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DAVID LIVINGSTONE. THE LIFE OF V DAVID LIVINGSTONE By THOMAS HUGHES Author of "TOM BROWN'S SCHOOL DAYS," "TOM BROWN AT OXFORD," "LIFE OF ALFRED THE GREAT," etc., etc. n< v< \C >< >« WITH AN INTRODUCTION By G. mercer ADAM A. L. BURT COMPANY, ^ ^ J' ^ ^ ^ ^ PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK Copyright, 1903, By E. a. BRAINERD, 1 CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PAGE Boyhood Days and Eably Life 1 GHAPTER II. Stabt in Afbica— Kueuman 17 CHAPTER III. KoLOBENG — Lake Ngami — The Zambesi 37 CHAPTER IV. LnnrANTi and the Makololo 65 GHAPTER V. LiNYANTI TO LOANDA 83 CHAPTER VI. ACBOSS AFEICA — LOANDA TO QuiLEMANE. . .e 99 CHAPTER VII. Home 124 iii iv CONTENTS. CHAPTER VIII. PAGE. The Zambesi Expedition — To Linyanti and Back 135 CHAPTER IX. The Universities Mission 157 CHAPTER X. Recall — ^Voyage to India 167 CHAPTER XI. Second Visit Home t... 178 CHAPTER XII. Lakes Moeeo, Banqweolo, and Tanganyika.... 186 CHAPTER XIII. Stanley 218 CHAPTER XIV. To Unyanyembe with Stanley 233 CHAPTER XV. Waiting at Unyanyembe 248 CONTENTS. ▼ CHAPTER XVI. FAQE. The Last Advance — Death 263 GHAPTER XVII. Conclusion ' 283 Appendix •••• •••••• •••••• ••• •.••.«• 305 INTRODUCTORY NOTE. African development has made great strides since the pathetic, lonely death of the ^immortal Livingstone, in the little hut at Ilala, near Lake Bangweola, in the early summer of 1873. Much, nevertheless, is due to the intrepid missionary trav- eller for his long and unwearied labors in Central Africa and his years of patient exile, not only in carrying the Cross into the heart of Africa and in seeking to heal " the open sore of the world " in connection with the slave trade, but in pursuing so indomitably his geographical discoveries in the region, amid perils, fatigues, and privations and the pros- trating weariness of African fevers. Aside from his missionary labors, commerce and civilization owe him much for first grappling successfully with the geographical problems of the watershed of Central Africa and the sources of the Nile, and opening up to human ken well nigh a million square miles of land and lake region in the depths of the once Dark Continent. To-day if we know more clearly about the great mid-African Lakes and their watershed, and indeed about the whole vast region lying be- tween the Zambesi northward even beyond Uganda and the Albert Nyanza, it is to the early minute V Vi INTRODtJCTORY NOTE. researches of Livingstone and his toilful career as an explorer, supplemented by the investigations on the spot of Stanley, his succorer at Ujiji in 1872, when the lonely old man was lost to the ken of white men, an interesting account of which we have in the present volume from the appreciative pen of Judge Hughes. The story the delightful author of " Toui Brown's School Days " gives us of Living- stone is fascinating in its narration, as it is captivat- ing in its admirable record of the chief incidents in the dear old missionary's life of devotion and self- sacrifice in his successive visits to and prolonged work in Central Africa. With much love for his subject and the heartiest sympathy with the man and his career, Mr. Hughes quietly but tellingly relates the whole story of Livingstone's life and work, and gives many charming glimpses of the missionary and his character and the qualities which have won for him fame and endeared him to the world and his time. Nor could there well be a more attractive or inspir- ing theme than that of the long-time and faithful worker in the dreary wastes of an almost unknown Continent, spending and being spent in the service of his teacher, and doing much for civilization and the opening up of the country by a life of unceasing toil and unflagging energy until he fell exhausted at his post, committing himself and his work to the Lord. Here is narrated the entire story of his varied travels, and his humane work among the natives, with all the lucidly presented record of his discoveries and explorations that won fo^ him the plaudits of INTRODUCTORY NOTE. vii scientists and the honors and other gratifying recog- nitions of universities, important public bodies, and geographical societies. Judge Hughes tells the story to its enthralling close, with the death of the noble old man in his lonely hut in Africa, and the bringing, by faithful attendants, of his remains to the coast, for transportation to England and a tomb in Westminster Abbey. The biographer elucidates the story by the insertion throughout the text of many explanatory notes and other thoughtful, well- 'jnformed comments. G. Mercer Adam. Then let us pray that come it may— As come it will for a' that — When man to man, the warld o'er, Shall brothers be for a' that." — BuRNa THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE CHAPTER I. BOYHOOD DAYS AND EARLY LIFE. 1813-40. "My own inclination would lead me to say as little as possible about myself." With these words the greatest explorer of modern times begins that ac- count of his missionary journeys and researches in South Africa which electrified England. The eager desire of his countrymen to know all they could about himself, induced him to modify his own in- clination so far as to devote six pages of his famous book to the history of his family, and of the early years of his own life up to the time of his sailing for the Cape at the age of twenty-three. This reticence is as characteristic of the man as are the few facts he does disclose. Foremost of these stands : "My great-grandfather fell at the battle of Culloden, fighting for the old line of kings, and my grand- 2 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. father was a small farmer in Ulva, where my father was born." Next comes: "The only point of the family tradition I feel proud of is this — one of these poor islanders, when he was on his deathbed, called his children round him and said, *I have searched diligently through all the traditions of our family, and I never could find that there was a dishonest man amongst our forefathers. If, therefore, any of you should take to dishonest ways, it will not be because it runs in our blood. I leave this precept with you. Be honest.' " Since the days of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, it would be hard to find a more striking example of faithfulness to the ''family motto" than David's life furnishes. A more perfect example of a downright simply honest life, whether in contact with queens or slave-boys, one may safely say, is not on record on our planet. Happily, in this instance, it is not diffi- cult to supplement the meagre outline sketched by the man himself, from his own letters, and the remi- niscences of playmates and school-fellows,* *"Mother told me stories of her youth : they seem to come back to her in her eighty-second year very vividly. Her grandfather, Gavin Hunter, could write, while most common people were ignorant of the art. A poor woman got him to write a petition to the minister of Shotts parish to augment her monthly allowance of sixpence, as she could not live on it. He was taken to Hamilton jail for this, and having a wife and three children at home, who without him would certainly starve, he thought of David's feigning madness before the Philistines, and beslabbered his beard with saliva. All who BOYHOOD DAYS AND EARLY UFE. 3 The son of the Culloden soldier, David's grand- father, finding the small farm in Ulva insufficient for the support of his large family, crossed into Lanark in 1792, and obtained a position of trust in the mills of H. Monteith & Co., at Blantyre, on the Clyde, above Glasgow. The French wars drew away all the sons but Neil into the army or navy. Neil, after serving an apprenticeship to David Hunter, tailor, and marrying his master's daughter, Agnes, in 18 10, made a small business for himself as a travelling tea-merchant. David Hunter was a great reader, especially of religious books, of which he had a small library, amongst them the works of the Rev. J. Campbell, South African missionary, "Travels Among the Hottentots," etc. These took a strong hold on his son-in-law Neil Livingstone, and in turn on his were found guilty were sent to the army in America, or the plantations. A sergeant had compassion on him, and said, 'Tell me, gudeman, if you are really out of your mind. I'll befriend you.' He confessed that he only feigned insanity, because he had a wife and three bairns at home who would starve if he were sent to the army. *Dinna say onything mair to ony body,' said the kind-hearted sergeant. He then said to the commanding officer, 'They have given us a man clean out of his mind: I can do nothing with the like o' him.' The officer went to him and gave him three shillings, saying, 'Tak' that, gudeman, and gang awa' hame to your wife and weans.' 'Ay,' said mother, 'mony a prayer went up for that sergeant, for my grandfather was an unco godly man. He had never had so much money in his life before, for his wages were only threepence a day.' " 4 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. grandson David, our hero, Neil's second son, a boy of remarkable powers, physical and intellectual. He was born on March 19, 1813, and before the age of ten had wandered over all the Clyde banks about Blantyre, and had begun to collect and wonder at flowers and shells. He had also gained the prize for repeating the whole 119th Psalm 'Vith only five hitches" ! But, hard as he was in body and mind, he had a soft heart. He was watchful to lighten his mother's work when he could, generally sweeping and cleaning for her, "even under the door-mat," as she gratefully recorded, with the thoroughness which never left him. Happily for us all, no char- acter is without its weak side, and even David would say, "Mother, if you'll bar the door, I'll scrub the floor for you," a concession this to the male preju- dices of Blantyre which he would not have made in later life. In another direction also a satisfactory gleam of human weakness is recorded, in that Davie not only climbed to a higher point in the ruins of Bothwell Castle than any other boy, but carved his name up there. At ten the boy went into the cotton-mills as a piecer, from which time he maintained himself, and found money for books such as only Scotch peasants are in the habit of buying voluntarily. Out of his first week's wages he bought Ruddiman's "Rudi- ments," and from that time pursued the study of BOYHOOD DAYS AND EARLY LIFE. 5 Latin with his usual steadfastness. His factory work began at six a. m. and lasted till eight p. m.^ when Davie went to his Latin, as soon as he had had his tea, until ten with the schoolmaster provided for the work-people by their employers, and afterward at home till midnight, or until his mother put out his candle.* But though he thus became able to read his Virgil and Horace easily before he was sixteen, his chief delight was in science. He managed to scour the country for the simples mentioned in the first medical treatise he became possessed of, Cul- pepper's "Herbal," "that extraordinary old work on astrological medicine." "I got as deep into that abyss of fantasies," he records, "as my author said he dared to lead me." It seemed perilous ground to tread on further, indeed the dark hint of selling soul and body to the devil loomed up before Davie's youthful mind. On one of his exploring rambles, in company with two brothers, one now in Canada and the other a clergyman in the United States — "from which we generally returned so hungry and tired that the embryo parson often shed tears" — ^they came on a limestone quarry. "It is impossible to *His parents were poor, and at the age of ten he was put to work in the factory as a piecer, that his earnings might aid his mother in the struggle with the wolf which had followed the family from the island that bore its name. After serving a number of years as a piecer he was promoted to be a spinner. Greatly to his mother's delight, the first half crown he ever earned was laid by him in her lap. 6 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. describe the wonder with which I began to collect the shells in the carboniferous limestone. A quarry- man watched me with the pitying eye which the benevolent assume when viewing the insane. 'How- ever/ said I, 'did those shells come into those rocks?' 'When God made the rocks He made the shells in them/ was the damping reply/' Without going more deeply into astronomical botany or other cabalistic lore than became a young Highlander whose father had left the Established Church and become deacon of an Independent Chapel, Davie managed in his Saturday half-holi- days, and the rare occasions when a flood of the Clyde stopped the mills — an occurrence which, in spite of his thrift, he could not help rejoicing in — to make notable collections of the flora of Lanarkshire, and the fossils of the carboniferous limestone, while devouring his classics^ and all the poets he was allowed to read. One can only regret that Deacon Neil's principles forbade novels, so that his great son never read the Waverley series till many years later. "My reading in the factory/' Livingston says, "was carried on by placing the book on a portion of the spinning jenny, so that I could catch sentence after sentence as I passed at my work. I thus kept a pretty constant study, undisturbed by the roar of machinery. To this I owe the power of completely abstracting my mind, so as to read and write with BOYHOOD DAYS AND EARLY LIFE. 7 perfect comfort amidst the play of children or the dancing and song of savages."* It must not be inferred, however, that Davie was a mere precocious bookworm, and averse to such sport as could be had. On the contrary, he delighted in rough play, ducking his comrades in fun as he swam past them in the Clyde, in whose waters he was a skillful fisher. In those early days the trout, and all other fish but salmon, were unpreserved. One day Davie caught a fine salmon. Luckily, brother Charlie wore on that day a large pair of the family trousers, in a leg of which the "muckle fush" was smuggled home. The deacon forgave them, after stern monition to take no more salmon — and the family ate this one for supper. At the age of nineteen he was promoted to be a spinner. The work was very severe, but so much better paid that he could now earn enough in the rest of the year to enable him to attend the Medical and Greek Classes in the winter, and Divinity Lectures in the summer, at Glasgow University. "Looking back now at that period of toil," he writes in 1874, *The thirst for reading so early shown was greatly stimu- lated by his father's example. Neil Livingstone, while fond of the old Scottish theology, was deeply interested in the enterprise of the nineteenth century, or, as he called it, "the progress of the world," and endeavored to interest his family in it, too. Any books of travel, and especially of missionary enterprise, that he could lay his hands on, he eagerly read. Some publications of the Tract Society, called the Weekly 8 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. "I cannot but feel thankful that it formed such a ma- terial part of my early education, and were I to begin life over again, I should like to pass through the same hardy training." This simple and honest pride in poverty was strong in him. "My own order, the honest poor," were familiar words with him; and, when asked to change "and" for "but" in the last line of the epitaph which he put over his parents' grave in Hamilton Cemetery, pointedly refused. It ran: To SHOW THE RESTING-PLACE OF Neil Livingstone AND Agnes Hunter, his wife, and to express the thankfulness to god of their children John, David, Janet, Charles, and Agnes, for poor and pious parents. So David Livingstone grew up in his relations with the visible world of which he became so earnest and profound a student. But, after all, this is but Visitor, the Child's Companion and Teacher's Offering, were taken in, and were much enjoyed by his son David, especially the papers of '*01d Humphrey." Novels were not admitted into the house, in accordance with the feeling prevalent in religious circles. Neil Livingstone had also a fear of books of science, deeming them unfriendly to Christianity; his son instinctively repudiated that feeling, though it was some time before the works of Thomas Dick, of B rough ty- Ferry, en- abled him to see clearly, what to him was of vital significance, that religion and science were not necessarily hostile, but rather friendly to each other. BOYHOOD DAYS AND EARLY LIFE. 9 the husk of men's lives, and we must turn to the kernel — that which must hold converse of some kind with the invisible, whether we like it or not — ^before we can form a clear picture of any boy or man for ourselves. ''Great pains had been taken by my parents," he writes, "to instil the doctrines of Chris- tianity into my mind, and I had no difficulty in understanding the theory of free salvation by the atonement of our Saviour." This being so, the boy, though obedient, as a rule, to his father, and even trudging with pleasure the three miles to chapel with him on Sundays, resolutely preferred books of travel and science to 'The Cloud of Witnesses," or "The Fourfold State," which the deacon desired him to study instead of the dangerous literature to which he was given. "My difference of opinion reached the point of open rebellion, and his last application of the rod was when I refused to read Wilberforce's 'Practical Christianity.' " This dislike of religious reading continued for years, but "having lighted on those admirable works of Dr. Thomas Dick, 'The Philosophy of Religion' and 'The Philosophy of a Future State,' it was gratifying to find that he had enforced my own conviction that religion and sci- ence were friendly to one another." Neither he nor any of his biographers give the date of this conver- sion, as it proved to be. It would seem, however, to have been connected, if it did not coincide, with the establishment by Deacon Neil of a missionary soci- 10 TH£ LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. ety in their village. By this means David became acquainted with the history of Moravian missions, and the lives of Henry Martyn and other devoted men, amongst which that of Charles Gutzlaff, the medical missionary to China, impressed him most strongly.* He had already resolved to give to the cause of missions all he might earn beyond what was necessary for his subsistence, when an appeal by Gutzlaff to the Churches of Britain and America for *There can be no doubt that David Livingstone's heart was very thoroughly penetrated by the new life that now flowed into it. He did not merely apprehend the truth — the truth laid hold of him. The divine blessing flowed into him as it flowed into the heart of St. Paul, St. Augustine, and others of that type, subduing all earthly desires and wishes. What he says in his book about the freeness of God's grace draw- ing forth feelings of affectionate love to Him who bought him with His blood, and the sense of deep obligation to Him for His mercy, that had influenced, in some small measure, his conduct ever since, is from him most significant. Accus- tomed to suppress all spiritual emotion in his public writings, he would not have used these words if they had not been very real. They give us the secret of his life. Acts of self- denial that are very hard to do under the iron law of con^ ^sciei lce, b)ecofne~ a wiiring service under the glow of divine love. Itwas the^glow of divine love as well as the power of consc ience thaTlrioved Livmgstone. Though' Ke seldom ~fe^ vealed his inner feelings, and hardly ever in the language of ecstasy, it is plain that he was moved by a calm but mighty inward power to the very end of his life. The love that began to stir his heart in his father's house continued to move him all through his dreary African journeys, and was still in full play on that lonely midnight when he knelt at his bedside in the hut in Ilala, and his spirit returned to his God and Saviour. BOYHOOD DAYS AND EARLY LIFE. H aid in China, determined him to devote, not his sur- plus earnings, but his own Hfe to this work, and "from this time my efforts were constantly devoted toward this object without any fluctuation." At first he resolved to accomplish his object of going as a medical missionary to China by his own efforts, but, by the advice of friends, he joined himself to the London Missionary Society, whose object — ''to send neither Episcopacy, nor Presbyterianism, nor Inde- pendency, but the Gospel of Christ to the heathen — exactly agreed with my ideas. But I had never received a farthing from any one, and it was not without a pang that I offered myself, for it was not agreeable for one accustomed to work his own way to become in a measure dependent on others." His application was accepted, and he was summoned to London. On September i, 1838, he reached London, to be examined by the Mission Board, and at the Alders- gate Street office met Joseph Moore, the Tahiti mis- sionary, who had come from the West of England on the same errand. They became close friends at once, and nine years later Livingstone wrote : ''Of all those I have met since we parted, I have seen no one I can compare to you for true, hearty friend- ship." Both young men were in London for the first time. On their first Sunday they worshipped in St. Paul's; and on the Monday passed their ex- amination, and were accepted as probationers. On 12 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. the Tuesday they began sight-seeing, and went first to Westminster Abbey. Livingstone was never known to enter it again ahve, but on April i8, 1874, his bones were laid there in the central nave, in the presence of a mourning nation, and of the faithful servants who had carried them from Lake Bang- weolo, through forest and swamp, and hostile and superstitious tribes.* After their provisional acceptance Livingstone and Moore were sent to Mr. Cecil's, at Chipping Ongar, in Essex, on a three months' probation. There part of their work was to prepare sermons, which, after correction by their tutor, were learnt by heart and delivered to the village congregation. One Sunday Livingstone was sent over to preach at Stanford for a minister who was ill. "He took his text," Mr. Moore reports, "read it out very delib- \ erately, and then — then — his sermon had fled. J Midnight darkness came upon him, and he abruptly *Joseph Moore writes: "On Monday we passed our first examination. On Tuesday we went to Westminster Abbey. Who that had seen those two young men passing from monu- ment to monument could have divined that one of them would one day be buried with a nation's — rather with the civilized world's — lament, in that sacred shrine? The wildest fancy could not have pictured that such an honor awaited David Livingstone. I grew daily more attached to him. If I were asked why, I should be rather at a loss to reply. There was truly an indescribable charm about him, which, with all his rather ungainly ways, and by no means winning face, attracted almost every one, and which helped him so much in his after- wanderings in Africa." BOYHOOD DAYS AND EARLY LIFE. 13 said, 'Friends, I have forgotten all I had to say,' and/}v hurrying out of the pulpit, left the chapel."* Tutor Cecil, owing to Livingstone's break-down in preaching and his hesitation in conducting family prayers, sent a report to the board which had nearly ended his connection with the London Missionary j Society, but an extension of his probation wasX? *Joseph Moore writes : "Livingstone and I lodged together. We read Latin and Greek, and began Hebrew together. Every day we took walks, and visited all the spots of interest in the neighborhood, among them the country churchyard which was the burial-place of John Locke, In a place so quiet, and a life so ordinary as that of a student, there did not occur many events worthy of recital. I will, however, mention one or two things, because they give an insight — a kind of prophetic glance — into Livingstone's after-career. "One foggy November morning, at three o'clock, he set out from Ongar to walk to London to see a relative of his father's. It was about twenty-seven miles to the house he sought. After spending a few hours with his relation, he set out to return on foot to Ongar. Just out of London, near Edmonton, a lady had been thrown out of a gig. She lay stunned on the road. Livingstone immediately went to her, helped to carry her into a house close by, and having examined her and found no bones broken, and recommending a doctor to be called, he resumed his weary tramp. Weary and footsore, when he reached Stanford Rivers he missed his way, and finding after somej time that he was wrong, he felt so dead-beat that he was' inclined to lie down and sleep ; but finding a directing-post he climbed it, and by the light of the stars deciphered enough to know his whereabouts. About twelve that Saturday night he reached Ongar, white as a sheet, and so tired he could hardly utter a word. I gave him a basin of bread and milk, and I am not exaggerating when I say I put him to bed. He fell at once asleep, and did not awake till noonday had passed on Sunday." t 14 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. granted, and at the end of another two months he was fully accepted. He now went to London to walk the hospitals, while his friend was sent to Cheshunt College. From thence Moore wrote to him to get him a second-hand carpet for his room. But David was quite scandalized at such effeminacy, and "positively refused to gratify my wish." He continued his medical studies till November, 1840, when, on the eve of his ordination, he ran down to Glasgow to obtain his diploma. Here again there had nearly been a miscarriage. His own ac- count of it runs : "Having finished the medical cur- riculum, and presented a thesis which required the use of the stethoscope for its diagnosis, I unwit- tingly procured myself an examination rather more severe than usual in consequence of a difference of opinion between me and the examiners as to whether the instrument could do what was asserted. How- ever, I was admitted a Licentiate of Faculty of Phy- sicians and Surgeons, and it was with unfeigned delight I became a member of a profession which with unwearied energy pursues from age to age its endeavors to lessen human woe." This was on November i6th, on the evening of which day he went home. There David proposed to sit up all night, as he had to leave for London in the early morning, but this his mother would not hear of. He and his father talked till midnight of the pros- pects of Christian missions. The family were up to BOYHOOD DAYS AND EARLY LIFE. 15 breakfast at five. "Mother made coffee/' his sister writes; "David read the 121st and 135th Psalms, and prayed. My father and he walked to Glasgow to catch the Liverpool steamer." On the "Broomie- ' law" father and son parted, and never met again. After that first parting David never was in native Blantyre again except for a few hours, but the mem- ory of his first home lingered lovingly in his mind, as it does in that of all true men. "Time and travel," he wrote thirty years later, "have not effaced the feelings of respect I imbibed for the inhabitants of my native village." Two of these he has immor- talized. "David Hogg, who addressed me on his deathbed with the words, 'Now, lad, ma ke relig ion the every-day business of yqurJife^a_ndjiot^ a thing o^f fits and starts ; for if you don't^ temptations and[ "other things~wi]Tget the better of you,' and Thomas Burke, an" old Forty-second Peninsular soldier, who has been incessant and never wearying in good works for about forty years. . . . The villagers furnished a proof that education did not render them an unsafe portion of the population. They much respected those of the neighboring gentry, who, like the late Lord Douglas, placed some confidence in their sense of honor. Through his kindness, the poorest amongst us could stroll at pleasure over the ancient domains of Bothwell, and other spots hal- lowed by venerable associations ; and few of us could view these dear memorials of the past without feel- 16 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. ing that these monuments were our own. The mass of the working people of Scotland have read history, and are no levellers. They rejoice in the memories of Wallace and Bruce, 'and a' the lave.' W^hile foreigners imagine we want the spirit to overturn aristocracy, we in truth hate those stupid revolutions which sweep away time-honored institutions, dear alike to rich and poor." On November 20th he was ordained a missionary in London, and on December 8, 1840, sailed for Algoa Bay on board the "George," Captain Don- aldson.* *It is no wonder that all his life Livingstone had a very strong faith in Providence, for at every turn of his career up to this point, some unlooked-for circumstance had come in to give a new direction to his history. First, his reading Dick's "Philosophy of a Future State," which led him to Christ, but did not lead him away from science; then his falling in with Gutzlaff's "Appeal," which induced him to became a medical missionary; the Opium War, which closed China against him; the friendly word of the Director who procured for him another trial; Mr. Moffat's visit, which deepened his interest in Africa; and finally, the issue of a dangerous illness that attacked him in London — all indicated the unseen hand that was preparing him for his great work. CHAPTER 11. START IN AFRICA — KURUMAN. 