From twenty to twenty-five bushels per acre is as much as can be expected, and often it will fall below these figures. But by following the directions herein given for the improvement of the soil, after a few years a heavier yield may be expected. Corn is a great exhauster of the soil, and therefore the settlers should be exceedingly careful not to raise frequent crops of it on the same piece of land. This should be especially so until the land is brought up to a high degree of productiveness. The land should not be put in corn more than once in every five years. On such land a corn crop is not profitable. Raise as little as possible, and supply its place with other things. Wheat. Wheat will not make a remunerative crop upon the CHAP, iv.] COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. 141 virgin soil of the plateau, but experiments have de- monstrated the fact that, by the application of two cords of manure to the acre, fifteen bushels may be raised. The best course to pursue with this crop is to sow after a pea fallow ; and when the . wheat crop is harvested the succeeding summer break the land and sow again in peas, the haulm of which will be ready to turn under in time to sow a crop of wheat the same autumn. By continuing this practice from year to year, aiding the land with occasional dressings of manure, very good wheat crops may be produced on the same field for a succession of years. The writer has known some very poor sandy soils to be brought to a high degree of fertility by pursuing this method. It is worthy of trial by the colonists. Oats. The remarks made above in reference to corn are also applicable to oats. They exhaust the productive capacity of the soil very rapidly. Therefore they should be sown on the same piece of land only at long intervals. No wise farmer can afford to exhaust his soil in order to get a particular crop, especially a second crop, from his land. To build up, and not to exhaust, is true wisdom. He that does thus will get rich, while the opposite policy inevitably leads to poverty. Eye. The climate of Rugby is well suited to rye. Wher- ever the soil is in good condition it will do well. It requires good rich soil. Rye makes a fine winter pasture. When ploughed under in the spring, after it 142 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PABTTII. gets a fair start in growth, it makes a fine fertiliser, It can therefore be sown with profit for a fall and winter pasturage, and also used for a fertiliser the next spring or summer. Sweet Potatoes. Sweet potatoes do well on the sandy soil on the plateau. They love a sandy loam, and require only a moderately rich soiL If very rich they run too much to vines and leaves. Stable manure well rotted, and wood ashes, are excellent" fertilisers for them. Where the soil is suitable and the season good, the yield should be from seventy-five to one hundred bushels per acre. Further south, and in a lower latitude, the yield per acre is much greater, often reaching from two to three hundred bushels. For the ordinary purposes of sustaining life nothing is cheaper or better. For cattle, horses, or hogs, they have been proved by experiments to be equal to corn, bushel for bushel. They contain quite as much nutri- ment, and are more healthy. They are fed either raw, or after they have been cooked. At Rugby sweet potatoes can be made valuable for marketing. They are a tropical production, and are much sweeter grown in a warm climate. In Cincin- nati and other northern cities they command high prices, and especially the early ones. There is no good reason why those cities should not draw their main supply from the Cumberland plateau. As the sweet potato loves a hot soil, it should be planted on the south hill-sides or slopes. With good cultivation one hundred and fifty bushels may be produced with ease upon an acre of land. CHAP, iv.] COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. 143 Irish Potatoes. The Irish potatoes raised on the high Cumberland lands are very superior, having an excellent flavour. They are greatly superior to those raised in the valleys of East or Middle Tennessee. They .are "also very productive on these lands. In them the farmers of Eugby have an unfailing source of income. All the cotton States draw their supplies of this uni- versal article of food for winter consumption from the States north of them. Early potatoes can be raised in the southern States ; but late ones for winter do not do well Knoxville, Chatanooga, and Atalanta, will always be good markets for good winter potatoes. Hundreds of barrels raised in the north are sold every spring in Knoxville at good prices. While there must ever remain a good market in the south for winter potatoes, Cincinnati will furnish a market for the early ones. They can be put into this market from Rugby several days perhaps ten days, earlier than they can be from Ohio or Northern Ken- tucky. The very early ones command very high prices. The soil suited for Irish potatoes is a rich loam. It cannot be too rich. They will do but little good on exhausted or very poor land. Well rotted stable manure, wood ashes, ground bone, hair, plaster, forest- leaves, are all good fertilisers for them. Wood ashes are perhaps the best of all. Early potatoes should be planted in February if possible, and if the soil is suitably manured, 300 bushels per acre is not considered an exorbitant crop. Near Jersey city this number of bushels has been often gathered. A southern exposure is best if early 144 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART in. maturity is desired. But for a late crop, the ground should always be, when practicable, low -bottom or north hill -sides. Our fall seasons are generally dry and hot, and therefore such ground should be chosen as would be least affected by heat and drought. The early crop can be planted early in February, and the late one the last of June or very early in July. The best varieties of early potato yet introduced are the Early Bose and Snow Flake, and for the late crop the Peachblow, Pink Eye, and Mountain Sprout. Northern grown seed, especially for the early crop, is decidedly the best ; but if a second crop of early potatoes is grown they make the best seed. This can be done in this climate by digging the first crop in June, exposing them to the air for a few days, and then planting them in land well prepared. This practice is becoming very common about Nashville. Vegetables. Nearly all vegetables will do well in the climate of Eugby, where the soil is in good condition. But it must be borne in mind that all the vegetables, like corn and Irish potatoes, require rich food. It is in vain to expect good returns without good care and rich soil. If gardening for the Cincinnati market should be the object of any of the colonists, they had better raise a general assortment, and not confine themselves to a few articles, so that if one fails others may succeed. In gardening, it is never safe to rely upon one or two articles. Besides, if the gardener has to attend market, he had better go with a full assortment and supply. CHAP. nr. COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. 145 There is one vegetable to which we invite especial attention, and that is Cabbage, Perhaps no vegetable is so universally eaten, and largely consumed, in the United States, as cabbage. It forms a part of the daily food of nearly every family during the greatest part of the year. It is peculiarly the poor man's food. The reason is twofold ; first, because most persons are fond of it ; and second, because more food can be purchased of it for a small sum than of nearly anything else. It comes into use early in June, and continues in market until next spring, frequently until the next crop is ready for use. It is always in demand. It is easily kept through the winter. And in the south, in those localities where the soil and climate are suitable for its growth, no crop will pay better. The settlers at Rugby must bear in mind that south of Tennessee it cannot be grown, except in high mountainous regions. Its habitat is a cold climate. Hence in the hot southern states it does no good. They must depend on the north for their fall and winter supply. Here, there is this wide region, from Wilmington to New Orleans, with all the interior to be supplied. The Cumberland plateau is the nearest region suitable for the growth of fine cabbage. Even at Knoxville, witli a country north of it moderately well adapted to its growth, large quantities of it are brought from Virginia every winter and spring, and sold. No doubt this is true of Chattanooga and Nashville also. The Cumberland lands and climate are admirably L 146 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART in. suited for cabbage. Where the lands are made rich with barn-yard manure, or with bone dust, phosphate, or guano, all of which are admirable fertilisers for it, it can be grown in great perfection. The writer saw a head grown in the garden of Eugby, by Mr. Hill, on poor, old land, which weighed, about the 6th October last, before it was done growing, ten pounds. Mr. Hosier, at Sunbright, has frequently raised heads weighing from fifteen to twenty pounds, as the writer is informed. Early cabbage can no doubt be profitably raised for the Cincinnati market. But it is late cabbage which can be most profitably raised, for the Chattanooga, Atalanta, and other southern markets. That cabbage can be made a profitable crop at Eugby, with the liberal use of fertilisers, is susceptible of the clearest demonstration. If the plants are three feet apart, 4840 can be grown on an acre. If two and a half feet 6969 per acre. The latter distance is sufficiently far apart if the crop is raised by hand. The former is better, if a plough is used in cultivation. Suppose the plants make heads which weigh, on an average, five pounds, and that they will yield in market a cent a pound. Then an acre planted two and a half feet apart would produce $348*45 worth of cabbage, and at three feet it would amount to $242 - 00. If but half a cent a pound is realised, a<* clear profit, the result would be in the one case *1 7 4 '2 2 and in the other $121-00 per acre. With a good season, good culture, and with thorough fertilisa- tion, there is every probability that the heads can be made to average eight or ten pounds. The writer saw cabbage selling in Knoxville at retail, by the small CHAP, iv.] COLONEL KILLEBREW S REPORT. 