1840-43. Up to the eve of his ordination Livingstone was bent on going to China. The opium-war was still dragging on, but this would not have deterred so resolute a man had not a new and most powerful influence been brought to bear on him at this crisis. One evening Dr. Moffat, the Nestor of African Mis- sions, who was in England on a visit, called at Mrs. Sewell's in Aldersgate Street, where Livingstone and other young missionaries boarded. The younger man was at once deeply interested and attracted, at- tended all Dr. Moffat's public meetings, and ended by asking whether the Doctor thought he might do for Africa. "Yes," was the reply; "if you won't go to an old station, but push on to the vast unoccupied district to the north, where on a clear morning I have seen the smoke of a thousand villages, and no missionary has ever been." It was with this counsel in his mind that David embarked on the "George" sailing packet for Algoa Bay on December 8, 1840.* *The meeting of Livingstone with Moffat is far too impor- tant an event to be passed over without remark. Both 17 18 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. The voyage of five months was unsatisfactory to the ardent young missionary. The captain indeed ''rigged out the ship for church on Sundays," but no good came of it that Livingstone could see ; and he wrote sorrowfully in his first dispatch to his direc- directly and indirectly, Mr. Moffat's influence on his young brother, afterward to become his son-in-law, was remarkable. In after-life they had a thorough appreciation of each other. No family on the face of the globe could have been so helpful to Livingstone in connection with the great work to which he gave himself. If the old Roman fashion of surnames still prevailed, there is no household of which all the members would have been better entitled to put Africanus after their name. The interests of the great continent were dear to them all. In 1872, when one of the Search Expeditions for Livingstone was fitted out, a grandson of Dr. Moffat, another Robert Moffat, was among those who set out in the hope of relieving him ; cut off at the very beginning, in the flower of his youth, he left his bones to moulder in African soil. "I had occasion" (Dr. Moffat has informed us) "to call for some one at Mrs. Sewell's, a boarding-house for young mis- sionaries in Aldersgate street, where Livingstone lived. I observed soon that this young man was interested in my story, that he would sometimes come quietly and ask me a question or two, and that he was always desirous to know where I was to speak in public, and attended on these occasions. By and by he asked me whether I thought he would do for Africa. I said I believed he would, if he would not go to an old sta- tion, but would advance to unoccupied ground, specifying the vast plain to the north, where I had sometimes seen, in the morning sun, the smoke of a thousand villages, where no missionary had ever been. At last Livingstone said : 'What is the use of my waiting for the end of this abominable opium war? I will go at once to Africa.' The Directors concurred, and Africa became bis sphere," START IN AFRICA— KURUMAN. 19 tors, that "no spiritual good had been done to any- one on board." The long voyage, however, round by Rio de Janeiro, was of great value to himself. For he made a close friend of Captain Donaldson, who gave him lessons in the use of the quadrant, often sitting up till midnight to perfect his pupil in taking lunar observations. The Cape, where the "George" was detained for a month, proved a sad disappointment. He found the missionaries not only too many for the work, but a divided body, some sympathizing with the colo- nists, some with the natives. His host was Dr. Philip, the agent of the society for payment of sal- aries, who had also a discretionary power to make advances for the building of churches, schools, and houses at mission stations. Livingstone had heard in England that the Doctor was a spiritual despot, influenced in this direction by his wife. "I came full of prejudice against them," he writes to his friend and tutor the Rev. R. Cecil, "and I left them with my prejudices completely thawed, my fears allayed, and my mind imbued with great respect for the upright Christian character they both exhibited during the whole of my stay. ... I have no doubt they have erred in the manner in which they have exercised their power, but sure I am that no one who knows them can say that the errors have been committed from any other motive than a sincere desire to advance the cause of Christ, and a deep 20 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. conviction that the particular mode of appropriation adopted would best effect that object."* The Doctor had also a church at Cape Town, in which Livingstone preached (this preaching must have been incidental only, for a single Sunday or a few Sundays, not an engagement for a prolonged period which is called a ''stated supply"), with the result that one part of the congregation accused him of heterodoxy to the Doctor, 'Svhile others requested the notes of my sermon, expressing a determination to act more than they had done on the principle I had *Dr. Philip was desirous of returning home for a time, and very anxious to find some one to take his place as minister of the congregation of Cape Town, in his absence. The office was offered to Livingstone, who rejected it with no little emphasis — not for a moment would he think of it, nor would he preach the gospel within any other man's line. He had not been long at the Cape when he found to his surprise and sor- row that the missionaries were not all at one, either as to the general policy of the mission, or in the matter of social inter- course and confidence. The shock was a severe one; it was not lessened by what he came to know of the spirit and life of a few — happily only a few — of his brethren afterward ; and undoubtedly it had an influence on his future life. It showed him that there were missionaries whose profession was not supported by a life of consistent well-doing, although it did not shake his confidence in the character and the work of missionaries on the whole. He saw that in the mission there was what might be called a colonial side and a native side; some sympathizing with the colonists and some with the natives. He had no difficulty in making up his mind between them; he drew instinctively to the party that were for pro- tecting the natives against the unrighteous encroachments of the settlers. START IN AFRICA— KURUMAN. 21 inculcated. My theme was the necessity of adopt- ing the benevolence of the Son of God as the gov- erning principle of our conduct. . . . My way of putting this roused the indignation of these worthies, w^ho seem much more fearful of heterodoxy in sentiment than heterodoxy in prac- tice. . . o It is a house divided against it- self. . o o They do all in their power to insult the Doctor and render his old age bitter. . . . They don't deserve a good pastor, and I don't see anything for them but dissolution, and being re- modeled." So at the month's end he sailed on in the ''George" to Algoa Bay, leaving behind him at the Cape a reputation for independence and heterodoxy, which, as we shall see, rose up against him nine years later, in the great crisis of his life, when he brought his family down to embark them for England, before starting on his first great journey to the west coast. On leaving the "George" at Algoa Bay he started at once in an ox-wagon for Dr. Moffat's station at Kuruman, seven hundred miles up the country, which he reached on May 31, 1841. The fascina- tion of African travel came on him at once. 'T like this travelling very much indeed. There is so much freedom in our African manners. We pitch our .'tent, make our fire, wherever we choose ; w^alk, ride, or shoot at all sorts of game, as our inclination leads us ; but there is a great drawback — we can't study or 32 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. read as we please. I feel this very much, and have made very little progress in the language." As to the work of the Missions he passed he could write : *'The full extent of the benefit received can be under- stood only by those who witness it in contrast with places which have not been so highly favored. Everything I witnessed surpassed my hopes. If this is a fair sample, the statements of the missionaries as to their success are far within the mark." Again to Mr. Cecil : ''I like the country well. It is very like Scotland in appearance, and the Hottentots are far superior in attainments to what I had expected. I traveled four days in the wagon of one of them, and was much struck with all their conduct, particularly the manner in which they conducted family worship, morning and evening. It reminded me forcibly of the old Covenanters praising God amongst their native wilds. At Hankey their operations for the temporal benefit of their families, and their Christian deportment, are truly delightful. They have a prayer meeting every morning at four o'clock, well attended."* *He goes on to say that as the natives had no clocks or watches, mistakes sometimes occurred about ringing the bell for this meeting, and sometimes the people found themselves assembled at twelve or one o'clock instead of four. The welcome to the missionaries (their own missionary was re- turning from the Cape with Livingstone) was wonderful. Muskets were fired at their approach, then big guns ; and then men, women, and children rushed at the top of their speed to shake hands and welcome them. The missionary had lost a START IN AFRICA— KURUMAN. 33 He found at Kuruman no instructions from his Directors, and was thus left with a free hand. While beginning at once to practice as a doctor, his first aim was to learn the language in which he made rapid progress ; his next, to look around for the best place to open a new station to the north, as Dr. Moffat had suggested. With this view he started in) the later autumn with another missionary and sev- eral native agents, and made a circuit amongst the Bakwains and other tribes. The result was, a con- viction that no time was to be lost, and great confi- dence in himself and his methods. Griqua hunters and others were spreading prejudicial reports against the missionaries, who were putting down polygamy, drunkenness, and marauding in and round Kuruman. His frank treatment of the na- tives, and skill in healing their ailments, did much to counteract these slanders. He got back to Kuru- man by Christmas, having, however, promised the Bakwains to return shortly. *'When about 150 miles from home we came to a large village. The chief had sore eyes; I doctored them, and he fed us little boy, and out of respect each of the people had something black on his head. Both public worship and family worship were very interesting, the singing of hymns being very beauti- ful. The bearing of these Christianized Hottentots was in complete contrast to that of a Dutch family whom he visited as a medical man one Sunday. There was no Sunday; the man's wife and daughters were dancing before the house, while a black played the fiddle. 24 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. pretty well, and sent a fine buck after me as a pres^ ent. When we got ten or twelve miles on the way, a little girl eleven or twelve years old came up and sat down under my wagon, having run away with the purpose of coming with us to Kuruman, where she had friends. She had lived with a sister lately dead. Another family took possession of her for the purpose of selling her as soon as she was old enough for a wife, but not liking this she determined to run away. With this intention she came, and thought of walking all the way behind my wagon. I was pleased with the determination of the little creature and gave her food, but before long heard her sobbing violently as if her heart would break. On looking round I observed the cause. A man with a gun had been sent after her, and had just arrived. I did not know well what to do, but was not in perplexity long, for Pomare, a native convert who accompanied us, started up and defended her. He, being the son of a chief, and possessed of some little authority, managed the matter nicely. She had been loaded with beads, to render her more at- tractive and fetch a higher price. These she stripped off and gave to the man. I afterward took measures for hiding her, and if fifty men had come they would not have got her."* *The story reads like an allegory or a prophecy. In the person of the little maid, oppressed and enslaved Africa comes to the good Doctor for protection; instinctively she knows START IN AFRICA— KURUMAN. 25 After a short rest at Kuruman he secluded him- self for six months from all but native society at a place called Lepeloh, for the purpose of perfecting himself in the habits, laws, and language of the Bak- wains — an ordeal which proved of great advantage to him. "I am glad," he writes to Mr. Cecil at this time, "I can anticipate the commencement of something per- manent in my work. I think Mrs. Cecil will laugh when I tell you I am become a poet. I want to tell you, however, and not by way of boasting, but that you may know I have made some progress in the language. I suppose you have been apprehensive that I should not acquire it, I being such a poor hand at languages when with you; but having made, or rather translated, some very good English hymns into Sichuana rhyme, six of them have been adopted and printed by the French missionaries. If they had been bad I don't see that they could have had she may trust him ; his heart opens at once, his ingenuity contrives a way of protection and deliverance, and he will never give her up. It is a little picture of Livingstone's life In fulfilment of a promise made to the natives in the in- terior that he would return to them, Livingstone set out on a second tour Into the interior of the Bechuana country on loth February, 1842. His objects were, first, to acquire the native language m.ore perfectly, and second, by suspending his medical practice, which had become inconveniently large at Kuruman, to give his undivided attention to the subject of native agents. He took with him two native members of the Kurumax! church, and two other natives for the manage- ment of the wagon. 26 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. any motive for using them. I can speak it now with ease, but I am yet far from perfection. This, how- ever, I am not ashamed to own; for, after such sl great man as Mr. Moffat is, and twenty years resi- dent in the country, he is not yet perfect. He has put some shocking blunders into the Testament : the word used for 'accuse/ for instance, always means the very opposite of what he intends, and this when there are several other words which express it point- edly." After this seclusion he started again to keep his promise of revisiting the Bakwains, and found him- self already a power in the country. The sick and curious crowded his wagon in the villages, but not an article was stolen. He even succeeded in getting the people of Bubr, a friendly chief, to dig a canal. 'The Doctor and rainmaker amongst these people are one and the same person. As I did not like to be behind my professional brethren I declared I could make rain too, not, however, by enchantment like them, but by leading out their river for irrigation. The idea took mightily, and to work we went in- stanter. Even the chief's own doctor went at it, laughing heartily at the cunning of the foreigner who can make rain so. We have only one spade, and this without a handle, but yet by sticks sharp- ened we have dug a pretty long canal. The earth was lifted out in 'goupens' and carried ta the huge dam we have built in karosses, torta^i^e T^ells, or START IN AFRICA— KURUMAN. 37 wooden boats. This is, I believe, the first instance in which Bechuanas have been got to work without wages." The earher missionaries, he wrote at this time, had gone on wrong hnes. "If these people perceive any one in the least dependent on them they begin to tyrannize. I am trying a different plan. I make my presence with any of them a favor, and when they show any impudence I threaten to leave them, and if they don't amend I go. They are in one sense fierce, and in another the greatest cow^ards in the world. By a bold, free course among them I have had not the least difficulty in managing the most fierce. A kick would, I am persuaded, quell the courage of the bravest of them. Add to this the report, which many of them believe, that I am a great wizard, and you will understand how I can with great ease visit any of them." Farther on he came to the Bamangwato, and was favorably received by their chief, Sekomi.* Here *The ignorance of this tribe he found to be exceedingly- great : "Their conceptions of the Deity are of the most vague and contradictory nature, and the name of God conveys no more to their understanding than the idea of superiority. Hence they do not hesitate to apply the name to their chiefs. I was every day shocked by being addressed by that title, and though it as often furnished me with a text from which to tell them of the only true God and Jesus Christ, whom he has sent, yet it deeply pained me, and I never felt so fully convinced of the lamentable deterioration of our species. It is indeed a mourn- ful truth that man has become like the beasts that perish." U THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. he stayed for some time, and Sekomi one day, hav- ing sat some time in deep thought, said : " 'I wish you would change my heart. Give me medicine to change it, for it is proud, proud and angry, angry always/ I lifted up the Testament and was about to tell him of the only way in which the heart can be changed, but he interrupted me with, 'Nay, I wish to have it changed by medicine, to drink and have it changed at once, for it is always very proud and very uneasy, ahvays angry with some one,' and then rose and went away." His next halt was with the Bakaa, a tribe who had recently murdered a trader and his company. All but the chief and his two attendants fled at first, but seeing the Doctor eat and afterward sleep, came back and attended a service. ''I had more than ordinary pleasure in telling these murderers of the precious blood which cleanseth from all sin. I bless God The place was greatly infested by lions, and during Living- stone's visit an awful occurrence took place that made a great impression on him: "A woman was actually devoured in her garden during my visit, and that so near the town that I had frequently walked past it. It was most affecting to hear the cries of the orphan children of this woman. During the whole day after her death the surrounding rocks and valleys rang and re-echoed with their bitter cries. I frequently thought as I listened to the loud sobs, painfully indicative of the sorrows of those who have no hope, that if some of our churches could have heard their sad wailings, it would have awakened the firm, resolution to do more for the heathen than they have done." START IN AFRICA— KURUMAN. 29 that he has conferred on me the privileg-e and honor of being the first messenger of mercy that ever trod these regions. Its being also the first occasion on which I had ventured to address a number of Bechu- anas in their own tongue, renders it to myself one of peculiar interest. . . . When I left, the chief sent his son and a number of his people to see me safe part of the way to the Alakalaka."'^ *0n his way home, in passing through Bubi's country, he was visited by sixteen of the people of Sebehwe, a chief who had successfully withstood Mosilikatse, but whose cowardly neighbors, under the influence of jealousy, had banded to- gether to deprive him of what they had not had the courage to defend. Consequently he had been driven into the sandy desert, and his object in sending to Livingstone was to solicit his advice and protection, as he wished to come out, in order that his people might grow corn, etc. Sebehwe, like many of the other people of the country, had the notion that -if he got a single white man to live with him, he would be quite secure. It was no wonder that Livingstone early acquired the strong conviction that if missions could only be scattered over Africa, their immediate effect in promoting the tran- quillity of the continent could hardly be over-estimated. We have given these details somewhat fully, because they show that before he had been a year in the country Living- stone had learned how to rule the Africans. From the very first, his genial address, simple and fearless manner, and transparent kindliness formed a spell which rarely failed. He had great faith in the power of humor. He was never afraid of a man who had a hearty laugh. By a playful way of dealing with the people, he made them feel at ease with him, and afterward he could be solemn enough when the occa- sion required. His medical knowledge helped him greatly; but for permanent influence all would have been in vain if he had not uniformly observed the rules of justice, good 30 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. His oxen sickened, and most of the rest of the journey was done on foot. "Some of those who had recently joined us, and did not know that I understood a little of their language, were overheard by me discussing my appearance. 'He is not strong, he is quite slim, and only seems stout because he puts himself into those bags' (trousers) ; 'he will soon knock up.' This made my Highland blood rise, and I kept them all at the top of their speed for days to- gether, until I heard them express a favorable opin- ion of my.pedestrian powers." Still no definite instructions came from home, so making Kuruman his headquarters he continued his medical and missionary journeys amongst the neigh- boring tribes. ''I have an immense practice," he writes to his old tutor, Sir Risden Bennett ; "patients walk 130 miles for my advice. This is the country for a medical man, but he must leave fees out of the question. They have much more disease than I ex- pected. They are nearly naked, and endure the scorching heat of the day and the chills at night in that condition. Add to this that they are absolutely omnivorous. Indigestion, rheumatism, ophthalmia are the prevailing diseases. . . . They make me speak their language, and were I inclined to be lazy feeling, and good manners. Often he would say that the true road to influence was patient continuance in well-doing. It is remarkable that, from the very first, he should have seen the charm of that method v/hich he employed so successfully to the end. START IN AFRICA-KURUMAN. 31 in learning it they would prevent me indulging the propensity. They are excellent patients, too. There is no wincing; everything prescribed is done m- stanter. Their only failing is that they get tired of a long course, but in any operation even the women sit unmoved. I have been astonished again and again at their calmness. In cutting out a tumor an inch in diameter, they sit and talk as if they felt nothing. *A man like me,' they say, 'never cries. It is children that cry.' And it is a fact that the men never cry ; but when the spirit of God works on their minds they cry most piteously, trying to hide their heads in their karosses, and when they find that won't do, they rush out of church and run with all their might, crying as if the hand of death were behind them. One would think they would stop away; but no, they are in their places at the next meeting." His practice in midwifery was, perhaps, the most characteristic. They suffered less from confine- ments than in civilized countries, and had a prejudice against the presence of male doctors. A case of twins occurred in which the ointments of all the doctors in the town proved unavailing. A few sec- onds of English art afforded relief, and the prejudice vanished at once. "1 reserved myself for the difficult cases. . . . My knowledge of midwifery pro- cured me great fame in a department in which I could lay no claim to merit. A woman came more 32 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. than loo miles to consult me for a complaint which had baffled the native doctors. A complete cure was the result, and a year later she bore a son to her hus- band, who had previously reproached her for being barren. She sent me a handsome present, and pro- claimed that I possessed a medicine for the removal of sterility." This brought him applicants for the child-medicine from all parts of the country, and it was in vain for him to explain that the disease he had treated was quite a different one. "It was really heartrending to hear the earnest entreaty, and see the tearful eyes. *I am getting old; you see gray hairs here and there on my head, and I have no child. You know how Bechuana men cast their old wives away. What can I do ? I have no child to bring me water when I am sick,' " etc. In 1842 he was again away, and, five days' jour- ney beyond the Bakatla, came to Sechele, chief of the Bechuanas. At first Sechele was hostile, but his only child was ill, and Livingstone cured her, and thence- forth Sechele became one of his warmest friends and most interesting converts. Some of his questions puzzled the Doctor, as : ''Since it is true that all who die unforgiven are lost forever, why did not your nation come to tell us of it before now? M}'" ances- tors are all gone, and none of them knew anything of what you tell me. How is this?"* ^Livingstone replied: "I told him multitudes in our own country were like himself, so much in love with their sins. START IN AFRICA— KURUMAN. 33 At last, soon after his return from Sechele, the definite permission came to push forward, and in June, 1843, he was able to write home of the "feeling of inexpressible delight with which I hail the de- cision of the Directors, that w^e go forward into the dark interior. May the Lord enable me to conse- crate my w^hole being to the glorious work."* A few extracts from his letters to Mr. Cecil will explain at once the cause of this delight, and the temper and methods which he was resolved to em- My ancestors had spent a great deal of time in trying to persuade them, and yet after all many of them by refusing were lost. We now wish to tell all the world about a Saviour, and if men did not believe, the guilt would be entirely theirs." *Among other things that Livingstone found time for in these wanderings among strange people, was translating hymns into the Sichuana language. Writing to his father (Bakwain Country, 21st March, 1843), he says: "Janet may be pleased to learn that I am become a poet, or rather a poetaster, in Sichuana. Half a dozen of my hymns were lately printed in a collection of the French brethren. One of them is a translation of 'There is a fountain filled with blood'; another, 'Jesus shall reign where'er the sun'; others are on 'The earth being filled with the glory of the Lord,' 'Self-dedication,' 'Invitation to Sinners,' 'The soul that loves God finds him everywhere.' Janet may try to make English ones on these latter subjects if she can, and Agnes will doubtless set them to music on the same condition. I do not boast of having done this, but only mention it to let you know that I am getting a little better fitted for the great work of a missionary, that your hearts may be drawn out to more prayer for the success of the gospel proclaimed by my feeble lips." 34 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. ploy in the forward career which was now opening to him. "There has always been some bugbear in the way of the interior, and the tribes have in conse- quence always passed away into darkness. ... I did not at first intend to give up all attention to medi- cine and the treatment of disease, but now I feel it to be my duty to have as little to do with it as possible. I shall attend to none but severe cases in future, and my reasons for this determination are, I think, good. The spiritual amelioration of the people is the object for which I came, but I cannot expect God to ad- vance this by my instrumentality if much of my time is spent in mere temporal amelioration. And I know that if I gave much attention to medicine and medi- cal studies, something like a sort of mania which seized me soon after I began the study of anatomy would increase, and I fear would gain so much power over me as to make me, perhaps, a very good doctor, but a useless drone of a missionary. I feel the self-denial this requires very much, but it is the only real sacrifice I have been called on to make, and I shall try to make it willingly." His friends, he goes on, perhaps will wonder at his intention to go so far north, but none of the tribes within one hundred and eighty miles north of this will listen. And as to the need of some one to show the way, he is now the fourth missionary at Kuruman. Now at this out- post there are only four hundred people, and "all the brethren behind this, even down to the sea, are START IN AFRICA— KURUMAN. 