147 dealers, January 4th 1881, at four cents a pound The winter price is usually as much as two and a half cents a pound with the hucksters. Of course the pro- ducer can get no such prices at wholesale. No special skill is required to raise or take care of cabbage. Aside from planting, it requires no more care or labour than corn. It can be easily kept through the winter until spring. The mam point always to be kept in mind is, that it imperatively requires rich and well pulverised soil, or the liberal use of stimulating fertilisers. Late cabbage should by all means be planted on low moist bottom lands, or on north hill-sides. The ground cannot be made too rich for it. Early cabbage should have a southern exposure. The best varieties are, for early, Early "Wyman, and Early Jersey Wakefield ; for late, Large Late Drum- head, and Large Flat Dutch. Under all circumstances it is safe to assume that cabbage will yield as clear profit one half -cent a pound, and frequently much more. Fruit Growing. All the fruits of the temperate zone, possibly ex- cepting peaches, as far as tested, do well on the table- land of Tennessee. Apples. Apples do remarkably well, and can be made a great success. Those grown on this plateau have a fine flavour, fine colour, and are crisp and delicious. This has been clearly proved by the orchards of Mr. England and Dodge and Son, White County, Mr. Hill of Warren, and Mr. Caldwell of Franklin. The latter 148 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART 111. bore away all the premiums for fine apples at the fairs in Nashville for several years in succession. His orchard occupied a position on the mountain, about 1900 feet above the sea. The fruit grown in these orchards has been pronounced equal to the best northern apples. The apple-trees on all the Cumber- land lands are healthy and thrifty. For this fruit there is a wide and ready market in southern cities. In the Cotton states, it must be remembered, that the apple is not much grown, and the fruit is quite inferior. Their winter supply is drawn nearly entirely from the north and north-west. Even in Knoxville, with a country surrounding it tolerably well adapted to the apple, especially on the high ridges, hundreds, perhaps thousands, of barrels of winter apples, are brought every year from New York, Michigan, Ohio, and other States, and sold at high prices. The same statement is no doubt true of Nashville, Chattanooga, and Atalanta. Cincinnati will furnish a market for early apples, and the southern cities for winter marketing. For the reason that apples do best in a moderately cold climate, the ground selected for them should be as high as possible, and on the northern slopes, or on the tops of "ridges. Besides this, the best soil is usually found on the north side of hills. The following varieties have been tested in Ten- nessee, many of them on the Cumberland lands, and are known to suit this climate, and to be of excellent quality. Most of them, and possibly all, can be had at the nurseries of Ward and Brothers, London, Ten- nessee, or at Bird and Dew's, Knoxville. Both firms are reliable. CHAP, iv.] COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. 149 World's Wonder, Nickojack, Tennessee Eed, Stinson, Golden Eed, Fallawater, Volunteer or Peerie, Winesap, Golden Russett, Shockley, Grime's Golden, Berry Eed, Striped Pairmain, Mountain Sprout, Pumpkin Limber Twigg, Early Strawberry, Early Harvest, Muskmellon, England's Seedling, Gravenstein, Peck's Pleasant, Northern Spry, Stine. Do not purchase winter apple-trees in the north, or the result will be fall fruit. One other item ; the character of the same apple is greatly changed for the better if planted on the mountain. The Limber Twig for instance, which on the mountain is an excellent rosy -cheeked apple, is a green tough apple when planted in the valley. Pears. The pear, like the apple, does not do well in a hot climate. But few are raised in the southern states. The supply is brought from the north and from Cali- fornia. They are sold by retail at from five to ten cents each. On the Cumberland lands pears will do well if planted in deep, good soil, and especially if planted on the north side or on the top of the hills. The market will always be unlimited in the south, especially for good winter pears. Winter varieties and standard trees are recom- mended. Dwarf trees might be planted between the rows of standards, and thus economise space. The dwarfs will be nearly worn out by the time the standards are in full bearing. If the dwarfs are planted four inches below the point of union with the quince-stock, it will often become a standard by throwing out lateral roots. 150 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART m. The following varieties were selected from one hundred specimens of fruit from Ellwanger and Bang's, Rochester, N.Y., and are known from trial to be of first quality, and to do well in this climate : namely, Bartlett, Buffin, Kirtland Seckel, Jalonisa d'Fonteney, Duchess d'Anguleme (splendid), Louise Bonne de Jersey, Vicar of Wakefield (excellent for winter), Ho well, Belle Lucrative, Beurre de Aangore, Seckel, Tyson, Sheldon, Beurre Bosc, Beurre Gifl'ord (very early), Bellflowet, Beurre Diel, Clairgeau, Clapp's Favourite, Swan's Orange. Of these the Duchesse, Vicar of Wakefield, Belle Lucrative, Howell, Sheldon, Beurre Bosc, Beurre Gifford, Clapp's Favourite, and Swan's Orange are unsurpassed. Most of the above list are summer and fall pears. It is believed that quinces, cherries, plums, and nectarines will all do well at Eugby. Grapes. Grapes, when planted in deep soil, where the rock does not approach too near the surface, unquestionably will do well on the table-land. The porosity of the soil in many places, and the absence of a heavy clay subsoil, secure for the roots of the vine, a dry, healthy bed, and thus prevent rot and mildew, the great enemy of the grape vine in heavy clay soils. Grapes require a rich, deep, loose, porous soil. Such places may be found at intervals on the plateau. It is in vain to expect a heavy crop of grapes on poor soil. The vine will be unthrifty, and the crop from it light. Fertilise well with wood ashes., well rotted manure, bone dust, or ground bone, or something of the kind, or one need not expect healthy vigorous vines, and good crops on CHAP, iv.] COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. 151 poor land. Without these, one may as well expect a heavy crop of corn on poor land. If grapes are raised for market, Cincinnati will be the best point for the early, and the southern cities for the late. At Chattanooga and Knoxville, the season being early and hot, the latest grapes are generally ripe and exhausted by the 20th, or at least by the last of September. There is always a demand for more after the home supply is exhausted. This is supplied by grapes from Lake Erie. The season at Eugby, owing to its elevated situa- tion, is ten or fifteen days later than in the valley south of it. The result will be that late grapes at Eugby will just be maturing as they are disappearing at Chattanooga and Knoxville. If a good grape can be found, which will mature in October, and if it can be preserved in a good state until November or December, there will always be a demand for such a grape in the southern cities. The following varieties are recommended after trial Early, Eumelan (ex- cellent and certain), Medium, Concord, and Ives Seed- ling ; Late, Catawba (for wine), Concord, Norton's Virginia, and Ives Seedling. It may be well to add that the grapes grown on the Cumberland plateau have a thicker skin than those grown in the valley, and will bear transportation much better. They will also keep longer in a sweet condition. Strawberries. Strawberries will mature- ten days later at Rugby than at Knoxville and Chattanooga. They will no doubt mature there a few days before they will at ir>2 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PARTIH. Cincinnati. If so, that will be the place for early marketing. For the late crop, the cities south of Bugby. The last strawberries, if good, always sell high and readily. People never grow tired of them if good. Splendid strawberries can be raised at Bugby. The sandy soil and climate both suit them. They need and require rich food, such as a heavy coat of stable manure, wood ashes, ground bone, plaster, phosphates, etc. The ground cannot be made too rich for them. The following varieties have all been fully tested, and are recommended : Early, Metcalf's early, Downer's Prolific, Barne's Mammoth, Monarch of the "West (the last of huge size). Main crop, Charles Downing, Boyden's No. 30, Agriculturist, Jucunda, and Monarch of the West. Late, Kentucky. Baspbewies. These will do well on the table-lands. All the red varieties are natives of a cold climate. They are the most productive and delicate in taste. They require very rich and deep soil.- After the trial of many varieties, the writer recommends the Hudson Eiver Antwerp as the hardiest and best variety. It is per- fectly hardy in this climate, standing both heat and cold better than any other. A later kind, if one could be found, would be very valuable for a late crop. Peaches. That there have been peaches of the best quality grown on the mountain cannot be denied by any one who has witnessed the shipments made by Mr. H. JST. Caldwell to Nashville a few years ago. The difficulty CHAP. IT.] COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. 