35 crowded together with scanty portions of people, and many unpleasant words pass as to encroaching on each other's fields, etc. . . . We can go for- ward and find plenty of people, and these, too, with none of the prejudices which the near tribes have unfortunately imbibed. I was received with the greatest kindness by all the tribes I visited, and some of them never saw a white face before ; and the latitude at which I turned back is farther than any European has attained before. I must make the effort now when I am able to stand the heat, etc., and if I wait I shall soon perhaps be disinclined to endure fatigue." Then as to the danger — after referring to his friend Dr. Philip, the Society's agent, who had been at Kuruman while he was away, and left him a message "not to think of building his house on the crater of a volcano ;" and that Mosilikatse, the great Makololo chief, was ready "to pounce on any white man and spill his blood," — he goes on : "I believed these reports, too, when I left this, but L found to my surprise that the Bamangwato, whom I visited, are eight days north of the Bakwana, and that Mosili- katse is at least fourteen days north of them. Seeing, then, that the Doctor is, from having been misin- formed, about to oppose the gospel being carried into the interior, I intend just to go on without his sanc- tion. Besides, he does not point out any place where I can be useful. In fact he cannot, for the country behind this is overstocked with missionaries. . . , 36 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. The Doctor stated to some of the brethren that he thought I was ambitious. I really am ambitious to preach beyond other men's lines : but I suppose he meant the wrong kind of ambition. I don't feel in the least displeased wath him. I am only determined to go on, and do all I can while able for the poor de- graded people in the north." Again, in answer to friendly warnings from other quarters: ''I feel the necessity more than ever of active devotedness to the Redeemer's cause. I don't feel anything we usually call sacrifices at home to be such. There is so much to counterbalance them they really don't deserve the name, and I am in a great deal more danger from levity than from melancholy; indeed, it sometimes makes me blame myself severely. When contemplat- ing the Mission field before I left England I used to think my spirits would flag, but I feel no difference from what I felt at home. It is, therefore, no virtue in me to endure privations, it is only in those who feel them as such. I wish my mind were more deep- ly affected by the condition of those who are perish- ing in this heathen land. I am sorry to say I don't feel half as concerned for them as I ought." And so, in this resolute and yet humble spirit, he went forward rejoicing, to found his first station in which he hoped to be permanently settled, far away to the north, in advance of any point hitherto visited by white men. CHAPTER HI. KOLOBENG LAKE NGAMI THE ZAMBEZI. 1843-52. In the early days of August, 1843, Livingstone started from Kuruman, with another missionary who had agreed to accompany him, for the beautiful val- ley of Mabotsa, about two hundred miles to the northeast, which he had selected in one of his earlier journeys as the best site for a station. Two sports- men from India joined the party, Mr. Pringle and Captain, now General, Sir Thomas Steele, the latter of whom became one of his best friends. The power that Livingstone had already acquired with the na- tives gave him a striking advantage over his com- panions, whose ample outfit of horses, servants, tents, and stores, stood out in marked contrast to his ox- wagon. ''When we reach a spot where we intend to pass the night," he writes home, "all hands at once unyoke the oxen. Then one or two collect wood, one strikes up a fire, another gets out the water-bucket and fills the kettle, a piece of meat is thrown on the fire, and if we have biscuits we are at our coffee in less than half an hour. Our friends perhaps sit or §t^nd shivering at their fire for two or three hours 37 38 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. before they get their things ready, and are glad occa- sionally of a cup of coffee from us."* At Mabotsa he built his house with his own hands, and settled to work amongst the Bakatlas, where he remained for three years. Here the encounter with a lion occurred, which, as he wrote, "I meant to have kept to tell my children in my dotage," but on pres- sure from friends narrated in hh first book as fol- lows : ''The Bakatla of the village of Mabotsa were troubled by lions, which lieaped into the cattle-pens by night and destroyed their cows. They even at- tacked the herds in open day. This was so unusual an occurrence that the people believed themselves to be bewitched — 'given,' as they said, into the power of the lions by a neighboring tribe." They went once to attack the animals, but being rather cowardly in comparison with the Bechuanas in general, they returned without slaying any. "It is well known that if one in a troop of lions is killed, the remainder leave that part of the couti- *The first act of the missionaries on arriving at their des- tination was to have an interview with the chief, and ask whether he desired a missionary. Having an eye to the beads, guns, and other things, of which white men seemed always to have an ample store, the chief and his men gave them a cordial welcome, and Livingstone next proceeded to make a purchase of land. This, like Abraham with the sons of Hetho he insisted should be done in legal form, and for this pur- pose he drew up a written contract to which, after it was fully explained to them, both parties attached their sig^natures or marks. KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 39 try. The next time, therefore, the herds were at- tacked, I went with the people to encourage them to rid themselves of the annoyance by destroying one of the marauders. We found the animals on a small hill covered with trees. The men formed round it in a circle, and gradually closed up as they advanced. Being below on the plain with a native schoolmaster! named Mabalwe, I saw one of the lions sitting on a piece of rock within the ring. Mabalwe fired at him, and the ball hit the rock on which the animal was sit- ting. He bit at the spot struck, as a dog does at a stick or stone thrown at him ; and then leaping away, broke through the circle and escaped unhurt. If the Bakatla had acted according to the custom of the country, they would have speared him in his attempt to get out, but they were afraid to attack him. When the circle was re-formed, we saw two other lions in it, but dared not fire lest we should shoot some of the people. The beasts burst through the line, and, as it was evident the men could not be prevailed on to face their foes, we bent our footsteps toward the village. In going round the end of the hill I saw a lion sitting on a piece of rock, about thirty yards off, with a little bush in front of him. I took a good aim at him through the bush, and fired both barrels into it. The men called out, 'He is shot, he is shot !' Others cried, 'He has been shot by another man, too; let us ;^o to him!' I saw the lion's tail erected in SLn^ei 9:ad, turning to the people, said, 40 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. *Stop a little till I load again/ When in the act of ramming down the bullets I heard a shout, and, look- ing half round, I saw the lion in the act of springing upon me. He caught me by the shoulder, and we both came to the ground together. Growling horri- bly, he shook me as a terrier dog does a rat. The shock produced a stupor similar to that which seems to be felt by a mouse after the first grip of the cat. It caused a sort of dreaminess, in which there was no sense of pain nor feeling of terror, though I was quite conscious of all that was happening. It was like what patients partially under the influence of chloroform describe — they see the operation, but do not feel the knife. This placidity is probably pro- duced in all animals killed by the carnivora ; and if so, is a merciful provision of the Creator for lessen- ing the pain of death. As he had one paw on the back of my head, I turned round to relieve myself of the weight, and saw his eyes directed to Mabalwe, who was aiming at him from a distance of ten or fif- teen yards. His gun, which was a flint one, missed fire in both barrels. The animal immediately left me to attack him, and bit his thigh. Another man, whose life I had saved after he had been tossed by a buffalo, attempted to spear the lion, upon which he turned from Mabalwe and seized this fresh foe by the shoulder. At that moment the bullets the beast had received took effect, and he fell down dead. The whole was the work of a few moments, and must KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 41 have been his paroxysm of dying rage. In order to take out the charm from him, the Bakatla on the fol- lowing day made a huge bonfire over the carcase, which was declared to be the largest ever seen. Be- sides crunching the bones into splinters, eleven of his teeth had penetrated the upper part of my arm. The bite of a lion resembles a gun-shot wound. It is gen- erally followed by a great deal of sloughing and dis- charge, and ever afterward pains are felt periodically in the part. I had on a tartan jacket, which I believe wiped off the virus from the teeth that pierced the flesh, for my two companions in the affray have both suffered from the usual pains, while I have escaped with only the inconvenience of a false joint in my limb. The wound of the man who was bit in the shoulder actually burst forth afresh on the same month of the following year. This curious point deserves the attention of inquirers." In a letter to the Directors, Livingstone briefly ad- verts to Mabalwe's service on this occasion, but makes it a peg on which to hang some strong re- marks on that favorite topic — the employment of na- tive agency : ''Our native assistant Mabalwe has been of consid- erable value to the Mission. In endeavoring to save my life he nearly lost his own, for he was caught and wounded severely, but both before being laid aside, and since his recovery, he has shown great willingness to be useful. The cheerful manner in 4^ THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. ' which he engages with us in manual labor in the sta^ tion, and his affectionate addresses to his country- men, are truly gratifying. Mr. E. took him to some of the neighboring villages lately, in order to intro- duce him to his work; and I intend to depart to- morrow for the same purpose to several of the vil- lages situated northeast of this. In all there may be a dozen considerable villages situated at convenient distances around us, and we each purpose to visit them statedly. It would be an immense advantage to the cause had we many such agents.'' In 1844 Dr. Moffat returned with his family to Kuruman, and toward the end of the year, *'after nearly four years of African life as a bachelor, I screwed up courage to put a question beneath one of the fruit-trees, the result of which was that I became united in marriage to Mr. Moffat's eldest daughter Mary. Having been born in the country, and being expert in household matters, she was always the best spoke in the wheel at home ; and, when I took her on two occasions to Lake Ngami and far beyond, she endured more than some who have written large books of travels." The young couple spent their first year at Ma- botsa, where, besides a good house, schools, and church, Livingstone had made an excellent garden.* *UnhappiIy, Mr. and Mrs. Livingstone's residence at Ma- botsa was embittered by a painful collision with the mis- sionary who had taken part in rearing the station. Living- KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 43 But now a difference arose between him and his brother missionary, and rather than add one more to the squabbles which had vexed his soul at the south- ern stations, he, with his wife's approval, removed to Chonuane, forty miles north of Mabotsa, a village of the Bakwains, and the residence of their chief, Sechele, whom he had already made his friend. The stone was accused of acting unfairly by him, of assuming to himself more than his due, and attempts' were made to dis- credit him, both among the missionaries and the Directors. It was a very painful ordeal, and Livingstone felt it keenly. He held the accusation to be unjust, as most people will hold it to have been who know that one of the charges against him was that he was a "nonentity"! A tone of indignation pervades his letters — that after having borne the heat and burden of the day, he should be accused of claiming for him- self the credit due to one who had done so little in com- parison. But the noble spirit of Livingstone rose to the occa- sion. Rather than have any scandal before the heathen, he would give up his house and garden at Mabotsa, with all the toil and money they had cost him, go with his young bride to some other place, and begin anew the toil of house and school building, and gathering the people around him. His colleague was so struck with his generosity that he said had he known his intention he never would have spoken a word against him. Livingstone had spent all his money, and out of a salary of a hundred pounds it was not easy to build a house every other year. But he stuck to his resolution. Parting with his garden evidently cost him a pang, especially when he thought of the tasteless hands into which it was to fall. "I like a garden," he wrote, "but paradise will make amends for all our privations and sorrows here." Self-denial was a firmly estab- lished habit with him; and the passion of "moving on" was warm in his blood. Mabotsa did not thrive after Livingstone left it, but the brother with whom he had the difference lived to manifest a very different spirit. 44 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Bakatla offered to build him a new house and schools at another of their villages — to do, in short, any- thing to keep him amongst them — to his surprise, for there had been few conversions, and he reckoned his work there a failure. He persisted, however, and to Chonuane they went, and began their work again from the beginning. Their life there is viv- idly described in his letters. ''Building, gardening, cobbling, doctoring, tinkering, carpentering, gun- mending, farriering, wagon-mending, preaching, schooling, lecturing on physics according to my means, besides a chair in divinity to a class of three, fill up my time. . . . My wife made candles, soap, and clothes, and thus we had nearly attained to the indispensable accomplishments of a mission- ary family in Central Africa — the husband a jack- of-all-trades without doors, and the wife a maid-of- all-work within." Everything promised weh at Chonuane. The chief, Sechele, was his first convert, and in a few weeks was able to read the Bible, his favorite Book being Isaiah. ''He was a fine man that Isaiah; he knew how to speak." In his new-born zeal Sechele proposed summary methods of conversion. "Do you think you can make my people believe by talking to them ?" he urged. "I can make them do nothing except by thrashing them, and if you like I shall call my head-man, and with our whips of rhinoceros hide we will soon make them all believe together." This KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 45 was declined, and Sechele soon began to understand what spirit he was of, and to adopt Livingstone's methods, though their apparent failure grieved him sorely. He began family worship in his house, and surprised Livingstone by the simple and beautiful style in which he conducted it ; but, except his own family, no one attended. ''In former times," he complained, ''if a chief w^as fond of hunting, all his people got dogs and became fond of hunting, too. If he loved beer, they all rejoiced in strong drink. But now it is different. I love the word of God, but not one of my brethren will join me." The two chief causes for this failure wxre that Sechele had, after long struggle and debate with himself, put away all his wives but one, giving them new clothing and all the goods they had in their sep- arate huts. This alienated all their relatives amongst the chief men, while the rest attributed to the new religion the drought which came on them and lasted for four years. So severe was it that the tribe by Livingstone's advice migrated from Chonu- ane after the first year to Kolobeng, on the banks of a stream of that name, forty miles to the north, w^here Livingstone built his third house wath his own hands. But the drought continued at the new sta- tion, and the tribe became poorer year by year. They believed that Livingstone had bewitched their chief, and the old councillors came to him, entreating him to allow Sechele to miike a few showers. "The 46 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. corn will die if you refuse, and we shall become scat- tered. Only let him make rain this once, and we shall all come to the school, and sing and pray as , long as you please." ''We like you," remonstrated Sechele's uncle, ''as well as if you had been born amongst us. You are the only white man we can become familiar with, but we wish you to give up that everlasting preaching and praying. We cannot become familiar with that at all. You see, we never get rain, while those tribes that never pray get plenty." In vain Livingstone pleaded that only God could make rain. He records pathetically the answers, of the fallacy of which he could never convince them. "Truly!" they said; "but God told us differently. He made black men first, but did not love us as he did the white men. He made you beautiful, and gave you clothing and guns and gunpowder, and horses and wagons, and many other things about which we know nothing. But toward us he had no heart. He gave us nothing but the assegai, and cattle, and rain-making; and he did not give us hearts like yours. We never love each other. Other tribes place medicines about our country to prevent the rain, so that we may be dispersed by hunger, and go to them and add to their power. We must dis- solve their charms by our medicines. God has given us one little thing which you know nothing of — the knowledge of certain medicines by which we can KOLOBENG-LAKE NGAMI-THE ZAMBEZI. 4-^ make rain. We do not despise those things you possess, though we are ignorant of them. You ought not to despise our Httle knowledge, though you are ignorant of it." But during the long trial of the drought, "They all continued to treat us with respectful kind- ness. ... I am not aware of ever having had an enemy in the tribe." The depression of the long drought, keenly as he felt it, was not allowed to hinder any of the work he had set himself, the most urgent of which he held to be the planting native teachers, trained by himself at Kolobeng, amongst the neighboring tribes. Those to the east roused his special sympathy, and his efforts on their behalf had an important influence on his future life. He found them practically enslaved by the Boers of the Cashan Mountains district, who plundered their cattle and made them work without wages. On his first visit the Commandant insisted : ''You must teach the blacks that they are not our equals. . . . You might as well try to teach the baboons." Livingstone replied by offering to test whether the Boers or his native attendants could read best. From this time his relations with the Boers became more and more strained. In the fol- lowing years many of them came to Kolobeng, to get medicine and advice from him, and to trade. The reports they carried back inflamed the jealousy of their nation. They summoned Sechele to ac- 48 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. knowledge himself their vassal, and to stop English traders and sportsmen from passing to the country beyond or selling firearms. "I was made an inde- pendent chief and placed here by God, and not by you," Sechele answered. "The English are my friends. I get all I want from them. I cannot hinder them from going where they like."* *While residing at Chonuane, Livingstone performed two journeys eastward, in order to attempt the removal of certain obstacles to the establishment of at least one of his native teachers in that direction. This brought him into connection with the Dutch Boers of the Cashan mountains, otherwise called Magaliesberg. The Boers were emigrants from the Cape, who had been dissatisfied with the British rule, and especially with the emancipation of their Hottentot slaves, and had created for themselves a republic in the north (the Transvaal), in order that they might pursue, unmolested, the proper treatment of the blacks. "It is almost needless to add," says Livingstone, "that proper treatment has always contained in it the essential element of slavery, viz., compul- sory unpaid labor." The Boers had effected the expulsion of Mosilikatse, a savage Zulu warrior, and in return for this service they considered themselves sole mastersr of the soil. While still engaged in the erection of his dwelling-house at Chonuane, Livingstone received notes from the Commandant and Council of the emigrants, requesting an explanation of his intentions, and an intimation that they had resolved to come and deprive Sechele of his fire-arms. About the same time he received several very friendly messages and presents from Mokhatla, chief of a large section of the Bakhatla, who lived about four days eastward of his station, and had once, while Livingstone was absent, paid a visit to Chonuane, and expressed satisfaction with the idea of obtaining Paul, a native convert, as his teacher. As soon as his house was habitable, Livingstone proceeded to the eastward, to visit Mokhatla, and to confer with the Boers. KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 49 A raid on Kolobeng was planned by the Boers, which Living-stone heard of, and prevented for the time by a visit of remonstrance to Mr. Krieger, the Commandant; but the cloud hung menacingly over the Bakwains. This thought troubled Livingstone, who felt that his presence amongst them was becom- ing a danger to the tribe. The conviction, too, was growing on him that the Kolobeng stream had per- manently disappeared, and that the tribe would have to move again. Where were they or he to go ? To the east the Boers barred the way; on the west and north lay the great Kalahari desert, where none but Bushmen could live. What was to be done?* It was now that the rumors which had reached him of a lake away in the north, on the other side of the Kalahari desert, and a famous chief who lived *In his letters to friends at home, whatever topic Living- stone may touch, we see evidence of one over-mastering idea — the vastness of Africa, and the duty of beginning a new area of enterprise to reach its people. Among his friends the Scotch Congregationalists, there had been a keen contro- versy on some points of Calvinism. Livingstone did not like it; he was not a high Calvinist theoretically, yet he could not accept the new views, "from a secret feeling of being absolutely at the divine disposal as a sinner;" but these were theoretical questions, and with dark Africa around him, he did not see why the brethren at home should split on them. Missionary influence in South Africa was directed in a wrong channel. There were three times too many missionaries in the colony, and vast regions beyond lay untouched. He wrote to Mr. Watt: "If you meet me down in the colony before eight years are expired, you may shoot me." 50 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. beyond it, came back to him with great force. Sebi- tuane, the chief in question, and head of the Mako- lolo, had also gathered the remnants of other tribes, broken up by wars or flying from the Boers. He had saved the Hfe of Sechele in his infancy, and estabHshed him in his chieftainship. Sechele re- ported him eager to welcome strangers. Moreover, he and his tribe had crossed the desert thirty years before. Where men had gone, men might follow. At this crisis two Englishmen, Murray and Oswell, had opportunely arrived on a hunting-tour and were eager to join him. The latter, who had been sent on by his friend Captain Steele, offered to defray all the cost of guides; and so, on June i, 1849, they started for the desert. Oswell became one of Livingstone's dearest friends, and godfather to his third son. "I love him," he wrote sixteen years later, ''with true affec- tion. I believe he does the same to me, and yet we never show it." And again: "You know Oswell was one of Arnold's Rugby boys. One could see his training in always doing what was brave, and true, and right." His fame for feats of strength and courage still lingered at his old school, which he had left fourteen years before joining Livingstone at Kolobeng, and meantime had become a mighty hunter. ''When my men wished to flatter me," Livingstone wrote, "they would say, 'If you were not a missionary jou would be jus^ like Oswell, you KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 51 would not hunt with dogs/ c o . They declare he is the greatest hunter that ever came into the country. He has been known to kill four old male elephants in a day, and the value of the ivory would be one hundred guineas." While admitting the prowess of his companions, Livingstone's men looked upon them as a kind of lunatic butchers, which grieved the good missionary. The Bakwain language has no word for sport, so he had difficulty in answering such questions as, "Have these hun- ters, who come so far and work so hard, no meat at home?" ''Why, they are rich; they could kill oxen every day. It is for the sake of the play it affords." This causes a laugh, as much as to say "Ah, you know better," or "Your friends are fools." The expedition started with eighty oxen, twenty horses, and about twenty men. It proved a toilsome and dangerous journey, at first along the beds of streams long dry, where water was only procurable by deep digging ; afterward across a flat where there was none. At one point the oxen were four days without water, and their masters scarcely better off. When they were at the worst, Oswell saw an object skulking along in the bush, and taking it for a lion, rode after it. It proved to be a Bushwoman. "She thought herself captured, and offered to deliver up her property, w^hich consisted of a few traps made of cords. When I explained that we only wanted wat^r and would pay her, she walked briskly b^ 52 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. fore our horses for eight miles, and brought us to Neckockotsa. We rewarded her with a piece of meat and a good, large bunch of beads. At the sight of the latter she burst into a merry laugh." At Neckockotsa, Oswell w^as the first to discover (as he thought) the lake they were bound for. *'He threw up his hat in the air and shouted out a huzza which made the poor Bushwoman and the Bakwains think him mad. I was as much deceived as he." It was the mirage. They were yet three hundred miles from Lake Ngami. But their troubles were over, for on July 4th they had cleared the desert and struck a fine river, the Zouga. The rest of their journey was along the bank of this river, or in canoes, and, to their aston- ishment and delight, before reaching the lake they came upon another and larger stream, the Tamu- nakle. "I inquired whence it came. 'Oh, from a country full of rivers — so many no one can tell their number, and of large trees.' " Here was a confirma- tion of his hopes of a populous country in the unex- plored north fit for stations, and so full was his mind of this prospect that Lake Ngami no longer seemed of importance to him. They reached it on August 1st, the first white men who had ever looked on it^ or at any rate wdio had lived to tell the tale. On August 2d Livingstone applied to the chief of this end of the lake for guides and canoes to cross the Tiimunakle, here quite unfordable. He, jealous of KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 53 their passing to Sebituane, refused. ''I tried hard to form a raft, but the dry wood was so worm-eaten that it would not bear the w^eight of a single person. I worked many hours in the water, for I was not then aware of the number of alligators, and never think of my labors without feeling thankful that I escaped their jaws." Nothing more could be done. Oswell volunteered to go to the Cape and bring up a boat for next year, and they turned their faces home- ward.* Things were getting worse at Kolobeng. The ♦Hardly were things begun to be settled at Kolobeng, when, by way of relaxation, Livingstone (January, 1848) again moved eastward. He would have gone sooner, but "a mad sort of Scotchman" (Mr. Gordon Gumming) having wan- dered past them shooting elephants, and lost all his cattle by the bite of the tsetse-fly, Livingstone had to go to his help; and moreover the dam, having burst, required to be repaired. Sechele set out to accompany him, and intended to go with him the whole way ; but some friends having come to visit the tribe, he had to return, or at least did return, leaving Living- stone four gallons of porridge, and two servants to act in his stead. "He is about the only individual," says Livingstone, "who possesses distinct, consistent views on the subject of our mission. He is bound by his wives : has a curious idea — would like to go to another country for three or four years in order to study, with the hope that probably his wives would have married others in the meantime. He would then return, and be admitted to the Lord's Supper, and teach his people the knowledge he has acquired. He seems incapable of put- ting them away. He feels so attached to them, and indeed we, too, feel much attached to most of them. They are our best scholars, our constant friends. We earnestly pray that they, too, may be enlightened by the Spirit of Giod." 54 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. drought continued, and not only the men, but women and children, were scattered over the country in search of roots, caterpillars, or whatever would keep life in them. Mrs. Livingstone's children and sew- ing classes, numbering each one hundred at one time, had disappeared. There was nothing to keep them at home, so in April, 1850, accompanied now by his wife and three children, and by Sechele, he started again for the north.