153 in raising this fruit comes from the untimely frosts in spring, frequently destroying, or partially destroying two crops in three. A place selected on a northern slope, and a mulching of straw put about the trees when the ground is frozen, will retard inflorescence be- yond the period of frosts. By taking this trouble a fine crop of peaches may possibly be grown every year. The writer has often seen peaches three inches in diameter grown on the mountain, and of a lusciousness and juciness unsurpassed by those grown in any coun- try. Seedlings bear oftener than budded fruit. Trees have been known to bear in favourable localities for forty years in succession. One such tree now stands on the mountain above Sherwood, in Franklin county. Careful attention may avert many evils to which the peach tree is subjected. Cattle Eaising. Cattle raising has always been profitable on the Cumberland plateau. The wild grass which grows so luxuriantly everywhere is sufficient from April till the latter part of November. The Cumberland plateau is a natural pasture. But hay, grass, and roots, such as turnips, vegetables, etc., must be provided for winter. Orchard grass is perhaps the best winter as well as the best summer grass for pasture in this climate. It re- quires, to do well, rich soil. The north hill-sides, where the soil is richest, will be the best place for it. This grass never runs or dies out if there is a reasonable amount of nourishment in the soil. Cattle are very fond of it. It makes excellent hay also. A good supply of rough food for cattle can always be had from millet, pea vines, timothy, clover, or red 154 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PARTIIJ. top. The new system of saving green food for stock, termed ensilage, can be most profitably adopted. For the method of saving and curing green food under this system, refer to the report of Professor J. M. M' Bride, of the University of Tennessee, at Knoxville. Apply to him for said report. In the low places described as glades often grows a rough grass (Panicum crusgalli), known as bear grass, which supplies a great deal of food to cattle. Beggars' lice (Lynoglossum Morisoni} abounds on the mountain, and furnishes a very nutritious food to cattle. In fact they grow fat upon it. Sheep Raising. It has always been asserted and believed that sheep raising can be as cheaply done on the Cumberland plateau as in any part of the United States, possibly excepting Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico. In the northern states, where the winters are much longer and more severe, sheep raising is very profitable. Why should it not be so here, with unlimited natural pas- turage so many months in the year? and it is said, but the writer is not certain of the fact, that good spring lambs are worth about five dollars each in Cincinnati. Certainly every farmer can add largely to his income by having a flock of the best varieties of sheep for wool and mutton, and a ready market can always be had in Cincinnati. Care must be taken, however, to have them sheltered during the stormy weather of winter. Pea haulm or clover hay should also be provided for them. During the summer months they can live upon the wild grasses and do well, but these grasses must not be relied upon to keep them through the winter. CHAP, iv.l COLONEL KILLEBEEW'S REPORT. 155 Tobacco. Unquestionably a very fine manufacturing leaf may be grown upon the mountain. It has frequently been done. If the White Burley, cured without fire, were planted and well cured, it would form the basis for extensive plug manufacturing upon the mountain. There is no more profitable employment in the United States than the manufacture of a type of tobacco suit- able for American consumption. In addition to this variety, seed leaf for wrappers and Cuba for fillers could be very profitably grown and worked up into cigars. The most thriving farming communities in America are those in which tobacco is grown for con- sumption in America. The great mistake made in many southern states is that the farmers have grown tobacco for exportation, and neglected their best cus- tomers at home. No crop in proportion to value is more easily grown. Pea-Nuts, or the Ground Pea. The Pea-nut is gradually extending its limits of culture. It is also becoming more and more popular, not only for eating, but for making oil. It likes a loose, friable, partially sandy or gravelly soil, and in colour partakes of the hue of the soil in which it is planted. From forty to sixty bushels per acre may be grown upon the best soils of the table-land, and, as one man can take care of eight acres, the raising of the crop will be fairly remunerative. The price fluctuates very much, sometimes being as high as one dollar per bushel, and then falling to sixty cents. Cincinnati is the great market for the pea -nut, and the colonists 156 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART in. would always find a ready sale for this product. There are two varieties grown the white and the red. The former is planted in hills three feet apart, the latter in drills the same distance. Level culture is best for this crop. Lima Beans and Navy Beans. Lima beans and navy beans can be grown with great success on the mountain. The yield can be made to reach from one hundred to one hundred and 1 fifty bushels per acre, and with high culture and a good season the yield can be made two hundred bushels. The cultivation of these will be found as remunerative as any crop that can be planted. Corn-field peas will also pay well. When boiled or ground into meal they are excellent for stock. No food will cause cows to give richer milk than pea meaL It should be mixed with corn meal or wheat bran. Manufactures. There is no good reason why certain kinds of manu- factures should not be successful at Rugby, or near it, on the Cincinnati Southern Railroad ; such, for example, as iron furnaces, tanneries, furniture, boots and shoes, waggon and carriage factories; and factories for making spokes, hubs, handles, and many others of a similar character. As for iron, it is a well-known fact that pig-iron can be manufactured in portions of Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama, at a cost from $5 to $7 per ton less than at Pittsburg, or Hanging Rock, Ohio. This is owing to the close juxtaposition of coal, iron ore, and limestone, and the cheapness of labour and provisions, but chiefly CHAP, tv.] COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. 