* Sechele left him at the ford *The black rhinoceros is one of the most dangerous of the wild beasts of Africa, and travellers stand in great awe of it. The courage of Dn. Livingstone in exposing himself to the risk of such animals on this missionary tour was none the less that he himself says not a word regarding it; but such courage was constantly shown by him. The following in- stances are given on the authority of Dr. Moffat as samples of what was habitual to Dr. Livingstone in the performance of his duty: In going through a wood, a party of hunters were startled by the appearance of a black rhinoceros. The furious beast dashed at the wagon, and drove his horn into the bowels of the driver, inflicting a frightful wound. A messenger was despatched in the greatest haste for Dr. Livingstone, whose house was eight or ten miles distant. The messenger in his eagerness ran the whole way. Livingstone's friends were horror-struck at the idea of his riding through the wood at night, exposed to the rhinoceros and other deadly beasts. "No, no; you must not think of it, Livingstone; it is certain death." Livingstone believed it was a Christian duty to try to save the poor fellow's life, and he resolved to go, happen what might. Mounting his horse, he rode to the scene of the acci- dent. The man had died, and the wagon had left, so that there was nothing for Livingstone but to return and run the risk of the forest anew, without even the hope that he might be useful in saving life. KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 55 vi the Zouga. Farther on they heard of an Enghsh ^*arty in distress, and hastened sixty miles out of their way to aid them. They found them down with fever, of which Mr. Rider, the artist of the party, was already dead. The rest recovered under Liv- ingstone's treatment ; but after he had just managed to take them for a paddle in the lake, in which they played like ducklings, two of his children and all his servants were attacked. Again he reluctantly turned homeward, and met Oswell on his way from the Cape to keep his promise. It was too late, and Oswell turned to his elephant-hunting. Livingstone returned to Kolobeng, where his wife was confined of a daughter, who died of an epidemic after six weeks ; and afterward they went to Kuruman to re- cruit. Here he heard from his friend Steele that the Royal Geographical Society had voted him twenty- five guineas for the discovery of Lake Ngami. "It is from the Queen,'' he wrote home. *'You must be very loyal, all of you. Oh, you Radicals, don't be Another time, when he and a brother missionary were on a tour a long way from home, a messenger came to tell his companion that one of his children was alarmingly ill. It was but natural for him to desire Livingstone to go back with him. The way lay over a road infested by lions. Liv- ingstone's life would be in danger ; moreover, as we have seen, he was intensely desirous to examine the fossil bones at the place. But when his friend expressed the desire for him to go, he went without hesitation. His firm belief in Providence sustained him in these as in so many other dan- gers. §6 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. thinking it came out of your pockets. Long live Victoria !''* Sebituane had now heard of the attempts to reach him, and sent presents of cattle to Sechele and the *But Livingstone was convinced that there must be a , healthier spot to the north. Writing to Mr. Watt (i8th August, 1850), he not only expresses this conviction, but gives the ground on which it rested. The extract which we subjoin gives a glimpse of the sagacity that from apparently little things drew great conclusions ; but more than that, it indicates the birth of the great idea that dominated the next period of Livingstone's life — the desire and determination to find a passage to the sea, either on the east or the west coast : "A more salubrious climate must exist farther up to the north, and that the country is higher, seems evident from the fact mentioned by the Bakoba, that the water of the Teoge, the river that falls into the Ngami at the northwest point of it, flows with great rapidity. Canoes ascending, punt all the way, and the men must hold on by reeds in order to pre- vent their being carried down by the current. Large trees, spring-bucks and other antelopes are sometimes brought down by it. Do you wonder at my pressing on in the way we have done? The Bechuana mission has been carried on in a cul-de- sac. I tried to break through by going among the Eastern tribes, but the Boers shut up that field. A French missionary, Mr. Fredoux, of Motito, tried to follow on my trail to the Bamangwato, but was turned back by a party of armed Boers. When we burst through the barrier on the north, it appeared very plain that no mission could be successful there, unless we could get a well-watered country leaving a passage to the sea on either the east or west coast. This project I am almost afraid to meet, but nothing else will do. I intend (d. v.) to go in next year and remain a twelvemonth. My wife, poor soul — I pity her ! — proposed to let me go for that time while she remained at Kolobeng. You will pray for us both during that period." KOLOBENG-LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 57 chiefs on the lake who had hitherto been hostile, and a warm invitation to Livingstone. The envoys came to Sechele while Livingstone was still at Kuru- man, and Sechele allowed them to return without informing him. Had they been detained to escort the party the sufferings on the third journey might have been spared. In April, 185 1, he started once more with wife and children, and with the intention of settling in Sebituane's country if he could find a healthy station. Oswell was again with him, and going ahead with his men, dug wells for the party in the wagons. All went well while they followed the old route, which they did to the neighborhood of the lake, after which they had to cross a desert tract, the driest they had ever met with, in which Shobo, their Bushman guide, lost his way. *'He would sit down in the path and say, ^No water, all country only — Shobo sleeps — he breaks down — country only.' Upon this he would coolly curl himself up, and was soon wrapped in slumber. On the morning of the fourth day he van- ished altogether." They followed, came on a rhi- noceros' trail, and saw some birds. There they un- yoked the oxen, who rushed off to the west. Next morning the supply of water in the wagons was all but spent. 'Tt was a bitterly anxious time, and the less there was the more thirsty the little rogues be- came. The idea of their perishing before our eyes was terrible. It would have almost been a relief to 58 ntE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. me to have been reproached as being the entire cause; but not one syllable of upbraiding was uttered by their mother, though the tearful eye told the i agony within. In the afternoon of the fifth day, to ^ our inexpressible relief, some of the men returned with a supply of the fluid, of which we had never felt the true value. . . o Shobo had found his way to the river Mababe, and appeared when we came to the river at the head of a party. As he wished to show his importance before his friends, he walked up and ordered our whole cavalcade to halt, and bring out fire and tobacco. We stopped to ad- mire the acting, and though he had left us in the lurch, we all liked this fine specimen of that wonder- ful people, the Bushmen." No better specimen could be found than this, of the long-suffering and charity which carried him safely through all his African wanderings. "What a wonderful people the Bushmen are !" his Journal runs ; "always merry and laughing, and never telling lies like the Bechu- ana. They have more appearance of worship than any of the Bechuana. When will these dwellers in the wilderness bow down before their Lord ? I often wished I knew their language, but never more than when we traveled with our Bushman guide, Shobo."* *Livingstone had given a fair trial to the expeiriment of travelling along with his family. In one of his letters at this time he speaks of the extraordinary pain caused by the mos- KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI— THE ZAMBEZI. 69 Oswell and Livingstone now went ahead of their party, and found Sebituane, who had come down to meet them on an island. All his principal men were with him. He was about forty-five, tall, wiry, of olive complexion, cool and collected in manner, and more frank than any chief Livingstone ever met ; the greatest warrior in Central Africa, and always led his men into battle himself. He gave them food, and prepared skins of oxen as soft as cloth to sleep on, and next morning was sitting by their fire before the dawn. They accompanied him to his home, living with him on the way, and hearing the story of his event- ful life. He now ruled over all the tribes of an im- mense tract of country, as benevolent in peace as he had been courageous in war. "He had the art of gaining the affections both of his own people and strangers. . . , When poor men came to trade he would go along to them, talk with them, and feed them. Thus he knew all that happened in the coun- . quitoes of those parts, and of his children being so covered with their bites, that not a square inch of whole skin was to be found on their bodies. It is no wonder that he gave up the idea of carrying them with him in the more extended journey he was now contemplating. He could not leave them at Kolobeng, exposed to the raids of the Boers; to Kuruman there were also invincible objections; the only possible plan was to send them to England, though he hoped that when he got settled in some suitable part of Sebituane's dominions, with a; free road to the sea, they would return to him, and help him to bring the people to Christ. 60 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. try. He never allowed a party of strangers to go away without giving a present to every one, servants and all. Thus his praises w^ere sounded far and wide. *He has a heart ! He is wise/ were the ex- pressions we heard before we saw him." He offered a settlement in any part of his country, and, had he lived, the whole course of Livingstone's career might have been changed. But Sebituane sickened of inflammation of the lungs. Livingstone feared to treat him medically, and appealed to his native doctors. "Your fear is prudent and wise," they said; **the people would blame you." "I visited him in company with my little boy Robert on the Sunday afternoon on which he died. 'Come near,' said Sebituane, *and see if I am any longer a man. I am done.' I ventured to assent, and added a single sentence regarding hope after death. 'Why do you speak of death ?' said one of a relay of fresh doctors ; 'Sebituane will never die.' I rose to depart, when he raised himself up a little, called a servant, and said, 'Take Robert to Manuku' (one of his wives), 'and tell her to give him some milk.' These were the last words of Sebituane. . « . He was decidedly the best specimen of a native chief I ever met. I was never so much grieved at the loss of a black man."* *In his Journal, Livingstone gives way to his feelings as he very seldom allowed himself to do. His words bring to mind David's lament for Jonathan or for Absalom, although he had known Sebituane less than a month, and he was one of the KOLOBENG— LAKE NGAMI-THE ZAMBEZI. 61 His daughter Mamochishane succeeded, and was equally friendly. Oswell and Livingstone made a journey of one hundred and thirty miles to the northeast at the end of June and discovered the Zam- besi, already upward of three hundred yards broad, hitherto supposed to rise far to the east, but found no healthy spot for settlement, so returned for the last time to Kolobeng.* race whom many Boers and slave-stealers regarded as having no souls: "Poor Sebituane, my heart bleeds for thee ; and what would I not do for thee now? I will weep for thee till the day of my death. Little didst thou think when, in the visit of the white man, thou sawest the long-cherished desires of years accomplished, that the sentence of death had gone forth ! Thou thoughtest that thou shouldst procure a weapon from the white man which would be a shield from the attacks of the fierce Matabele ; but a more deadly dart than theirs was aimed at thee; and though thou couldst well ward off a dart — none ever better — thou didst not see that of the king of terrors. I will weep for thee, my brother, and I will cast forth my sorrows in despair for thy condition ! But I know that thou wilt receive no injustice whither thou are gone; 'Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?' I leave thee to Him. Alas! alas ! Sebituane. I might have said more to him. God for- give me. Free me from blood-guiltiness. If I had said more of death I might have been suspected as having foreseen the event, and as guilty of bewitching him. I might have recom- mended Jesus and his great atonement more. It is, however, very difficult to break through the thick crust of ignorance which envelops their minds." *While Kolobeng was Livingstone's headquarters, a new trouble rose upon the mission horizon. The Makololo (as Sebituane's people were called) began to practice the slave- trade. It arose simply from their desire to possess guns. 62 THE LIFE OP DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Livingstone's mind was now made up. His fam- ily could not stay at Kolobeng. He had found no new station to the north. He would send them to England, while he returned himself to search for a healthy district in the interior, with a path either to the east or west coast. With this view he started for Cape Town in April, 1852, and passed through the centre of the colony in the twentieth month of a Caffre war. "Those who periodically pay enormous sums for these inglorious affairs may like to know that our little, unprotected party could travel with as little danger as if we had been in England. Where does the money go, and who has benefited by this blood and treasure expended ?" He arrived at Cape Town, after eleven years of For eight old muskets they had given to a neighboring tribe eight boys, that had been taken from their enemies in war, being the only article for which the guns could be got. Soon after, in a fray against another tribe, two hundred captives were taken, and, on returning, the Makololo met some Arab traders from Zanzibar, who for three muskets received about thirty of their captives. Writing" to the Directors (October, 1851), he says: "You will see by the accompanying sketch-map what an immense region God in his grace has opened up. If we can enter in and form a settlement, we shall be able in the course of a very few years to put a stop to the slave-trade in that quarter. It is probable that the mere supply of English manu- facturers on Sebituane's part will effect this, for they did not like the slave-trade, and promised to abstain. I think it will be impossible to make a fair commencement unless I can secure two years devoid of family cares. I shall be obliged KOLOBENG^LAKE NGAMI-TME ZAMBEZI. 63 missionary life, to find himself an object of suspicion to the authorities and his brethren. He had already anticipated his whole salary (£ioo) for 1852 and half that of 1853. Happily, Oswell was with him, and "made all comfortable" financially, on the plea that Livingstone had as good a right as he to the money drawn from the preserves on his estate. He had written with perfect frankness to his Directors as to his intentions. "Consider the multi- tudes that have been brought to light by the Provi- dence of God in the country of Sebituane. , . , Nothing but a strong conviction that the step will lead to the glory of Christ would make me orphanize to go southward, perhaps to the Cape, to have my uvula excised and my arm mended (the latter, if it can be done, only). It has occurred to me that, as we must send our chil- dren to England, it would be no great additional expense to send them now along with their mother. This arrangement would enable me to proceed, and devote about twO' or perhaps three years to this new region ; but I must beg your sanction, and if you please let it be given or withheld as soon as you can conveniently, so that it might meet me at the Cape. To orphanize my children will be like tearing out my bowels, but when I can find time to write you fully you will perceive it is the only way, except giving up that region altogether. "Kuruman will not answer as a residence, nor yet the Colony. If I were to follow my own inclinations, they would lead me to settle down quietly with the Bakwains, or some other small tribe, and devote some of my time to my children ; but Providence seems to call me to the regions beyond, and if I leave them anywhere in this country, it will be to let them become heathens. If you think it right to support them, I believe my parents in Scotland would attend to them other- wise." 64 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. my children. Even now my bowels yearn over them. They will forget me; but I hope when the day of trial comes I shall not be found a more sorry soldier than those who serve an earthly sovereign. Should you not feel yourself justified in incurring the expense of their support in England, I shall feel called upon to renounce the hope of carrying the Gospel into that country. But stay. I am not sure. So powerfully a.m I convinced it is the will of our Lord I should, I will go, no matter who opposes ; but from you I expect nothing but encouragement. I know you wish as ardently as I can that all the world may be filled with the glory of the Lord. I feel re- lieved when I lay the whole case before you." Mrs. Livingstone and the four children sailed for England on April 23, 1852. CHAPTER IV. UNYANTI AND THE MAKOLOLO. 1852-53. Livingstone was now ready to start on the jour- ney which resulted in the opening of routes from Central Africa to the west and east coasts, and the discovery of the Victoria Falls ; but the way was still beset with difficulties. The Missionary Societies were regarded as ''unpatriotic" by the authorities at the Cape; and he, as the most outspoken of critics, and the most uncompromising denouncer of the slave-trade and champion of the natives, came in for a double share of their suspicion. On the other hand, his brethren gave him only a half-hearted sup- port, and doubted his orthodoxy. He found great difficulty even in procuring ammunition. A country postmaster, whom he had accused of overcharging, threatened an action at the last moment, which he compromised rather than be detained longer. As it was, he had anticipated his meagre salary by more than a year, and had to be content with very inferior oxen, and a wagon which required constant mending throughout the journey. Happily, however, the delay at the Cape enabled him to have his uvula, 65 QQ THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. which had been troubling him for years, excised, and to renew his astronomical studies with his friend the Astronomer-Royal (Sir T. ^laclear), so that he was able to lay down the exact geographical positions in all his subsequent journeys. "He could take the complete lunar observations and altitudes for time in fifteen minutes. ... I say what that man has done is unprecedented. . . . You could go to any point across the entire continent along Liv- ingstone's track and feel certain of your posi- tion. . . . His are the finest specimens of sound geographical observation I have ever met with," was Sir Thomas' testimony four years later, when the great journey was finished.* On June 8, 1852, then, *0n the 23d April, 1852, Mrs. Livingstone and the four children sailed from Cape Town for England. The sending of his children to be brought up by others was a very great trial, and Dr. Livingstone seized the opportunity to impress on the Directors that those by whom missionaries were sent out had a great duty to the children whom their parents were compelled to send away. His family were much in his thoughts ; he found some relief in writing by every mail. His letters to his wife are too sacred to be spread before the pub- lic; we confine ourselves to a single extract, to show over what a host of suppressed emotions he had to march in this expedition : "Cape Town, 5^/1 May, 1852. — My Dearest Mary — How I miss you now, and the children ! My heart yearns incessanth^ over you. How many thoughts of the past crowd into my mind I I feel as if I w^ould treat you all much more tenderly and lovingly than ever. You have been a great blessing to me. You attended to my comfort in many, many ways. May God bless you for all your kindnesses ! I see no face now to LINYANTI AND THE MAKOLOLO. 67 he at last got away, taking with him a Mr. Fleming, the agent of his friend, Mr. Rutherford, a Cape mer- chant, in the hope of by degrees substituting legiti- mate traffic for that in slaves. The heavy Cape wagon with its ten poor oxen dragged heavily northward. Livingstone had so loaded himself with parcels for stations up country, and his wagon and team were so inferior, that it was not till September that he reached Kuruman. Here he was detained by the breaking down of a wheel. The accident was a happy one, for in these same days the storm which had been so long threatening from the Transvaal broke over the Bakwain country. After Livingstone's departure for the Cape, Sechele had sent all his children but two to Kuruman, to Dr. be compared with that sunburnt one which has so often greeted me with its kind looks. Let us do our duty to our Saviour, and we shall meet again. I wish that time were now. You may read the letters over again which I wrote at Mabotsa, the sweet time you know. As I told you before, I tell you again, they are true, true ; there is not a bit of hypoc- risy in them. I never show all my feelings ; but I can say truly, my dearest, that I loved you when I married you, and the longer I lived with you, I loved you the better Let us do our duty to Christ, and He will bring us through the world with honor and usefulness. He is our refuge and high tower ; let us trust in Him at all times, and in all circum- stances. Love Him more and more, and diffuse His love among the children. Take them all around you, and kiss them for me. Tell them I have left them for the love oi Jesus, and they must love Him, too, and avoid sin, for that displeases Jesus. I shall be delighted to hear of you all safe in England. . . ." 68 THE LIFZ OF D-WTD LmNGSTOXR Moffat's schc^oL Now, while Livingstone was at work on his wagon- wheel, Masabele, Sechele's wife, hfonght down a letter from her husband to the Doc- tor. "Friend oi my heart's love," it ran, "and of all the oonfidence of my heart, I am Sechele. I am midcMie by the Boers, who attacked me, though I faaTe no guilt with them. They demanded that I should be in their kingdom, and I refused- They demanded that I should prevent the English and (kiquas from passing. I rq)lied, ^These are my friends, and I can prevent no one.' They came on Saturday, and I besought tliem not to fight on Sun- day, and they assented- They began on Monday morning at twilight, and fired with all thdr might, and burned the town with fire, and scattered us. They kUkd sixty of my people, and captured women and dnldren and moL They took all the cattle and all the goods of the Bakwains : and the house of Liv- ingstcHie they pltmdered, taking away all his goods. AQ the goods of the hunters" (Oswell and others) "were burnt, and of the Boers were killed twenty- dght. Yes, my beloved frioid, now my wife goes to see tiie children, and Kobus Har will convey her to yon. I am Sediele, the son of Mochoasele." "The Boers," Livingstone writes to his wife some dajrs later, "gutted our house. They brought four wagims down, and took away so^ table, bed, all the croe k eiy, yoor de^ (I hope it had nothing in it. Have you the letters?), smashed the wooden chairs. LINYANTI AND THE MAKOLOLO. 69 took away the iron ones, tore out the leaires of aH the books and scattered them in front of tlic honse; smashed the medicine bottles, windows, oven door; took away the smith-bellows, anvil, all the tools^ three com-mills, a bag of coffee for wiiidi I paid £6, and lots of co£tee, tea, sugar, wfaidi Ae gendenKn who went north left; took all otir catde, and Panfs and Mabalwe's, . . . They set fire to the town, and the heat forced the women to fly, and the men to huddle together on the small hill in Ac middle of the town- The smc^ce presented them seeing the Boers, and the cannon killed sixty Bakwains. The Boers then came near to kill and destroy them all; but the Bakwains killed thirty-five and many horses. They fought the whole day ; but the Boers conld not dislodge them. They stopped firing at night, and the Bakwains retired on account of having no water. . . . All the com is burned. Parties went out and btu^ed Bangwaketse, and swept off all the cattle. Sebube's c^-le ^re all gone. All the Bakatla cattle gone. Xeiiher Bangwaketse zlzt Bakatla fired a shoL All the com burned of all zhii£: tribes. Everything edible taken from them. How win they live? . . . They inen expressed a wish to get hold of me. I wait here a little in order to get information when the path is clear. Kind Providence prevented me from falling into the - erj thick of it God wiH preserve me stifl. Hr work for me to do." 'TTiink," he writes to hi^ 70 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. friend Watt, "of a big, fat Boeress drinking coffee out of my kettle, and then throwing her tallowy cor- poreity on my sofa, or keeping her needles in my wife's writing-desk. Ugh! and then think of fool- ish John Bull paying so many thousands a year for the suppression of th^ slave-trade and allowing com- missions even to make treaties with the Boers, who carry it on. The Boers are mad with rage against me because my people fought bravely. It was I, they think, that taught them to shoot Boers. Fancy your reverend friend teaching the young idea to shoot Boers, and praying for a blessing on the work of his hands!" Sechele, after a vain effort to get to England to lay his case before the Queen, was helped back from the Cape by English officers. He went back, and gathered the remnants of the Bakwains, and eight other tribes, round him, and became more powerful than before the sack of Kolobeng. Four years later Livingstone writes : "Sechele has, though unbidden by man, been teaching his own people. In fact, he has been doing all that I was prevented from doing, and I have been employed in exploring — ^a work I had no previous intention of performing. I think I see the operation of the Unseen Hand in all this."* *But while he could relax playfully at the thought of the desolation at Kolobeng, he knew how to make it the occasion likewise of high resolves. The Boers, as he wrote the Direc- tors, were resolved to shut up the interior. He was deter- LINYANTI AND THE MAKOLOLO. 71 Livingstone was now more determined than ever to open out the country to the north. The more the Boers threatened to pursue on horseback, the more fixed was his resolve; but these threats, and the neighborhood of Boer marauding parties, added to the difficulty of his task by alarming the natives. It was not till November 20th that he and Fleming could get wagon-drivers. At last six were hired who were ready to risk the journey to Linyanti. "To be sure, they were the worst possible specimens of those who imbibe the vices without the virtues of Europeans ; but we had no choice, and were glad to get away on any terms." Giving the Boers a wide berth, they took a route to the west, over the Kalahari desert; but even as it was, came on the skirts of a war between the Boers and Barolongs. "A Caffre war in stage the sec- ond," he describes it. "The third stage is when both sides are equally well armed and afraid of each other. The fourth, when the English take up a quarrel not their own and the Boers slip out of the fray." The Bakwains joined the Barolongs, and "the Boers sent four of their number to ask for peace. I was pres- ent and heard the conditions. Sechele's children must be restored to him. Strong bodies of armed mined, with God's help, to open the country. Time would show which would be most successful in resolution — they or he. To his brother-in-law he wrote that he would open a path through the country, or perish, 72 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Bakwains occupied every pass in the hills, and had not the four ambassadors promised much more than they performed, that day would have been their last. The Commandant Scholz had taken the children of Sechele to be his own domestic slaves. I saw one of them returned to his mother. He had been allowed to roll into the fire, and there were three large, un- bound sores on his body. His mother and the women received him with floods of tears. I took down the names of some scores of boys and girls, many of whom I knew to be our scholars; but I could not comfort any of the mothers with any hope of their return from captivity." The journey to Linyanti by the new route was very trying. Part of the country was flooded, and they were wading all day, and forcing their way through reeds with sharp edges "with our hands all raw and bloody." On emerging from the swamps, "when walking before the wagon in the morning twilight, I observed a lioness about fifty yards from me in the squatting way they walk when going to spring. She was followed by a very large lion, but seeing the wagon she turned back."* *Two years before, he had been at Linyanti with Mr. Oswell. Many details of the new journey are given in the "Mis- sionary Travels," which it is unnecessary to repeat. It may be enough to state that he found the country flooded, and that on the way it was no unusual thing for him to be wet all day, and to walk through swamps and water three or four feet deep. Trees, thorns and reeds offered tremendous regist- LINYANTI AND THE MAKOLOLO. 73 It required all his tact to prevent guides and ser- vants from deserting. Every one but himself was attacked by fever. "I would like," says the Journal, "to devote a portion of my life to the discovery of a remedy for that terrible disease, the African fever. I would go into the parts where it prevails most and try to discover if the natives have a remedy for it. I must make many inquiries of the river people in this quarter." Again, in another key : "Am I on my way to die in Sebituane's country ? Have I seen the last of my wife and children, leaving this fair world and knowing so little of it?" February 4th : "I am spared in health while all the company hav^ been attacked by fever. If God has accepted my service, my life is charmed till my work is done. When that is finished, some simple thing will give me my quietus. Death is a glorious event to one going to Jesus." Their progress was tedious beyond all precedent. "We dug out several wells, and each time had to ance, and he and his people must have presented a pitiable sight when forcing their way through reeds with clitting edges. "With our own hands all raw and bloody, and knees through our trousers, we at length emerged." It was a happy thought to tear his pocket-handkerchief into two parts and tie them over his knees. "I remember," he says in his Journal, referring to last year's journey, "the toil which our friend Oswell endured on our account. He never spared himself." It is not to be supposed that his guides were happy in such a march; it required his tact stretched to its very utmost to prevent them from turning back. 74 THE LlfE OF DaVID LIVINGSTONE. wait a day or two till enough water flowed in to allow our cattle to quench their thirst." At last, however, at the end of May, he reached the Chobe river and was kgain amongst his favorite ' Makololo. "He has dropped from the clouds," the first of them said. They took the wagon to pieces, and carried it across on canoes lashed together, while they themselves swam and dived amongst the oxen ''more like alligators than men." Sekeletu, son of Sebituane, was now chief, his elder sister Mamochi- shane having resigned in disgust at the number of husbands she had to maintain as chieftainess. Poor Mamochishane ! after a short reign of a few months she had risen in the assembly and "addressed her brother with a womanly gush of tears. 'I have been a chief only because my father wished it. I would always have preferred to be married and have a fam- ily like other women. You, Sekeletu, must be chief, and build up our father's house.' " Sekeletu was eighteen years old, five feet seven inches in height, equal to his father neither in stature nor ability, but equally friendly to Livingstone. He sent ample supplies, and the court-herald to welcome them, who advanced leaping and shouting at the top of his voice, "Don't I see the white man? Don't I see the father of Sekeletu? We want sleep. Give your son sleep, my lord." Since Livingstone's last visit the half-caste Portu- guese had appeared from the west, and already a LINYANTI AND THE MAKOLOLO. ^ traffic in slaves was going on, the dealers having gained a footing amongst the Mambari, a neighbor- ing tribe ; and begun intriguing with Mpepe, another son of Sebituane, a pretender to the chieftainship, which he hoped to gain by the aid of these new allies, armed with guns.* Livingstone was surprised at the cordiality of his reception by chief and people. "God has touched their hearts. I have used no undue influence. Kind- ness shown has been appreciated here, while much greater kindness shown to tribes in the south has resulted in the belief that we missionaries must be fools.'* The first wish of chief and people was to obtain the "gun medicine.'* They had got guns at *In the progress of their journey they came to the town of the father of Mpepe, where, most unexpectedly, Living- stone encountered a horrible scene. Mpepe's father and an- other headman were known to have favored the plan for the murder of Sekeletu, and were therefore objects of fear to the latter. When all were met, and Mpepe's father was ques- tioned why he did not stop his son's proceedings, Sekeletu suddenly sprang to his feet and gave the two men intc cus- tody. All had been planned beforehand. Forthwith they were led away, surrounded by Sekeletu's warriors, all dream of opposition on their part being as useless as interference would have been on Livingstone's. Before his eyes he saw them hewn to pieces with axes, and cast into the river to be devoured by the alligators. Within two hours of their arrival the whole party had left the scene of this shocking tragedy, Livingstone being so horrified that he could not remain. He did his best to show the sin of blood-guiltiness, and bring before the people the scene of the Last Judgment, which was the only thing that seemed to make any impression. 76 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. last, but could not shoot — surely now his heart would warm to them, and he would give them the medicine. ''But I could not tell them a lie. I offered to show Sekeletu how to shoot, and that was all the medicine I knew." After a short rest he began to make excursions with Sekeletu to explore the country round Linyanti. In these he was al- ways enforcing on his companions the duty of living peaceably with their neighbors. At one time he even prevailed on Sekeletu to send presents to Lechula- tebe, the powerful chief in the Lake Ngami district, which brought no proper return. "I prevailed on the Makololo to keep the peace during my stay, but could easily see that public opinion was against spar- ing a tribe of Bechuanas. The young men ex- claimed 'Lechulatebe is herding our cows for us.' " At another, a party of hippopotamus hunters from the Loeti fled on their approach, leaving their canoes and their contents. On these his followers "rushed like furies regardless of my shouting. As this would have destroyed my character at Lobale, I forced them to lay down all the plunder on a sand- bank and leave it for the owners." Sixty miles to the north they came on a stockade full of slaves erected by the Mambari, amongst whom was Mpepe, the rebel brother of Sekeletu. Some of Mpepe's men divulged a plot for the murder of Sekeletu. The rivals met in a hut for conference. ''Being tired with riding, I asked Sekeletu where I should LINYANTI AND THE MAKOLOLO. "J"? sleepo He replied, 'Come, I will show you/ As we rose together I unconsciously covered his body with mine, and saved him from the blow of the assassin. When Sekeletu showed me the hut in which I was to pass the night he said, 'That man wishes to kill me/ The chief resolved to be beforehand with him. He sent men to seize him, and he was led out a mile and speared. This is the common mode of executing criminals." Mpepe's men fled, and the Makololo proposed to attack the Mambari stockade. Dread- ing an outbreak of war, Livingstone urged that it would be hard to take, being defended by muskets. " 'Hunger is strong enough for that,' said an under chief, 'a very great fellow is he.' As the chief suf- ferers would have been the poor slaves chained in gangs, I interceded for them, and they were allowed to depart." In the Barotse valley they passed a town in which were two of Mpepe's chief confederates. On Sekele- tu's arrival they were seized and tossed into the river. "When I remonstrated against human life being wasted in this off-hand way, my companions justified the act by the evidence given by Mamochi- shane, and calmly added, 'You see, we are still Boers, we are not yet taught.' "* *During the time thus spent in the Barotse country, Living- stone saw heathenism in its most unadulterated form. It was a painful, loathsome, and horrible spectacle. His views of the Fall and of the corruption of human nature were certainly not lightened by the sight ly his Journal he is constantly 78 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. On these journeys the camp had often to be sup- pHed with meat, and the Makololo shot so badly that "I was obHged to go myself to save my pow- der. ... I was in closer contact with heathens than I had ever been before, and though all were as kind to me as possible, yet to endure the dancing, roaring, and singing, the jesting, grumbling, quar- rellings, and murderings of these children of nature, was the severest penance I had yet undergone in the course of my missionary duties." After each excursion they returned to Linyanti, where Livingstone worked hard as missionary and doctor. Sekeletu pressed him to name anything he desired, and it should be given. *1 explained that my object was to elevate him and his people to be Christians. He replied he did not wish to learn to letting fall expressions of weariness at the noise, the excite- ment, the wild savage dancing, the heartless cruelty, the utter disregard of feelings, the destruction of children, the drudgery of the old people, the atrocious murders with which he was in contact. Occasionally he would think of other scenes of travel; if a friend, for example, were going to Palestine, he would say how gladly he would kiss the dust that had been trod by the Man of Sorrows. One day a poor girl comes hungry and naked to the wagons, and is relieved from time to time ; then disappears to die in the woods of starvation or be torn in pieces by the hyenas. Another day, as he is preaching, a boy, walking along with his mother, is suddenly seized by a man, utters a shriek as if his heart had burst, and becomes, as Livingstone finds, a hopeless slave. Another time, the sickening sight is a line of slaves attached by a chain. That chain haunts and harrows him. LlNYANTl AND THE MAKOLOLO. ^0 read the Book, for he was afraid it might change his heart, and make him content with one wife, like Sechele. No, no, he wanted always to have five wives at least." He held regular services to large congregations. " When I stand up all the women and children draw near, and, having ordered silence, I explain the plan of salvation, the goodness of God in sending His Son to die, etc., always choosing one subject, and taking care to make it short and plain. A short prayer concludes the service, all kneeling down and remaining till told to rise. At first we have to tell the women who have children to remain sitting, for when they kneel they squeeze the children, and a simultaneous skirl is set up by the whole troop of youngsters, who make the prayer inaudible." And again and again in the Journal are entries of **large and attentive audiences," but no concealment of the conviction that the effect is superficial. "They listen, but never suppose the truth must be embodied in actual life. . . .A minister who had not seen so much pioneer service as I have done would have been shocked to see so little effect pro- duced. . . . We can afford to work in faith. . . . When we view the state of the world and its advanc- ing energies by childlike, or call it childish, faith, we see the earth filling with the knowledge of the glory of God — aye, all nations seeing His glory and bow- ing before Him whose right it is to reign. We work 80 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. toward another state of things. Future missionaries will be rewarded by conversions for every sermon. We are their pioneers. They will doubtless have more light than we, but we served our Master earnestly and proclaimed the same Gospel they will do."* *"i3th October. — Missionaries ought to cultivate a taste for the beautiful. We are necessarily compelled to contemplate much moral impurity and degradation. We are so often doomed to disappointment. We are apt to become either callous or melancholy, or, if preserved from these, the constant strain on the sensibilities is likely to injure the bodily health. On this account it seems necessary to cultivate that faculty for the gratification of which God has made such universal pro- vision. See the green earth and blue sky, the lofty mountain and the verdant valley, the glorious orbs of day and night, and the stajry canopy with all their celestial splendor, the graceful flowers so chaste in form and perfect in coloring. The various forms of animated life present to him whose heart is at peace with God through the blood of His Son an indescribable charm. He sees in the calm beauties of nature such abundant provision for the welfare of humanity and ani- mate existence. There appears on the quiet repose of earth's scenery the benignant smile of a Father's love. The sciences exhibit such wonderful intelligence and design in all their various ramifications, some time ought to be devoted to them before engaging in missionary work. The heart may often be cheered by observing the operation of an ever-present Intelligence, and we may feel that we are leaning on His bosom while living in a world clothed in beauty, and robed with the glorious perfections of its Maker and Preserver. We must feel that there is a Governor among the nations who will bring all His plans with respect to our human family to a glorious consummation. He who stays his mind on his ever-present, ever-energetic God, will not fret himself because of evil-doers. He that believeth shall not make haste." LINYANTI AND THE MAKOLOLO. 81 The result of all his excursions with Sekeletu was to convince him that there was no hope of finding a healthy settlement near Linyanti. The fever had at last attacked him, and he was seldom free from it. Even the Makololo, he found, were decreasing in numbers since they had lived here. So now his whole mind was set on the alternative of finding a way to the west coast. By degrees the unwilling- ness of Sekeletu and his people to let him go was overcome. Fleming was sent back to the Cape with the men from Kuruman, having by Livingstone's help made fair profits for his employer. Living- stone's own wagon, with his books and other prop- erty, were left at Linyanti. He was well aware that the attempt was in the nature of a forlorn hope, but wrote to his employers, "Cannot the love of Christ carry the missionary where the slave-trade carries the trader?" to his father-in-law, "I shall open up a path to the interior or perish. I never have had the shadow of a shade of doubt as to the propriety of my course" ; to his father, "Our intentions are to go up the Luba till we reach the falls, then send back the canoe and proceed in the country beyond as best we can. May Christ accept my children for His ser- vice, and sanctify them for it ! My blessing on my wife. May God comfort her ! If my watch comes back after I am cut off, it belongs to Agnes. If my sextant, it is Robert's. The Paris medal to Thomas. Double-barreled gun to Zouga. Be a father to the 82 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. fatherless and a husband to the widow for Jesus' sake. "The Boers by taking possession of all my goods have saved me the trouble of making a will." CHAPTER Vo LINYANTI TO LOANDA. 1853-54. On November 11, 1853, he left Linyanti, and arrived at Loanda on May 31, 1854. The first stages of the journey were to be by water, and Seke- letu accompanied him to the Chobe, where he was to embark. They crossed five branches before reach- ing the main stream, a wide and deep river full of hippopotami. *'The chief lent me his own canoe, and as it was broader than usual I could turn about in it with ease. ... I had three muskets for my people, and a rifle and double-barreled shotgun for myself. My ammunition was distributed through the luggage, that we might not be left without a supply. Our chief hopes for food were in our guns. I carried twenty pounds of beads worth forty shil- lings, a few biscuits, a few pounds of tea and sugar, and about twenty pounds of coffee. One small tin canister, about fifteen inches square, was filled with spare shirts, trousers, and shoes, to be used when we reached civilized life, another of the same size was stored with medicines, a third with books, and a fourth with a magic-lantern, which we found of much service. The sextant and other instruments 84 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. were carried apart. A bag contained the clothes we expected to wear out in the journey, which, with a small tent just sufficient to sleep in, a sheep- skin mantle as a blanket, and a horse-rug as a bed, completed my equipment. An array of baggage would probably have excited the cupidity of the tribes through whose country we wished to pass."* *Diiring this part of the journey he had constant attacks of intermittent fever, accompanied in the latter stages of the road with dysentery of the most distressing kind. In the intervals of fever he was often depressed alike in body and in mind. Often the party were destitute of food of any sort, and never had they food suitable for a fever-stricken invalid. The vexations he encountered were of no common kind : at start- ing, the greater part of his medicines was stolen, much though he needed them; in the course of the journey, his pontoon was left behind ; at one time, while he was under the influence of fever, his riding-ox threw him, and he fell heavily on his head ; at another, while crossing a river, the ox tossed him into the water; the heavy rains, and the necessity of wading through streams three or four times a day, kept him almost constantly wet; and occasionally, to vary the annoyance, mos- quitoes would assail him as fiercely as if they had been waging a war of extermination. The most critical moments of peril, demanding the utmost coolness and most dauntless courage, would sometimes occur during the stage of depression after fever; it was then he had to extricate himself from savage warriors, who vowed that he must go back, unless he gave them an ox, a gun, or a man. The ox he could ill spare, the gun not at all, and as for giving the last — a man — to make a slave of, he would sooner die. At the best, he was a poor ragged skeleton when he reached those who had hearts to feel for him and hands to help him. Had he not been a prodigy of patience, faith, and courage, had he not known where to find help in all time of his tribulation, he would never have reached the haunts of civilized men, LINYANTI TO LOANDA. 85 The voyage up the Chobe, and the Zambesi after the junction of those rivers, was prosperous but slow, in consequence of stoppages opposite villages. *'My man Pitsane knew of the generous orders of Sekeletu, and was not disposed to allow them to remain a dead letter." In the rapids, ''the men leaped into the water without the least hesitation to save the canoes from being dashed against obstruc- tions, or caught in eddies. They must never be allowed to come broadside to the stream, for being flat-bottomed they would at once be capsized and everything in them lost." When free from fever he was delighted to note the numbers of birds, several of them unknown, which swarmed on the river and its banks, all carefully noted in his Journals. One extract must suffice here: "Whenever we step on shore a species of plover, a plaguey sort of public- spirited individual, follows, flying overhead, and is most persevering in its attempts to give warning to all animals to flee from the approaching danger," But he was already weak with fever ; was seized with giddiness whenever he looked up quickly, and if he could not catch hold of some support fell heavily — a bad omen for his chance of passing through the un- known country ahead ; but his purpose never faltered for a moment. On January i, 1854, he was still on the river, but getting beyond Sekeletu's territory anrl allies to a region of dense forests, in the open glades of which dwelt the Balonda, a powerful tribe, whose B6 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. relations with the Makololo were precarious. Each was incHned to raid on the other since the Mambari and Portuguese half-castes had appeared with Man- chester goods. These excited the intense wonder and cupidity of both nations. They listened to the story of cotton-mills as fairy dreams, exclaiming, "How can iron spin, weave, and print? Truly ye are gods!" and were already inclined to steal their neighbors' children — those of their own tribe they never sold at this time — to obtain these wonders out of the sea. Happily Livingstone had brought back with him several Balonda children who had been carried off by the Makololo. This, and his speeches to Manenko, the chieftainess of the district and niece of Shinte, the head chief of the Balonda, gained them a welcome. This Amazon was a strapping young woman of twenty, who led their party through the forest at a pace which tried the best walkers. She seems to have been the only native whose will ever prevailed against Livingstone's. He intended to proceed up to her uncle Shinte's town in canoes ; she insisted that they should march by land, and ordered her people to shoulder his baggage in spite of him. *'My men succumbed, and left me powerless. I was moving off in high dudgeon to the canoes, when she kindly placed her hand on my shoulder, and with a motherly look said, 'Now, my little man, just do as the rest have done.' My feel- ing of annoyance, of course, vanished, and I went LINYANTI TO LOANDA. 87 out to try for some meat. My men, in admiration of her pedestrian powers, kept remarking, 'Manenko is a soldier,' and we were all glad when she proposed a halt for the night." Shinte received them in his town, the largest and best laid out that Livingstone had seen in Central Africa, on a sort of throne cov- ered with leopard skin. The kotla, or place of audi- ence, was one hundred yards square. Though in the sweating stage of an intermittent fever, Living- stone held his own with the chief, gave him an ox as ''his mouth was bitter from want of flesh," advised him to open a trade in cattle with the Makololo, and to put down the slave-trade; and, after spending more than a week with him, left amid the warmest professions of friendship. Shinte found him a guide of his tribe, Intemese by name, who was to stay by them till they reached the sea, and at a last interview hung round his neck a conical shell of such value that two of them, so his men assured him, would purchase a slave.* *In most cases these people were outwardly very repulsive. Never seen without a spear or a club in their hands, the men seemed only to delight in plunder and slaughter, and yet they were utter cowards. Their mouths were full of cursing and bitterness. The execrations they poured on each other were incredible. In very wantonness, when they met they would pelt each other with curses, and then perhaps burst into a fit of laughter. The women, like the men, went about in almost total nudity, and seemed to know no shame. So reckless were the chiefs of human life, that a man might be put to death for a single distasteful word; yet sometimes there were exhibi- 88 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Soon they were out of Shinte's territory, and Inte- mese became the plague of the party, though, un- luckily, they could not dispense with him altogether in crossing the great flooded plains of Lebala. They camped at night on mounds, where they had to trench round each hut and use the earth to raise their sleeping places. "My men turned out to work most willingly, and I could not but contrast their conduct with that of Intemese, who was thoroughly imbued with the slave spirit, and lied on all occasions to save himself trouble." He lost the pontoon, too, thereby adding greatly to their troubles. They now came to the territory of another great chief, Katema, who received them hospitably, sending food and giving them solemn audience in his kotla, surrounded by his tribe. A tall man of forty, dressed in a snuff- brown coat, with a broad band of tinsel down the arms and a helmet of beads and feathers. He car- ried a large fan with charms attached, which he waved constantly during the audience, often laugh- ing heartily — "a good sign, for a man who shakes tions of very tender feeling. The headman of a village once showed him, with much apparent feeling, the burnt house of a child of his, adding, "She perished in it, and we have all removed from our own huts and built here round her, in order to weep over her grave." From some of the people he received great kindness; others were quite different. Their character, in short, was a riddle, and would need to be studied more. But the prevalent aspect of things was both dis- tressing and depressing. If he had thought of it continuallvj he would have become the victim of melancholy. LINYANTI TO LOANDA. 89 his sides with mirth is seldom difficult to deal with." "1 am the great Moene Katema," was his address; "I and my fathers have always lived here, and there is my father's house. I never killed any of the traders ; they all come to me. I am the great Moene Katema, of whom you have heard." On hearing Livingstone's object, he gave him three guides, who would take him by a northern route, along which no traders had passed, to avoid the plains, impassable from the floods. He accepted Livingstone's present of a shawl, a razor, some beads and buttons, and a powder-horn graciously, laughing at his apologies for its smallness, and asking him to bring a coat from Loanda, as the one he was wearing was old. From this point troubles multiplied, and they began to be seriously pressed for food. The big game had disappeared, and they were glad to catch moles and mice. Every chief demanded a present for allowing them to pass, and the people of the villages charged exorbitantly for all supplies. On they floundered, however, through flooded forests. In crossing the river Loka, Livingstone's ox got from him, and he had to strike out for the farther bank. "My poor fellows were dreadfully alarmed, and about twenty of them made a simultaneous rush into the water for my rescue, and just as I reached the opposite bank one seized me by the arms, and another clasped me round the body. When I stood up it was most gratifying to see them all struggling 90 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. toward me. Part of my goods were brought up from the bottom when I was safe. Great was their pleasure when they found I could swim like them- y selves, and I felt most grateful to those poor heathens for the promptitude with which they dashed in to my rescue." ' Farther on, the people tried to frighten them with the account of the deep rivers they had yet to cross, but his men laughed. " 'We can all swim/ they said; 'who carried the white man across the river but himself?' I felt proud of their praise."* On March 4th they reached the country of the Chiboque, a tribe in constant contact with the slave- dealers. Next day their camp was surrounded by the nearest chief and his warriors, evidently bent on plunder. They paused when they saw Livingstone seated on his camp-stool, with his double-barreled gun across his knees, and his Makololo ready with their javelins. The chief and his principal men sat down in front at Livingstone's invitation to talk over the matter, and a palaver began as to the fine claimed / *The loneliness of feeling engendered by the absence of all human sympathy was trying. "Amidst all the beauty and loveliness with which I am surrounded, there is still a feeling of want in the soul — as if something more were needed to bathe the soul in bliss than the sight of the perfection in working and goodness in planning of the great Father of our spirits. I need to be purified — fitted for the eternal, to which my soul stretches away, in ever-returning longings. I need to be made more like my blessed Saviour, to serve my God with all my powers. Look upon me, Spirit of the living God, and supply all Thou seest lacking." LINYANTI TO LOANDA. 