157 the former. A margin of profit of $5 a ton will pay a remarkable dividend. Coal of the best quality is found on the Cumberland Plateau, and iron ore and limestone in the lower valleys. Tanneries also ought to yield a good profit. The Cumberland Plateau abounds in Chestnut Oak, the bark of which is in great demand in tanning. This bark is now being shipped to Cincinnati. If it will pay to ship the bark a long distance, it ought to pay much better to bring the lighter article (the hides) to the pfece where the bark can be found. Labour, rents, and provisions, would be cheaper at Rugby than in a large city. It seems that no point would be better for a steam tannery than this. Factories for making furniture, especially the cheap furniture, such as is made out of poplar, walnut, and pine, should also pay well, if economically and skilfully managed. These woods everywhere abound on the plateau. Vast quantities of walnut are daily shipped from there to New York and Boston, much of which returns in the shape of fine furniture. In the southern states, among the coloured race, there is a constant demand for cheap furniture, such as tables, bedsteads, etc. Fine furniture is also in demand. Most of this is at present manufactured in New York and Cincinnati, much of it out of Tennessee walnut, and transported to the south at a heavy cost, and sold at a high profit. This double cost of transportation would afford a wide margin of profit, to say nothing of any- thing else. As for all articles made out of white oak and hickory, such as waggons, carriages, spokes, hubs, handles, etc. etc., it seems that some point on the 158 BOARD OF AID TO LAND OWNERSHIP. [PART in plateau would combine every element for their suc- cessful manufacture. The forests are full of the \c\-\ best white oak and hickory. They grow all along the railroad. A lumber dealer from the city of New York recently remarked that the white oak timber of East Tennessee was the best in the world. Hence lumber dealers and manufacturers from a distance are seeking for it, as they are for our walnut. We have thus attempted to give some idea of the capability and adaptation of the soil of Rugby to the different kinds of crops, grasses, and fruits ; to point out the most profitable pursuits ; the best mode of culture; and to call attention to the facilities which exist for profitable manufacturing enterprises. We admit the imperfectness of our attempt. But we be- lieve there has been no overcolouring, and certainly no intentional misrepresentation. We hope that our work may in some degree serve to keep those who are un- familiar with the climate, soil, and products of the plateau, from falling into great errors and mistakes. We are sure that those who follow our advice will not be so likely to do so. We venture one other suggestion. Let those who intend farming, in the larger sense of the term, as well as those who intend to follow market gardening or fruit raising, not risk all on one crop or article, but let them diversify their products, so that if one fails others may succeed. Colonists should not be discouraged by the opinions of the farmers of the south, for the reason that the latter have yet to learn the value of manures. Accus- tomed through generations to work nothing else but virgin soils which require no adventitious aid, they CHAP, iv.] COLONEL KILLEBREW'S REPORT. 159 cannot understand how the thin soils of the Cumber- land plateau can ever be profitably cultivated. But if one such farmer should visit the sand blows of Connecticut where, by the application of ten cords of manure, a profit of $300 per acre is often realised, he could begin to understand that even poverty of soil may be overcome by care and labour. And the history of agriculture in America demonstrates the fact that rich soils alone are no guarantee of future growth and prosperity. Oftentimes the very fertility of the soil breaks up those habits of systematic industry which lie at the very foundation of all permanent progress. That the Cumberland plateau, from its salubrity, its accessibility to markets, its adaptability to fruits and vegetables, its wealth of coal and timber, will in time become a populous region, there can be no doubt. It should always be remembered, however, that patient labour, guided by skill and intelligence, is positively necessary to make agriculture profitable. With these, the prediction of Andrew Jackson may be verified that it will become the Garden of Ten- nessee.

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