91 by the Chiboque. "The more I yielded, the more unreasonable they became, and at every fresh de- mand a shout was raised, and a rush made round us with brandished weapons. One young man even made a charge at my head from behind, but I quickly brought round the muzzle of my gun to his mouth and he retreated. My men behaved with admirable coolness. The chief and his counsellors, by accept- ing my invitation to be seated, had placed themselves in a trap, for my men had quietly surrounded them, and made them feel that there was no chance of escaping their spears. I then said that as every- thing had failed to satisfy them they evidently meant to fight, and if so, they must begin, and bear the blame before God. I then sat silent for some time. It was certainly rather trying, but I was careful not to seem flurried ; and having four barrels ready for instant action, looked quietly at the savage scene around." The palaver began again, and ended in the exchange of an ox for a promise of food, in which he was wofully cheated. ''It was impossible to help laughing, but I was truly thankful that we had so far gained our point as to be allowed to pass without shedding human blood." He now struck north to avoid the Chiboque, and made for the Portuguese settlement of Cassange through dense forest and constant wet. Here an- other fever fit came on, so violent that 'T could scarcely, after some hours' trial, get a lunar observa- 9^ THE LIFE OF DAVID UVINGSTONE. tion in which I could repose confidence. Those who know the difficulties of making observations and committing them all to paper will sympathize with me in this and many similar instances.'* At this crisis, when the goal was all but at hand, obstacles multiplied till it seemed that after all it would never be reached. First his riding ox, Sirid- bad — a beast "blessed with a most intractable tem- per," and a habit of bolting into the bush to get his rider combed off by a climber, and then kicking at him — achieved a triumph in his weak state when "my bridle broke, and down I came backward on the crown of my head, receiving as I fell a kick on the thigh. , . . This last attack of fever reduced me almost to a skeleton. The blanket which I used as a saddle, being pretty constantly wet, caused ex- tensive abrasion of the skin, which was continually healing and getting sore again." Then the guides missed their way and led them back into Chiboque territory, where the demands of the chief of every village for "a man, an ox, or a tusk," for permission to pass, began again. Worst of all, signs of mutiny began to show themselves amongst the Batoka men of his party, who threatened to turn back. He ap- peased them by giving a tired ox to be killed at the Sunday's halt. "Having thus, as I thought, silenced their murmurs, I sank into a state of torpor, and was oblivious of all their noise. On Sunday the muti- neers were making a terrible din in preparing the LINYANTI TO LOANDA. 93 skin. I requested them twice to be more quiet as the noise pained me, but as they paid no attention to this civil request, I put out my head, and, repeating it, was answered by an impudent laugh. Knowing that discipline would be at an end if this mutiny was not quelled, and that our lives depended on vigorously upholding authority, I seized a double-barreled pistol and darted out with such a savage aspect as to put them to precipitate flight. They gave no further trouble." Every night now they had to build a stockade, and by day to march in a compact body, knowing the forest to be full of enemies dogging their path, for now they had nothing to give as pres- ents, the men havinsr even divested themselves of all their copper ornaments to appease the Chiboque har- pies. ''Nothing, however, disturbed us, and for my part I was too ill to care much whether we were attacked or not." They struggled on, the Chiboque natives, now joined by bodies of traders, opposing at every ford, Livingstone no longer wondering why expeditions from the interior failed to reach the coast. ''Some of my men proposed to return home, and the prospect of being obliged to turn back from the threshold of the Portuguese settlements dis- tressed me exceedingly. After using all my powers of persuasion I declared that if they now returned I should go on alone, and returning into my little tent, I lifted up my heart to Him who hears the sighing of the soul. Presently the head-man came in. 'Do not 94 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. be disheartened/ he said; Ve will never leave you. Wherever you lead, we will follow. Our remarks were only made on account of the injustice of these people.' Others followed, and with the most artless simplicity of manner told me to be comforted — 'they were all my children ; they knew no one but Sekeletu and me, and would die for me; they had spoken in bitterness of spirit, feeling they could do nothing.' " On April ist they gained the ridge which overlooks the valley of the Quango, and the Portuguese settle- ments on the farther bank. 'The descent is so steep that I was obliged to dismount, though so weak that I had to be supported. Below us, at a depth of i,ooo feet, lay the magnificent valley of the Quango. The view of the Vale of Clyde, from the spot where Mary witnessed the battle of Langside, resembled in minia- ture the glorious sight which was here presented to our view." On the 4th they were close to the Quango, here one hundred and fifty yards broad, when they were stopped for the last time by a village chief, and surrounded by his men. The usual alter- cation ensued, Livingstone refusing to give up his blanket — the last article he possessed except his watch and instruments and Sekeletu's tusks, which had been faithfully guarded — until on board the canoes in which they were to cross. "I was trying to persuade my people to move on to the bank in spite of them, when a young half-caste Portuguese ser- geant of militia, Cypriano di Abren, who had come LINVANTI TO LOANDA. 95 across in search of bees'-wax, made his appearance, and gave the same advice." They marched to the bank — the chief's men opening fire on them but without doing any damage — made terms with the ferrymen by Cypriano's help, crossed the Quango, and were at the end of their troubles. Four days they stopped with Cypriano, who treated them royally, killing an ox and stripping his garden to feast them, and sending them on to Cas- sange with provisions of meal ground by his mother and her maids. "I carried letters from the Chevalier du Prat of Cape Town, but I am inclined to believe that my friend Cypriano was influenced by feelings of genuine kindness excited by my wretched appear- ance." At Cassange they were again most hospitably treated, and here, before starting for Loanda, three hundred miles, they disposed of Sekeletu's tusks, which sold for much higher prices than those given by Cape traders. *'Two muskets, three small barrels of powder, and English calico and baize enough to clothe my whole party, with large bunches of beads, were given for one tusk, to the great delight of my Makololo, who had been used to get only one gun for two tusks. With another tusk we purchased calico — the chief currency here to pay our way to the coast. The remaining two were sold for money to purchase a horse for Sekeletu at Loanda." Living- stone w^s much struck both by the country he passed 96 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. through and the terms on which the Portuguese lived with the natives. Most of them had families by native women, who were treated as European children and provided for by their fathers. Half- caste clerks sat at table with the whites, and he came to the conclusion that "nowhere in Africa is there so much good-will between Europeans and natives as here."* The dizziness produced by his twenty-seven at- tacks of fever on the road made it all he could do to stick on Sindbad, who managed to give him a last *At length Livingstone began to get near the coast, reach- ing the outlying Portuguese stations. He was received by the Portuguese gentlemen v^^ith great kindness, and his wants were generously provided for. One of them gave him the first glass of wine he had taken in Africa. Another provided him with a suit of clothing. Livingstone invoked the blessing of Him who said, "I was naked and ye clothed me." His Journal is profuse in its admiration of some of the Portu- guese traders, who did not like the slave-trade — not they, but had most enlightened views for the welfare of Africa. But opposite some of these eulogistical passages of the Journal there were afterward added an expressive series of marks of interrogation. At a later date he saw reason to doubt the sincerity of some of the professions of these gentlemen. Ingenuous and ' trustful, he could at first think nothing but good of those who had shown him such marked attention. Afterward, the inexorable logic of facts proved too strong, even for his unsuspecting soul. But the kindness of the Portuguese was most genuine, and Livingstone never ceased to be grateful for a single kind act. It is important to note that whatever he came to think of their policy afterward, he was always ready to make this aoknowledgment. LINYANTI TO LOANDA. 97 ducking in the Lombe. 'The weakening effects of the fever were most extraordinary. For instance, in attempting to take lunar observations I could not avoid confusion of time and distance, neither could I hold the instrument steady, nor perform a simple calculation/' He rallied a little in crossing a moun- tain range. As they drew near Loando the hearts of his men began to fail, and they hinted their doubts to him. ''If you suspect me you can return," he told them, "for I am as ignorant of Loando as you ; but nothing will happen to you but what happens to me. We have stood by one another hitherto, and will do so till the last." The first view of the sea staggered the Makololo. "We were marching along with our father," they said, "believing what the ancients had told us was true, that the world had no end ; but all at once the world said to us, 'I am finished ; there is no more of me. The fever had produced chronic dysentery, which was so depressing that Livingstone entered Loanda in deep melancholy, doubting the reception he might get from the one English gentleman, Mr. Gabriel, the Commissioner for the suppression of the slave- trade. He was soon undeceived. Mr. Gabriel re- ceived him most kindly, and, seeing the condition he was in, gave him up his own bed. "Never shall I forget the luxurious pleasure I enjoyed in feeling myself again on a good English bed after six months' 98 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. sleeping on the ground. I was soon asleep ; and Mr. Gabriel rejoiced in the soundness of my repose."* *In his Journal the warmest benedictions are poured on Mr. Gabriel, and blessings everlasting besought for his soul. One great disappointment he suffered at Loanda — not a single letter was awaiting him. His friends must have thought he could never reach it. This want of letters was a very fre- quent trial, especially to one who wrote so many, and of such length. The cordial friendship of Mr. Gabriel, however, was a great solace. He gave him much information, not only on all that concerned the slave trade — now more than ever attract- ing his attention — but also on the natural history of the dis- trict, and he entered con amore into the highest objects of his mission. Afterward, in acknowledging to the Directors of the London Missionary Society receipt of a letter for Dr. Livingstone, intrusted to his care, Mr. Gabriel wrote as fol- lows (20th March, 1856) i "Dr. Livingstone, after the noble objects he has achieved, most assuredly wants no testimony from me. I consult, there- fore, the impulse of my own mind alone, when I declare that in no respect was my intercourse more gratifying to me than in the opportunities afforded to me of observing his earnest, active, and unwearied solicitude for the advancement of Chris- tianity. Few, perhaps, have had better opportunities than myself of estimating the benefit the Christian cause in this country ha^ derived from Dr. Livingstone's exertions. It is indeed fortunate for that sacred cause, and highly honorable to the London Missionary Society, when qualities and disposi- tions like his are employed in propagating its blessings among men. Irrespective, moreover, of his laudable and single- minded conduct as a minister of the Gospel, and his attain- ments in making observations which have determined the true geography of the interior, the Directors, I am sure, will not have failed to perceive how interesting and valuable are all the communications they receive from him — as sketches of the social condition of the people, and the material, fabrics, and produce of these lands. . o ,'* CHAPTER VI. ACROSS AFRICA — LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 1854-57. The journey to Loanda bed severely tried Living- stone's splendid constitution. Though he rallied from his first attack in a few days, he was subject to severe relapses, the last of which, in August, entirely prostrated him. He was reduced to a skeleton, but under the care of Mr. Gabriel and the surgeon of the "Polyphemus," recovered, and was thankful to find that the lassitude which had not left him for months had at last disappeared. His preparations for the re- turn journey to Linyanti were now pushed on, and he started eastward on September 20th. During his attacks of fever he had been unable to look after his twenty-seven Makololo, whom he had brought safely through so many perils, but on his recovery was pleased and relieved to find how well they had managed to shift for themselves. They had estab- lished a brisk trade in firewood, which they collected in the wild country and sold at a cheaper rate than regular wood-carriers; and had also been employed at sixpence a day, for each man, in unloading an English vessel which had brought out coal for the cruisers on the station. 100 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. These, the "Pluto" and "Philomel," were now vis- ited on the captain's invitation by Livingstone with his men. "It is not a canoe at all, it is a town ! and what sort of a town that you climb up into with a rope?" the Makololo wondered, "These are all my countrymen, sent by our Queen to put down those who buy and sell black men," Livingstone told them, pointing to the sailors. "Truly, they are just like you!" the Makololo replied, and were soon for- ward amongst the crew, who shared their dinners with them, and otherwise petted them in "the kotla," as they called the sailors' deck. He himself became fast friends with Captains Skene and Bedingfield, and a hearty admirer of the British Navy, the officers of which he had once looked on as idlers, maintained by the hard-working nation, and the men as reckless ne'er-do-weels, who gloried in fearing neither God, nor man, nor devil, "and made our wooden walls floating hells." It was not the first or the last of his early prejudices that the great Puritan traveller was destined to outlive. Seeing his wretched state of health, the captains urged him to go home, offering him a passage with them to St. Helena. Other friends supported them, urging him to take passage on board the "Fore- runner" mail packet, by which he was sending home his letters, with journals, maps, and observations, laboriously drawn up for his employers, the Geo- graphical Society, and the Astronomer-Royal. The LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 101 temptation was great, as he had found no letter from home, nor dispatch, at Loanda, but he put it reso- lutely aside, knowing that his Makololo could never get back without him, and having pledged his word to Sekeletu to see them home. The ^'Forerunner" was lost off Madeira with all her passengers but one ; and he had to stop for several weeks on his eastward march at Pungo Adongo, to reproduce his dispatches and maps — a feat equal to that of Carlyle in re- writing the volume of his "French Revolution" after its destruction by J. S. Mill's housemaid. The party left Loanda loaded with presents, and with the good wishes of the people, high and low. The bishop, who was acting governor of the province, gave Living- stone orders for supplies by the way while in Angola, and introductions to the officials on the east coast if he should ever get there ; a horse, uniform, and other presents for Sekeletu ; and to his men, suits of cloth- ing, in addition to those of striped calico, with red caps, in which Mr. Gabriel had already arrayed them. The merchants sent specimens of their wares, and two donkeys, the only beast of burden which is proof against the poisonous bite of the tsetse-fly. Thus loaded, they set off, on September 20, 1854, making a southern detour along the coast, and through the provinces of Massangano, Cassange, and of Golungo Alto, before returning to their old route beyond the Portuguese border. Everywhere Livingstone was struck with the rich- 102 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. ness of the country and the blighting influence of the slave-trade. His progress was tediously slow, as the men became footsore on the dry roads, and had fre- quent attacks of fever, through which he nursed them successfully, bringing home every man of the twenty-seven safe to Linyanti. He was not so suc- cessful with Sekeletu's horse, which sickened and died after detaining them several days. Then came his halt at Pungo Adongo, to reproduce his de- spatches, and then more attacks of fever, so that he did not get clear of Angola till February, 1855.* He left the province with very mixed feelings — ♦Writing to Mrs. Livingstone from Bashinge, 20th March, 1855, he gives some painful particulars of the slave-trade. Referring to a slave-agent with whom he had been, he says : "This agent is about the same in appearance as Mabalwe, and speaks Portuguese as the Griquas do Dutch. He has two chainsful of women going to be sold for the ivory. Formerly the trade went from the interior into the Portuguese territory ; now it goes the opposite way. This is the effect of the Portu- guese love of the trade: they cannot send them abroad on account of our ships of war on the coast, yet will sell them to the best advantage. These women are decent-looking, as much so as the general run of Kuruman ladies, and were caught lately in a skirmish the Portuguese had with their tribe; and they will be sold for about three tusks each. Each has an iron ring round the wrist, and that is attached to the chain, which she carries in the hand to prevent it jerking and hurting the wrist. How would Nannie like to be thus treated? and yet it is only by the goodness of God in appointing our lot in different circumstances that we are not similarly de- graded, for we have the same evil nature, which is so degraded ill therti as to allow of men treating them as beasts. LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 103 gratitude to the Portuguese, high and low, for their great kindness to himself, and sanguine anticipations alternating with doubts as to their views with regard to the slave-trade; a keener sense than ever of the blighting effects of that trade, which had reduced the morality of the Angola tribes, especially in the matter of theft, far below that of the Bechuana and Makololo — ''At Kolobeng, where slavery is un- known, we never locked our doors night or day" — and a painful sense of the contrast between the condi- tion of the people and the brightness and richness of the country. They found the Chiboque head-men, though much more easy to deal with than they had been in 1853 on their way to the coast, still hostile and exacting whenever they saw a chance. On only one occasion, however, was there any danger of a collision. Liv- ingstone had been prostrated by rheumatic fever and obliged to halt for eight days, during which his men managed to quarrel with the nearest head-man. When they moved on at last, they were followed by crowds of Chiboque from all the neighboring villages. "They began by knocking down the bur- dens of the hindmost of my men, and several shots were fired, each party spreading out on both sides of the path. I fortunately had a six-barreled revol- ver, and with this in my hand staggered along the path with two or three of my men and encountered th? chiei The sight of si^ barrels gaping into his 104 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. stomach, with my own ghastly visage looking dag- gers at his face, seemed to produce an instant revolu- tion in his martial feelings, for he cried out, 'Oh, I have only come to speak to you, and wish peace only/ Both parties crowded up to their chiefs. I requested all to sit down, and then said to the chief, If you have come with peaceful intentions, we have no other. Go home to your village.' He replied, 'I am afraid, lest you should shoot me in the back.' I re- joined, 'If I wanted to kill you I could shoot you in the face as well.' Mosantu called out to me, 'Don't give him your back.' But I said, 'Tell him to ob- serve that I am not afraid of him,' and turning, mounted my ox and took my departure." Slowly they retraced their steps, passing the Ba- londa, to whose great chief, Matiamvo, Livingstone much wished to pay a visit at his town, Mai, from whence he might have descended the Zambesi to the ^lakololo country. But the extra cost of the devia-' lion, and the probability of Matiamvo not allowing him to pass out of his country to the southeast, hindered him. He found the tribes of the Balonda and Luba more uncivilized and better-looking than any of the tribes between them and the coast — a merry race, spending their time in gossip, funeral assemblies, and marriages. "This flow of animal spirits must be one reason why they are such an indestructible race." On June 8th they forded the Lotembwa, here a LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 105 mile wide and three feet deep, and regained their old path, crossing the great plain which they had seen under water on their outward march, and on which he now suffered from another severe attack of fever. But no physical depression could weaken his zeal or power of observation, and it was now that the solution of the problem of the river-system of Africa broke upon him. '1 ,had learnt, partly from my own observation, partly from information derived from others, that the rivers of this part of Africa took their rise in the same elevated region, and that all united in two main drains, the one flow- ing to the north by the Congo, the other to the south by the Zambesi. I was now standing on the central ridge that divided these two systems, and was sur- prised to find how slight its elevation was. Instead of the lofty snow-clad mountains we might have expected, we found frequently flat plains not more than 4,000 feet above sea level, and 1,000 feet lower than the western ridge we had already passed." They were now getting amongst friends. At Katema's town, besides abundance of other food, they were presented with one of his white cows, which it took them two days to catch, and the chiefs heart was made glad by a cloak of red baize orna- mented with gold tinsel, a quarter of a pound of powder, and other articles. They found their pon- toon where they had left it, carefully preserved, but 106 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. useless, the mice having eaten holes in it. They passed through Shinte's country, distributing now the cuttings and seeds they had brought from An- gola, custard apples, fig, coffee, and palm-oil trees, onions, garlic, and pepper. At Manenko's they went through a rite, consisting of libations of beer, in which drops of the blood of hosts and guests had been infused, after which they were reckoned as blood-relations. At Libonta, the first Makololo town, they were received with extravagant joy, as men risen from the dead. Pitsane gave an account of their adventures in a speech of an hour, dwelling on the kindness of Mr. Gabriel and others to them, and the fact that Livingstone had opened a route for them to the coast, and had conciliated all the chiefs on the road. Next day was observed, by Livingstone's desire, as a day of thanksgiving. *'My men decked themselves in their best, and I found that although their goods were finished, they had managed to save suits of white, which with their red caps gave them rather a dashing appearance. They tried to walk like the soldiers they had seen at Loanda, and called them- selves my 'braves' (batlabani). During the service they all sat with their guns over their shoulders, to the unbounded admiration of the women and chil- dren." The abundance of supplies poured in, drew from them apologies that they had nothing to give in return. "It does not matter; you have opened a LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 107 path for us, and we shall have sleep," was the grace- ful reply. Their progress down the Barotse Valley was one long triumph, and they reached Linyanti on Septem- ber II, 1855, having taken a year all but nine days on their return journey. Livingstone spent eight weeks at Linyanti with Sekeletu, starting for the east coast on November 3, 1855. The intervening time was fully occupied in writ- ing letters and despatches, doctoring and preaching ; and, in the latter part, in preparing for his eastward journey. He was again disappointed in finding no letters from home, and only one, a year old, from Kuruman. This had been brought, with some pack- ages of eatables, from Mrs. Moffat to the southern bank of the Zambesi by a party of Matabele, the ene- mies of the Makololo, who called across the river that they were from Moffat for "Nake." When the Makololo refused to believe them they left the pack- ages, saying, ''Here are the goods; we place them before you; if they perish, the guilt will be yours.'' The Makololo cautiously brought them to an island in mid-stream, building a hut over them, in which Livingstone found them in perfect safety.* Besides *A letter from Mrs. Moffat accompanied the box. It is amusing to read her motherly explanations about the white shirts, and the blue waistcoat, the woolen socks, lemon juice, quince jam, and tea and coffee, some of which had come all the way from Hamilton; but there are passages in that little note that make one's heart go with rapid beat : 108 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. providing him with an escort of one hundred and twenty men, ten slaughter cattle, three of his best riding oxen, and a large store of provisions, Sekeletu with his chief men accompanied him for some dis-' tance. Despite some relapses during Livingstone's absence toward the slave-trade, and one or two raids against his neighbors, Sekeletu succeeded in winning "My Dear Son Livingstone — Your present position is almost too much for my weak nerves to suffer me to contem- plate. Hitherto I have kept up my spirits, and been enabled to believe that our great Master may yet bring you out in safety, for though His ways are often inscrutable, I should have clung to the many precious promises made in His word as to temporal preservation, such as the 91st and 121st Psalms — but have been taught that we may not presume con- fidently to expect them to be fulfilled, and that every petition, however fervent, must be with devout submission to His will. My poor sister-in-law clung tenaciously to the 91st Psalm, and firmly believed that her dear husband would thus be pre- served, and never indulged the idea that they should never meet on earth. But I apprehend submission was wanting. 'If it be Thy will,' I fancy she could not say — and, therefore, she was utterly confounded when the news came.* She had exercised strong faith, and was disappointed. Dear Living- stone, I have always endeavored to keep this in mind with regard to you. Since George [Fleming] came out it seemed almost hope against hope. Your having got so thoroughly feverized chills my expectations ; still prayer, unceasing prayer, is made for you. When I think of you my heart will go up- ward. 'Keep him as the apple of Thine eye,' 'Hold him in the hollow of Thy hand,' are the ejaculations of my heart." *Rev. John Smith, missionary at Madras, had gone to Viza- gapatam to the .ordination of two native pastors, and when returning in a small vessel, a storm arose, when he and all on board perished. LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 109 his warm regard. The chief had not only made his journeys possible, furnishing him with supplies which, even if he could have drawn for it, his meagre salary of f loo a year could not have procured, but showed the strongest personal devotion to him; in- sisting, for instance, on Livingstone taking his blan- ket for a bed when they were accidentally separated from their baggage in a tremendous tropical storm. "I was .much affected," Livingstone writes, ''by this act of kindness. If such men must perish by the ad- vance of civilization, as some races of animals do before others, it is a pity. God grant that ere this time come they may receive the Gospel — a solace for the soul in death."* *In writing from Linyanti to his wife, Livingstone makes the best he can of his long detention. She seems to have put the matter playfully, wondering what the "source of attraction" had been. He says : "Don't know what apology to make you for a delay I could not shorten. But as you are a mercifully kind-hearted dame, I expect you will write out an apology in proper form, and I shall read it before you with as long a face as I can exhibit. Disease was the chief obstacle. The repair of the wagon was the 'source of attraction' in Cape Town, and the settle- ment of a case of libel another 'source of attraction.' They tried to engulf me in a law-suit for simply asking the post- master why some letters were charged double. They were so marked in my account. I had to pay £13 to quash it. They longed to hook me in, from mere hatred to London mission- aries. I did not remain an. hour after I could move. But I do not wonder at your anxiety for my speedy return. I am sorry you have been disappointed, but you know no mortal can control disease. The Makololo are wonderfully well 110 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. • On November 13th Sekeletu left them at Sesheke on the banks of the Zambesi, along which they pro- ceeded until they came in sight of five columns of vapor — ''smoke that sounds," or ''Mosi-oa-tunya," as the Makololo called them — rising from the falls of which he and Oswell had heard years before. "Being persuaded that Mr. Oswell and myself were the very first Europeans who ever saw the Zambesi in the heart of Africa, I decided to use the same liberty as the Makololo had done, and named them the Falls of Victoria, the only English name I have affixed to any part of the country. . . . The whole scene is extremely beautiful; the banks and islands dotted over the river are adorned with sylvan vegetation of every variety of color and form." Changing his canoe for a lighter one manned by men who knew the rapids well, he descended them till he reached an island in mid-river, on the very edge of the lip over which the water rolls. ''Erom the end of the island where we first landed, though within a few yards of the falls, no one could see where the vast body of water went ; it seemed to lose itself in a transverse fissure only 80 feet wide. Creeping with awe to the end of the island, I peered down into a large rent which had been made from bank to bank pleased with the path we have already made, and if I am successful in going down to Quilimane, that will be still better. I have written you by every opportunity, and am very sorry your letters have been miscarried." LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. HI of the broad Zambesi, and saw that a stream i,8oo yards broad leaped down 320 feet, and then became suddenly compressed into a space of 15 or 20 yards. . The falls are simply caused by a crack in a hard ^ basaltic rock from the right to the left bank, and then prolonged from the left bank away through 30 or 40 miles of hills." After w^ondering and delighted sur- vey, he planted the peach and apricot stones and coffee seed he had brought from Angola, feeling sure that here they would never want water. *'I bar- gained for a hedge with one of the Makololo, and if he is faithful, I have great hopes of Mosi-oa-tunya's abilities as a nurseryman. My only fear is the hippo- potami, whose footprints I saw on the island. When the garden was prepared I cut my initials on a tree, and the date 1855, the only instance in which I in- dulged in this piece of vanity." Reasoning, as was his wont, over the geological and geographical problems which the falls forced upon him, he came to the conclusion that before the river broke through this rent the whole country be- , tween iy° and 21° south latitude was one vast fresh- ' water lake, a conclusion which he found on his return home that Sir Roderick Murchison had already pro- pounded to the Geographical Society.* *A discovery as to the structure of the country, long be- lieved in by him, but now fully verified, was of much more practical importance. It had been ascertained by him that skirting the central hollow there were two longitudinal ridges 112 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. They now quitted the Zambesi and moved north- east, the camp getting into good marching-order. There were groups from several tribes subject to the Makololo, who took orders from their own head- man and messed by themselves. *'Each party knew its own spot in the encampment, and each took it in turn to pull grass to make my bed, so that I lay luxuriously." And so they plodded on for the point where they were again to come on the Zambesi, below the long series of rapids. The western part of this region had once been densely peopled, and extremely favorable for settlements, both for missions and merchandise. We shall hear much of this soon. Slowly but steadily the eastward tramp is continued, often over ground which was far from favorable for walking exer- cise. "Pedestrianism," said Livingstone, "may be all very well for those whose obesity requires much exercise; but for one who was becoming as thin as a lath through the constant perspiration caused by marching day after day in the hot sun, the only good I saw in it was that it gave an honest sort of a man a vivid idea of the tread-mill." When Livingstone came to England, and was writing books, his tendency was rather to get stout than thin; and the disgust with which he spoke then of the "beastly fat" seemed to show that if for nothing else than to get rid of it he would have been glad to be on the tread-mill again. In one of his letters to Mr. Maclear he thus speaks of a part of this journey: "It was not likely that I should know our course well, for the country there is covered with shingle and gravel, bushes, trees, and grass, and we were without path. Skulking out of the way of villages where we were expected to pay after the purse was empty, it was excessively hot and steamy ; the eyes had to be always fixed on the ground to avoid being tripped." LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 113 they passed again and again the remains of "a large town which must have been inhabited for a long period, for the millstones of gneiss, trap, and quartz were worn down 2^ inches perpendicular. The forest was now fast resuming its undisputed reign. The tribes amongst which they came on nearing the Zambesi again, proved as hostile as the Chi- boque ; indeed, at the confluence of the Loangwa and Zambesi he encountered the most serious danger from natives he had yet met with. As the neighbor- ing tribes gathered round to hinder his crossing, and he was waiting for canoes, he wrote in his Jour- nal of January 14th: 'Thank God for His great mercies thus far. How soon I may be called before Him, my righteous Judge, I know not. . . . On Thy word alone I lean. The cause is Thine. See, O Lord, how the heathen rise up against me as they did against Thy Son. ... It seems a pity that the facts about the two healthy longitudinal regions should not be known in Christendom. Thy will be done." And late on the same evening : "Felt much turmoil of spirit in view of having all my plans for the welfare of this great region and teeming popu- lation knocked on the head by savages to-morrow. But Jesus came and said, 'All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations. . . . And, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.' It is the word of a gentleman of the most sacred and strictest honor^ and 114 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. there is an end on't. I will not cross furtively by night as I intended. It would appear as flight, and should such a man as I flee? Nay, verily, I shall take observations for longitude and latitude to-night, though they may be the last. I feel quite calm now, thank God." So he took his observations in his small camp, surrounded by crowds of armed natives, and early next morning began to send off his people, cattle, and baggage, in the one canoe he had secured, to an island in mid-stream, here a mile in breadth. He remained to occupy the post of honor, being the last man to enter the canoe ; keeping the surrounding savages amused with his watch, burning-glass, etc., until he could step in himself and push off, thanking them and wishing them peace. By night he and his whole party were safely encamped on the left bank. Here Livingstone came upon the remains of a church and a broken bell with "I.H.S." and a cross, showing that at one time the Portuguese settlements had extended to this point, and on the 17th they met a man in jacket and hat, but quite black, who had come up from Tette, the northernmost post on the river. He told them that the Portuguese and natives on this bank had been at war for the last two years. He advised them to cross to the south bank, but they could not get canoes. They were now in Mpende's country, the most powerful chief of the district, and at first were threatened with attack. Numbers of Mpende's fighting men gathered roiind at half a LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. II5 mile distance on the 23d. "I ordered an ox to be slaughtered as a means of inspiring courage, and have no doubt we should have been victorious. . . The roasting of meat went on fast and furious, and my young men said, 'You have seen us with ele- phants, but you don't know what we can do with men.' " He now sent a leg of the ox to Mpende by men who came near as spies, and "presently two old men came from Mpende to inquire who I was. I re- plied, 'I am a Lekoa' (an Englishman). They said, 'We don't know that tribe. We supposed you are a Mouzunga (Portuguese), the tribe we are fighting with.' " He then showed them his skin, and they said, 'No, we never saw skin so w^hite as that. You must be one of the tribe that loves the black men.' I of course gladly responded in the affirmative." So the men returned to Mpende, who in council resolved to allow them to pass. "When we knew the favor- able decision, I sent Sekwebu to purchase a canoe for one of my men who had become very ill, upon which Mpende remarked, 'This white man is truly one of our friends. See how he lets me know his afflic- tions.' " From this time he did all he could to help them, sending orders to the people of a large island lower down to ferry them across. This was done on the 29th, at a spot wdiere the Zambesi was twelve hundred yards wide, and flowing at 3f miles an hour. "I was very thankful to find myself on the §outh bank, and having nothing else, I sent back on^ 116 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. of my two spoons and a shirt as a thank-offering to ^vlpende." He was now amongst unwarlike tribes who looked on his men as desperadoes, the hke of whom they had never seen before. *'I see you are travelling with people who don't know how to pray," was the re- mark of a Banyai hunter on seeing their headlong attack on an elephant and wild dance around the body of the prostrate beast; "I therefore offered the only thing I had on their behalf" (some snuff which he had poured out as an offering to the Baremo) *'and the elephant soon fell." Others offered loud prayers for their success, thereby eliciting Living- stone's admiration at their devout belief in unseen beings. *'My own people, who are rather a degraded lot, remarked to me as I came up, 'God gave it to us. He said to the old beast, go up there, men are come who will kill and eat you.' " His progress now was slow but peaceful, giving him leisure to dwell on and enjoy the teeming life of the tropical forests, the songs of birds — not so har- monious, but as full in volume as in England, stilled during the hot dry hours, but with the first shower bursting into merry lays and loving courtship — the hum of insects in the quietest parts of the forest, "whisking about in the clear sunshine among the green glancing leaves ; but there are invisible myri- ads, all brimful of enjoyment, working with never- tiring mandibles on leave? and stalks, and beneath LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 117 the soil. Indeed, the universality of organic life seems like a mantle of happy existence encircling the world, and betokening the presence of our benignant Father's smile on the works of His hands." So muses the great traveller, in a different frame of mind to the dominant school of our modern philoso- phers.* Passing out of the forest country and over a rough stony country with no path, "on the evening of 2d *In the early part of his life he deemed it his joy and his honor to aim at the conversion of individual souls, and earnestly did he labor and pray for that, although his visible success was but small. But as he gets better acquainted with Africa, and reaches a more commanding point of view, he sees the necessity for other work. The continent must be sur- veyed, healthy localities for mission-stations must be found, the temptations to a cursed traffic in human flesh must be removed, the products of the country must be turned to account ; its whole social economy must be changed. The accomplishment of such objects, even in a limited degree, would be an immense service to the missionary; it would be such a preparing of his way that a hundred years hence the spiritual results would be far greater than if all the effort now were concentrated on single souls. To many persons it ap- peared as if dealing with individual souls were the only proper work of a missionary, and as if one who had been doing such work would be lowering himself if he accepted any other. Livingstone never stopped to reason as to which w^as the higher or the more desirable work ; he felt that Providence was calling him to be less of a missionary journey- man and more of a missionary statesman; but the great end was ever the same — "the end of the geographical feat is only the beginning of the enterprise.'' 118 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. March I halted about 8 miles from Tette, and feeling too fatigued to proceed, sent forward to the Com- mandant the letters with which I had been favored by the Bishop of Angola and others. About 2 a.m. on the 3d we were roused by two officers and a com- pany of soldiers, who had been sent with the mate- rials for a civilized breakfast, and a 'masheela' (litter) to bring me to Tette. My companions called me in alarm, thinking we had been captured by armed men. When I understood their errand, and had partaken of a good breakfast, all my fatigue vanished, though I had just before been too tired to sleep. It was the most refreshing breakfast I ever partook of, and I walked the last 8 miles without the least feeling of weariness, though the path was so rough that one of the officers remarked to me, This is enough to tear a man's life out of him.' "* ♦Livingstone reached the Portuguese settlement of Tette on the 3d of March, 1856, and the "civiHzed breakfast" which the commandant, Major Sicard, sent forward to him, on his way, was a luxury like Mr. Gabriel's bed at Loanda, and made him walk the last eight miles without the least sensation of fatigue, although the road was so rough that, as a Portuguese soldier remarked, it was like "to tear a man's life out of him." At Loanda he had heard of the battle of the Alma; after being in Tette a short time he heard of the fall of Sebas- topol and the end of the Crimean War. He remained in Tette till the 23d April, detained by an attack of fever, receiv- ing extraordinary kindness from the Governor, and, among other tokens of affection, a gold chain for his daughter Agnes, the work of an inhabitant of the town. These gifts were duly acknowledged. It was at this place that Dr. Livingstone left LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 119 He stayed a month with Major Sicard, the Com- mandant, whose kindness to the whole party he gratefully acknowledged. From him he heard of the three years' war, during which Tette had been sacked. "Had I attempted to reach this coast in- stead of Loanda in 1853 I should probably have been cut off. My present approach was just at the conclu- sion of peace, and when the Portuguese authorities were informed that I was expected to come this way, they declared that no European could possibly pass through the tribes. Some natives at last came down the river, and in allusion to the sextant and artificial horizon, said 'that the son of God had come, who was able to take down the sun from heaven and place it under his arm.' Major Sicard then felt sure this was the man he expected." Here Livingstone left all his Makololo but sixteen of the best canoe men, on land which the Commandant gave them to raise food upon, allowing them also to hunt and trade. They were well content with their prospects, though many more would have preferred to go on with him, and he was pleased to see that sixty or seventy had started to hunt, while the rest had established a brisk his Makololo followers, with instructions to wait for him till he should return from England. Well entitled though he was to a long rest, he deliberately gave up the possibility of it, by engaging to return for his black companions. In the case of Dr. Livingstone, rest meant merely change of employment, and while resting and recovering from fever, he wrote a large budget of long and interesting letters. 120 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. trade in firewood, before he started in April for Senna in Major Sicard's own boat. Senna he found in even worse pHght than Tette, the half-caste inhabitants paying fines to the Lan- deens, who treated the Portuguese outside the fort as a conquered tribe. He left Senna on May nth, the whole population accompanying him to the boats. They reached Ouilemane on May 20th, and from thence he sent back all his men but Sekwebu to Tette, where there was food, there to await his return. He deposited Sekeletu's tusks with Colonel Nunes, the Commandant, who promised in the event of his death to sell them and hand the proceeds to his men. 'T explained this to the men, and they replied, *Nay, father, you will return to take us back to Sekeletu.' They promised to wait till I came back, and on my part I assured them that nothing but death would prevent my return."* *In looking forward to the work to which Providence seemed to be calling him, a communication received at Quili- mane disturbed him not a little. It was from the London Missionary Society. It informed him that the Directors were restricted in their power of aiding plans connected only remotely with the spread of the gospel, and that even though certain obstacles (from tsetse, etc.) should prove surmount- able, "the financial circumstances of the Society are not such as to afford any ground of hope that it would be in a position within any definite period to undertake untried any remote and difficult fields of labor." Dr. Livingstone very naturally understood this as a declinature of his proposals. Writing on the subject to Rev. William Thompson, the Society's Si^ent at Cape Town, he said: LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 121 After six weeks H.M. brig ''Frolic" arrived, with an offer from the Admiral at the Cape of a passage to the Mauritius, which he gladly accepted. He and Sekwebu went on board on July 12th, through the breakers which swept over the pinnace. *' 'Is this the way you go?' Sekwebu asked. I smiled and said, 'Don't you see it is?' and tried to encourage him." They were hoisted on board in a chair, and warmly welcomed by Captain Peyton and his crew. Sekwebu began to pick up English, and was becoming a favor- ite with the sailors on the voyage to the Mauritius, which they reached on August 12th, but he seemed bewildered, and often said, ''What a strange country this is! All water together." *'When we reached the Mauritius a steamer cam.e "I had imagined in my simplicity that both my preaching, conversation, and travel were as nearly connected with the spread of the gospel as the Boers would allow them to be. A plan of opening up a path from either the East or West Coast for the teeming population of the interior was submitted to the judgment of the Directors, and received their formal approbation. ''I have been seven times in peril of my life from savage men while laboriously and without swerving pursuing that , plan, and never doubting that I was in the path of duty. "Indeed, so clearly did I perceive that I v.as performing good service to the cause of Christ, that I wrote to my brother that I would perish rather than fail in my enterprise. I shall not boast of what I have done, but the wonderful mercy I have received will constrain me to follow out the work in spite of the veto of the Board. "If it is according to the will of God, means will be pro- vided from other quarters." 122 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. out to tow us into the harbor. The constant strain on his untutored mind seemed now to reach a cHmax, for during the night he became insane. I thought at I first he was drunk. He had descended into a boat, and when I attempted to go down and bring him up he ran to the stern and said, 'No! no! it is enough that I die alone. You must not die; if you come I shall throw myself into the water.' Perceiving that his mind was affected, I said, 'Now, Sekwebu, we are going to Ma Robert.' This struck a chord in his bosom, and he said, 'Oh, yes! Where is she, and where is Robert?' and became more composed. In the evening, however, a fresh fit occurred. He tried to spear one of the crew, and then jumped over- board, and though he could swim well, pulled himself down, hand under hand, by the chain cable. We never found the body of poor Sekwebu." After a month's stay at the Mauritius with Gen- eral Hay, the Governor, during which he got rid of an enlarged spleen, the result of African fever, he took passage home in the P, and O. steamer "Can- dia," and arrived on December 12th, to find himself the most famous man for the time in the British Isles. Tidings of a great sorrow had reached him on the way. At Cairo he heard of the death of his father. He had been ill a fortnight, and died full of faith and peace. "You wished so much to see David," said his daughter to him as his life was ebbing away. LOANDA TO QUILEMANE. 123 "Ay, very much, very much ; but the will of the Lord be done." Then after a pause he said, "But I think I'll know whatever is worth knowing about him. When you see him, tell him I think so." David had not less eagerly desired to sit once more at the fire- side and tell his father of all that had befallen him on the way. On both sides the desire had to be classed among hopes unfulfilled. But on both sides there was a vivid impression that the joy so narrowly missed on earth would be found in a purer form in the next stage of being. CHAPTER VII. HOME. 1857-59- In consequence of an accident to the P. and O. steamer in the Bay of Tunis, the passengers were landed at Marseilles, and sent home by Paris and Dover. On landing, Livingstone hastened to South- ampton, where his wife was waiting. "Man must work, but woman must weep." What the great ex- plorer's wife had borne in those five years may be gathered from the few lines of a little poem of wel- come, which has somehow got into print, and so may be used here : "You'll never leave me, darling — there's a promise in your eye ; I may tend you while I'm living, you will watch me when I die. How did I live without you through those long, long years of woe? It seems as tho' 'twould kill me to be parted from you now. And if death but kindly lead me to the blessed home on high, What a hundred thousand welcomes will await you in the sky !" They reached London on December 9th, where the "well-done" of a proud and grateful nation broke on the simple pious missionary with bewildering force 124 HOME, 125 and unanimity. On the 15th, at a special meeting of welcome at the Royal Geographical Societ}^ Sir Roderick Murchison, in presenting the Patron's Gold Medal, while dwelling on the thousands of miles of the dark and hitherto unexplored continent now accurately laid down in charts, insisted above all on the Doctor's heroic faithfulness to his native followers, drawing from him the protest that Oswell, Steele, or Vardon (all present) could have done all that he had done. On the i6th the London ^lission- ary Society, with Lord Shaftesbury in the chair, wel- comed him at a special meeting. A gathering was held at the Mansion-House to consider the best form of a testimonial, and other public receptions threat- ened him from all sides.* *Next day, i6th December, Dr. Livingstone had his recep- tion from the London Missionary Society in Freemasons' Hall. Lord Shaftesbury was in the chair : "What better thing can we do," asked the noble Earl, "than to welcome such a man to the shores of our country? What better than to receive him with thanksgiving and rejoicings that he is spared to refresh us with his presence, and give his strength to future exertions? What season more appro- priate than this, when at every hearth, and in every congre- gation of worshippers, the name of Christ will be honored with more than ordinary devotion, to receive a man whose life and labors have been in humble, hearty, and willing obedience to the angels' song, 'Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace, good-will toward men'?" Lord Shaftesbury's words at the close of this meeting, in honor of Mrs. Livingstone, deserve to be perpetuated : "That lady," he said, "was born with one distinguished 126 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. From these he broke away in January, to visit his mother and family at Hamilton. His father had died while he was on his way home. As he looked at the empty chair the strong man wept. "We bless xthee, O Lord, for our parents ; we give thee thanks for the dead who has died in the Lord," he prayed that night in conducting their family worship.* On his return to London, at the end of January, he undertook, somewhat unwillingly, to write an ac- count of his travels, urged thereto by Sir R. Murchi- name, which she had changed for another. She was born a Moffat, and she became a Livingstone. She cheered the early- part of our friend's career by her spirit, her counsel, and her society. Afterward, when she reached this country, she passed many years with her children in solitude and anxiety, suffering the greatest fears for the welfare of her husband, and yet enduring all with patience and resignation, and even joy, because she had surrendered her best feelings, and sacri- ficed her own private interests, to the advancement of civiliza- tion and the great interests of Christianity." *At first Livingstone thought that his stay in England could be only for three or four months, as he was eager to be at Quilim.ane before the unhealthy season set in, and thus ''fulfill his promise to return to his Makololo at Tette. But on receiving an assurance from the Portuguese Government ^which, however, was never fulfilled by them) that his men would be looked after, he made up his mind for a somewhat longer stay. But it could not be called rest. As soon as he could settle down he had to set to work with a book. So long before as May, 1856, Sir Roderick Murchison had writ- tea to him that "Mr. John Murray, the great publisher, is most anxious to induce you to put together all your data, and to make a good book," adding his own strong advice to comply with the request. HOME. 137 son and Mr. John Murray. "I would sooner have crossed Africa again," he murmured, but buckled to his task. ''I begin to-morrow to write my book, and as I have no men waiting for me at Tette, whom I promised to rejoin in April next, you will see I shall have enough to do to get through my work here. . . Here they laud me till I shut my eyes for only trying to do my duty. They ought to vote thanks to the Boers, who set me free to discover this fine new coun- try. They were determined to shut the country and I to open it. ... I got the gold medal as you predicted, and the freedom of the town of Hamilton, which ensures me protection from the payment of fees if put in prison." So he wrote to Sir T. Mac- lear on January 21st, and set to work on his book, but not even his energy could finish this unaccus- tomed work in the time he had given himself. He took lodgings at Chelsea, and gave himself to his work, and to the enjoym.ent of family life once more, the only drawback being the well-meant efforts of gentle and simple to make a lion of him.* It was not *In writing his book, he sometimes worked in the house of a friend, but generally in a London or suburban lodging, often with his children about him, and all their noise ; for, as in the Blantyre mill, he could abstract his attention from sounds of whatever kind, and go on calmly with his work. Busy though he was, this must have been one of the happiest times in his life. Some of his children still remember his walks and romps with them in the Barnet woods, near which they lived 128 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. till the later summer that he was again compara- tively free, and then the round of meetings and speeches began again. The freedom of the City of London was presented to him in a gold box. In August he was the guest of the British Association at their Dublin meeting. In September the Corpora- tion of Glasgow, the University, and other public bodies entertained him, and he was presented with another gold box with the freedom of the city, and with £2,000 by the citizens as ^a testimonial. At Blantyre, his native village, the Literary Institution gave a reception, and managed to get out of him the story of his encounter with the lion. Edinburgh followed, and got three speeches out of him; then Leeds, Liverpool, and Birmingham; after which he wrote to Sir R. Murchison, "Farewell to public spouting forever. I am dead tired of it." Oxford and Cambridge, however, were still to be done in November and December, whence he retired with Doctor's degrees. The latter University charmed him particularly, as he found himself in the con- genial society of Sedgwick, Selwyn, and Whewell, and he gave a memorable address in the Senate- House, which bore remarkable fruit. It was an urgent appeal for volunteers in missionary work. "It part of the time — how he would suddenly plunge into the ferny thicket, and set them looking for him, as people looked for him afterward when he disappeared in Africa, coming out all at once at some unexpected f^orner of the thicket. HOME. 129 is deplorable to think that one of the noblest of our missionary bodies, the Church Missionary Society, is compelled to send to Germany for missionaries. . . . The sort of men who are wanted for mis- sionaries are such as I see before me. ... I beg to direct your attention to Africa. I know that in a few years I shall be cut off in that country, which is now open. Do not let it be shut again. I go back to Africa to try to open a path for commerce and Chris- tianity; do you carry out the work which I have begun. I leave it with you."* The publication of his book made him at once a rich man, having regard to his needs and habits. This, and the appointment of Consul for the east coast of Africa which was offered him by Lord Pal- merston, determined him, after much deliberation, to resign his connection with the London Alissionary Society. They parted on the most friendly terms, *It has sometimes been a complaint that so much of the book is occupied with matters of science, geographical in- quiries, descriptions of plants and animals, accounts of rivers and mountains, and so little with what directly concerns the work of the missionary. In reply to this, it may be stated, in the first place, that if the information given and the views expressed on missionary topics were all put together, they would constitute no insignificant contribution to missionary literature. But there was another consideration. Livingstone regarded himself as but a pioneer in missionary enterprise. During sixteen years he had done much to bring the knowl- edge of Christ to tribes that had never heard of Him — prob- ablv no missionary in Africa had ever preached to so many blacks. 130 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. though his action was misunderstood and sharply criticised in the (so-called) religious press. And now his preparations for returning began in earnest. His commission was signed in February, and Lord Clarendon sent him to the Admiralty to make his ar- rangements, adding, ''J^st come here and tell me what you want, and I will give it to you." He also furnished him with an official letter to Sekeletu, thanking him, in the Queen's name, for his kindness to her servant, and hoping that he would help to keep "God's highway'' — the river Zambesi — free to all people, and to suppress the slave-trade, which the British, as a Christian and commercial people, hated. He found the Admiralty ready to send out a large and expensive expedition, but cut it down to strictly necessary limits.* * [Honors were showered upon Livingstone wherever he went: at Dublin, Glasgow (from Corporation, University, Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, etc.), Manchester, Ham- ilton, Blantyre, Edinburgh, and Cambridge. A brief account of only one of these is here inserted.] To the United Presbyterians of Glasgow he spoke of mis- sion work in Africa. At one time he had been somewhat disappointed with the Bechuana Christians, and thought the results of the mission had been exaggerated, but when he went into the interior and saw heathenism in all its unmiti- gated ferocity, he changed his opinion, and had a higher opin- ion than ever of what the mission had done. Such gatherings as the present were very encouraging; but in Africa mission work was hard work without excitement; and they had just to resolve to do their duty without expecting to receive grat- itude from those whom they labored to serve. When grati- HOME. 131 As the day of his departure drew near, his friends in the Royal and the Geographical Societies pressed for a last gathering to bid him God-speed, and it was arranged to entertain him at a public dinner on Feb- ruary 13th. On the morning of that day he had an interview with the Queen, who assured him of her good wishes ; and in the evening a company of three hundred and fifty, including the most eminent men in England, gathered at the Freemasons' Tavern under the presidency of Sir R. Murchison, who dwelt again on his return from Loanda with his men, 'leaving for himself in that country a glorious name, tude came, they were thankful to have it; but when it did not come they must go on doing their duty, as unto the Lord. His reply to the cotton-spinners is interesting as showing how fresh his sympathy still was with the sons of toil, and what respect he had for their position. He congratulated himself on the Spartan training he had got at the Blantyre mill, which had really been the foundation of all the work he had done. Poverty and hard work were often looked down on — he did not know why — for wickedness v/as the only thing that ought to be a reproach to any man. Those that looked down on cotton-spinners with contempt were men who, had they been cotton-spinners at the beginning, would have been cotton-spinners to the end. The life of toil was what belonged to the great majority of the race, and to be poor was no re- proach. The Saviour occupied the humble position that they had been born in, and he looked back on his own past life as having been spent in the same position in which the Saviour lived. ''My great object," he said, "was to be like Him — to imi- tate Him~artaf"as He could be imitated. W e have noT the pmver" oT Voyking"mrracles, but we can do~ a little^m the way "oF Eeairng~the sick, and I sought a medical education in order 132 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. and proving to the people of Africa what an English Christian is," and on the nobleness of the man who, ''after eighteen months of laudation from all classes of his countrymen, and after receiving all the honors our Universities and cities could shower on him, is still the same honest true-hearted David Livingstone ^as when he issued from the wilds of Africa." The Duke of Argyll and Bishop Wilberforce followed, and then Professor Owen, with cordial testimony to the accuracy of his geological observations and the happiness of his conjectures, tempered only by regret that he should have destro3^ed the moral character of the lion. Livingstone's reply was direct and simple as ever. He did not look, he said, for any speedy re- sult from his mission, but was sanguine for the _ that I might be like Him. In Africa I have had hard work. I don't know that any one in Africa despises a man who works hard. I find that all eminent men work hard. Eminent geol- ogists, mineralogists, men of science in every department, if they attain eminence, work hard, and that both early an(? late. That is just what -we did. Some of us have left the cotton-spinning, but I think that all of us who have been en- gaged in that occupation look back on it with feelings of com- placency, and feel an interest in the course of our companions. There is one thing in cotton-spinning that I always felt to be a privilege. We were confined through the whole day, but when we got out to the green fields, and could wander through the shady woods, and rove about the whole country, we enjoyed it immensely. We were delighted to see the flowers and the beautiful scenery. We were prepared- to admire. We were taught by our confinement to rejoice in the beauties of na- ture, and when we got out we enjoyed ourselves to the fullest extent." HOME. 133 future. He and his companions might get in the thin end of the wedge, which England w^ould drive home. He rejoiced that his wife, always the main spoke in his wheel, was to go with him. She would be most helpful, as she was familiar with the language, able to work and ready to endure, and well knew that out there one must put one's hand to everything. ''Glad indeed am I that I am to be accompanied by my guardian angel." For himself, with all eyes resting on him, he felt bound to do better than he had ever done. The last preparations were now hurried on, and the last letters written. In one of these, to his old friend Young, he gave some testamentary directions, ending, "my left arm" (the one which had been in- jured by the lion and had now^ a double joint) "goes to Professor Owen, mind. This is the will of David Livingstone." To Sir Roderick: "Many blessings be on you and yours, and if we never meet again on earth, may we through infinite mercy meet in hea- ven." To which the President answered: "Accept my warmest thanks for your farewell note. Believe me, my dear friend, that no transaction in my some- what long and very active life has so truly rewarded me as my intercourse with you, for from beginning to end it has been one continual bright gleam." The expedition embarked in H. M. Colonial steamer "Pearl" at Liverpool on March lo, 1859. They took Oswell, their youngest child, with them, 134 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. leaving the others in England. From on board in the Mersey, he wrote his last note to his eldest son : "My dear Tom — We are off again, and trust that He who rules the waves will watch over us and re- main with you, to bless us and make us blessings to our fellow-men. The Lord be with you and be very gracious to you. Avoid and hate sin, and cleave to Jesus as your Saviour from guilt. Tell grandma we are off again, and Janet will tell all about us." So he went away again, having, as the result of his eighteen months at home — as was said with no great exaggeration at the farewell dinner — found Africa the dark continent, and left it the most inter- esting part of the globe to Englishmen. CHAPTER VIII. THE ZAMBESI EXPEDITION TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 1859-61. Consul Livingstone, on the deck of the "Pearl," returning to the dark continent as the representative of the first naval and colonial power in the world, commander of a national expedition, thoroughly fur- nished and adapted to tlie work, and with a free hand to carry on that work of exploring and civilizing ac- cording to his own judgment, is perhaps the most strikingly successful figure which has appeared in England during the 19th century. The Scotch peas- ant's son, without resources, except what were fur- nished by native Africans, discouraged by his em- ployers and his family, and stricken with almost continual fever, had opened a path across Africa, for the most part through countries in which no white man was ever know^n to have been before him. What might not Consul Livingstone, with the Queen's gold band round his cap an"d England behind him, now accomplish ? With good reason all men's hopes ran high, and, on the whole, were not disappointed. Nevertheless, as in the case of so many of God's great workers, there is no repetition of that first tri- 135 136 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. umphant success. The powers of evil muster more strongly after the first surprise, and God's servant is allowed to be "evil entreated by tyrants, and has to wander out of the way in the wilderness," thankful in the end, while he himself has been purified in the fire, and taught his own weakness and his Lord's strength, if his Master's work has only not gone back in his hands. He had cut the staff of the expedition down to a commander and crew for the steam launch (the *'Ma Robert,'' which was taken on board the "Pearl" in sections) ; a botanist, Dr. Kirk;* a mining geolo- gist, Mr. C. Livingstone; and an assistant, Mr. R. Thornton. To each of these he gave separate writ- ten instructions as to their special work, impressing on all that "Her Majesty's Government attached most importance to the moral influence which might be exercised on the minds of the natives by a well- regulated and orderly household of Europeans, set- ting an example of consistent moral conduct, treat- ing the people with kindness, teaching them to make experiments in agriculture, relieving their wants, explaining the more simple arts, imparting to them religious instruction as far as they are capable of receiving it, and inculcating peace and goodwill."! *The present Sir John Kirk, G.C.M.G., F.R.S., whose valu- able career on the east coast, as H. M. Political Agent, has made its mark everywhere in those regions. He is the sole survivor of the original Zambesi Expedition. tEvidently, Dr. Livingstone felt himself in a difficult posi- TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 137 They sailed on March lo, 1859, and reached the east coast, the scene of their work, in May. They had touched at Sierra Leone, and taken on board twelve Kroomen for the river navigation, and had received an enthusiastic reception at the Cape, which the Doctor contrasts drily in his Journal with his last visit five years before. Here the first of his serious trials met him. Mrs. Livingstone was so unwell that he had to leave her and Oswell with Dr. and Mrs. Moffat, who had come down to meet them.* On their arrival on the east coast their first tion at the head of this enterprise. He was aware of the trou- ble that had usually attended civil as contrasted with naval and military expeditions, from the absence of that habit of discipline and obedience which is so firmly established in the latter services. He had never served under Her Majesty's Government himself, nor had he been accustomed to command such men as were now under him, and there were some things in his antecedents that made the duty peculiarly difficult. On one thing only he was resolved : to do his own duty to the ut- most, and to spare no- pains to induce every member of the Expedition to do his. It was impossible for him not to be anxious as to how the team would pull together, especially as he knew well the influence of a malarious atmosphere in caus- ing intense irritability of temper. In some respects, though not the most obvious, this was the most trying period of his life. *0n the 1st of May, 1858. the "Pearl" sailed from Simon's Bay, and on the 14th stood in for the entrance to the Zambesi, called the West Luabo, or Hoskins's Branch. Of their progress Dr. Livingstone gives his impressions in the following letter to his friend Mr. James Young: " 'Pearl/ loth May, 1858. "Here we are, off Cape Cornentes ('Whaur's that, I won- 138 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. object was to examine thoroughly the four channels by which the Zambesi reaches the sea. While this was in progress under Mr. Skead, R.N., Surveyor to the Cape Government, who had come on with them from Cape Town, the "Ms. Robert" was screwed to- gether and launched. The Kongone branch was found to be the best, and up this they sailed through twenty miles of mangrove jungle, full of strange birds and game, to the broad Zambesi. Beyond lay a fertile tract fifty miles broad, and thickly inhabited ner?'), and hope to be off the Luabo four days hence. We have been most remarkably favored in the weather, and it is well, for had our ship been in a gale with all this weight on her deck, it would have been perilous. Mrs. Livingstone was sea-sick all the way from Sierra Leone, and got as thin as a lath. As this was accompanied by fever, I was forced to run into Table Bay, and when I got ashore I found her father and mother down all the way from Kuruman to see us and help the young missionaries, whom the London Missionary Society has not yet sent. Glad, of course, to see the old couple again. We had a grand to-do at the Cape. Eight hundred guineas were presented in a silver box by the hand of the Governor, Sir George Grey, a fine fellow. Sure, no one might be more thankful to the Giver of all than myself. The Lord grant me grace to serve Him with heart and soul — the only return I can make ! ... It was a bitter parting with my wife, like tearing the heart out of one. It was so unexpected ; and now we are screwing away up the coast. . . , We are all agreeable yet, and all looking forward with ardor to our enterprise. It is likely that I shall come down with the 'Pearl' through the Delta to doctor them if they become ill, and send them on to Ceylon with a blessing. All have behaved well, and I am really thankful to see it, and hope that God will graciously make some better use of us in promoting His glory." TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 139 by Portuguese "colonos" or serfs, eager traders, which in good hands "would supply all Europe with sugar." Here, forty miles from the bar, the 'TearF' had to stop, and all the goods and supplies on board were landed on an island, whence they were gradually taken up, in the "Ma Robert" and pinnace, to Shupanga and Senna. During this work the first difficulty arose from the desire of Livingstone to get them all out of this hotbed of fever as soon as possi- ble, and so pressing on the work. "The weak- minded" struck for no work on Sundays, and full hours for meals. "It is a pity," the Doctor com- ments, "that some people cannot see that the true and honest discharge of the duties of every-day life is Divine service." The naval officer in command now left him, and from that time the duties of captain were added to his other responsibilities. Opposite Shupanga they found war raging between a rebel half-caste and the Portuguese, and, coming into the thick of the fighting, the Portuguese governor in command, who was prostrated with fever, was car- ried down to the steamer by Livingstone. In this district they found the Portuguese generally easy- going masters to their slaves, while the half-castes were almost always brutal, justifying the saying, "God made white men and black men, but the devil made half-castes." Steadily, but slowly, the "Ma Robert" steamed up to Tette, and on until stopped by the Kebrabasa Rapids, anchoring at night in the 140 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. stream. ''Why don't you come on shore and sleep like other people ?" the natives hailed from the banks. ''We are held to the bottom with iron ; you may see we are not like you Bazunga," the Makololo proudly answered; for at Tette he had found his Makololo, who, by the help of Major Sicard, had maintained themselves, though thirty of their number had died of smallpox. "They told us you would never come back; but we trusted you, and now we shall have sleep," the survivors said, welcoming him with en- thusiasm. There was no need to take them back at once to Linyanti, so the next few months were de- voted to a thorough exploration of the Zambesi up to the Kebrabasa Rapids, which convinced him that, had he tried to descend that river in canoes on his former journey, he would have been certainly lost. On the other hand, Livingstone was convinced that a more powerful steamer might be taken up during the floods, and so open the river from Kebrabasa up to the Victoria Falls, in the heart of Africa and the Makololo country. So he wrote to his government, who in due course responded by sending him out the "Pioneer." Meantime he turned to doing what new work of exploration he could with the "Ma Robert." That unlucky vessel had already lost the name of which she had proved herself unworthy, and been re- christened the "Asthmatic," from the puffing and groaning with which she managed her six or seven miles an hour, being easily passed by the native TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 141 canoes. She consumed a monstrous amount of fuel, and was already leaking badly. However, bad as she was, he would make the best of her till she sank, and so — not without sarcastic comment on the emi- nent shipbuilder, who had sold her to the expedition a great bargain ''for the love of the cause" — he pro- ceeded to explore in her the Shire, the largest north- ern affluent of the Zambesi between Tette and the coast. The Portuguese declared the river to be un- navigable. They had tried it, and found that not even canoes could force their way through the mass of aquatic plants ; while the Manganja who lived on the banks were as hostile as they were warlike. However, the Doctor had learned to distrust the Portuguese as well as to rely on himself, and so started up the Shire in January, 1859, navigating the ''Asthmatic" himself, though, as he wrote to Miss Whately : "As far as my liking goes, I would as soon drive a cab in November fogs in London as be skip- per in this hot sun." "Our Government," said the nearest Portuguese Commandant, "has ordered us to assist and protect you, but you go where we dare not follow, and how are we to protect you?"* *Early in 1859 the exploration of the Shire was begun — a river hitherto absolutely unknown. The country around was rich and fertile, the natives not unfriendly, but suspicious. They had probably never been visited before but by man- stealers, and had never seen Europeans. The Shire Valley was inhabited by the Manganja, a very warlike race. Some days' journey above the junctior with the Zambesi, where the 142 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. The "Asthmatic," however, went "snorting" through the duckweed easily enough, and up the river, accompanied on the banks by crowds of Man- ganja fully armed, who had sent away their women and passed word of the strange invasion from one river-village to another. The duckweed disappeared twenty-five miles up the river, and the Doctor landed and made friends with the chief, Tingane, "an elderly, well-made man, gray-headed, and over six feet high," who called his people together to hear what the stranger's objects were. These had to be stated by an interpreter, as the dialect differed from that of Tette, so that the Doctor only understood enough to know whether the interpreter w^as report- ing faithfully. This he did on the whole, but with "an inveterate tendency to wind up with 'the Book says you are to grow cotton, and the English are to come and buy it,' or with some joke of his own which might have been ludicrous had it not been seriously distressing." He found the Manganja al- ready with some knowledge of the English efforts to Shire issues from the mountains, the progress of the party was stopped by rapids, to which they gave the name of the "Murchison Cataracts." It seemed in vain to penetrate among the people at that time without supplies, considering how sus- picious they were. Crowds went along the banks watching them by day; they had guards over them all night, and these were always ready with their bows and poisoned arrows. Nevertheless, some progress was made in civilizing them, and at a future time it was hoped that further exploration might take place. TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 143 suppress the slave-trade, and readily assenting to his earnest teaching that "the Father of all was seriously displeased with His children for selling and killing each other. . . . The bearing of the Manganja 'at this time was very independent — a striking con- trast to the cringing attitude they afterward assumed when the cruel scourge of slave-hunting passed over the country." Farther up they were stopped by four falls, which they named the Murchison Cataracts, and returned to Tette without further efforts for the present. In March they returned again to the cataracts, made friends with the local chief, Chibisa, and leav- ing the steamer opposite his village, the two Doctors, with twenty-five Makololo, started north for the great lake of which the natives spoke. Their guides failed and deserted, and the natives were hostile, but they pressed on and upward, until on April i8th they discovered Lake Shirwa, at a height of eighteen hun- dred feet, and upward of sixty miles in length, in the midst of a beautiful and rich country bounded by mountains eight thousand feet high. Here they heard of a much larger lake to the north, bm not wishing just then to try the native temper further, they here turned back after taking observations, re- joined the steamer, and reached Tette on June 23d.* ♦Here is the account he gave of his proceedings to his little daughter Agnes : "River Shire, 1st June, 1859. — I am now on my way to 144 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. He now descended the Zambesi to send the Kroo- men home, get a supply of provisions, and beach the "Asthmatic" for repairs, returning in August for a third ascent of the Shire, and a push forward to the Tette, but we ran up the Shire some forty miles to buy rice for our company. Uncle Charles is there. He has had some fever, but is better. We left him there about two months ago, and Dr. Kirk and I, with some fifteen Makololo, ascended this river one hundred miles in the 'Ma-Robert,' then left the vessel and proceeded beyond that on foot till we had discov- ered a magnificent lake called Shirwa (pronounced Shurwah). It was very grand, for we could not see the end of it, though some way up a mountain ; and all around it are mountains much higher than any you see in Scotland. One mountain stands in the lake, and people live on it. Another, called Zomba, is more than six thousand feet high, and people live on it, too, for we could see their gardens on its top, which is larger than from Glasgow to Hamilton, or about from fifteen to eighteen miles. The country is quite a Highland region, and many people live in it. Most of them were afraid of us. The women ran into their huts and shut the doors. The chil- dren screamed in terror, and even the hens would fly away and leave their chickens. I suppose you would be frightened, too, if you saw strange creatures, say a lot of Trundlemen, like those on the Isle of Man pennies, come whirling up the street. No one was impudent to us ex- *^|^^^^^^^^Mi^^Slf|yH cept some slave- traders, but they be- came civil as soon as they learned we were English and not Portuguese. We saw the sticks they employ for training any one whom they have just bought. One is about eight feet long, the head, or neck rather, is put into the space between the dotted lines and shaft, and another slave carries the end. When they are considered tame they are allowed to go in chains. TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 145 great northern lake which they had as yet been un- able to reach. On the 29th they left the steamer and started — four whites, thirty-two Makololo, and four guides — for the discovery of Lake Nyassa. They found the Manganja beyond the Murchison Falls an industri- ous race, working in iron, cotton, clay, and making baskets and fish-nets, and men and women turning out for field-labor, but greatly addicted to the beer which they brew in large quantities and drink in a few days and nights, as it will not keep. They fol- lowed the Shire above the cataracts, a broad and deep river with little current, arriving at the village of the chief, Muana-Moesi, in the middle of Septem- ber. Here they were assured that the river stretched on for "two months," and then came out from be- tween perpendicular rocks which could not be passed. "Let us go back to the ship," said the Makololo ; "it is no use trying to find this lake." "We shall see the wonderful rocks, at any rate," said the Doctor. "Yes," they pleaded, "and when you see them, you will just want to see something else." The chief, who came up later, admitted that there was a lake. Scarcely had he left them when a wail arose from the river. A crocodile had carried off his principal wife. The Makololo seized their spears and rushed to the river, but too late. "The white men came," Muana- Moesi reported to his neighbors, "bathed and rubbed themselves with a white medicine" (soap), "and his 146 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. wife going afterward to bathe was taken by a croco- dile; he did not know whether in consequence of the medicine or not." On their return they were looked on with fear, all the men leaving this village till they passed. At noon on September i6th they discov- ered Lake Nyassa.* Here Livingstone was confirmed in his conviction' that this splendid lake, with its bracing climate and rich banks, would become the key of Eastern Central *Livingstone had no doubt that he and his party were the discoverers ; Dr. Roscher, on whose behalf a claim was sub- sequently made, was two months later, and his unfortunate murder by the natives made it doubtful at what point he reached the lake. The discovery of Lake Nyassa, as well as Lake Shirwa, was of immense importance, because they were both parallel to the ocean, and the whole traffic of the regions beyond must pass by this line. The configuration of the Shire Valley, too, was favorable to colonization. The valley occu- pied three different levels. First there was a plain on the level of the river, like that of the Nile, close and hot. Rising above this to the east there was another plain, 2,000 feet high, three or four miles broad, salubrious and pleasant. Lastly, there was a third plain 3,000 feet above the second, positively cold. To find such varieties of climate within a few miles of each other was most interesting. In other respects the region opened up was remarkable. There was a great amount of fertile land, and the products were almost endless. The people were industrious ; in the Upper Shire, notwithstanding a great love of beer, they lived usually to a great age. Cleanliness was not a universal vir- tue; the only way in which the Expedition could get rid of a troublesome follower was by threatening to wash him. The most disagreeable thing in the appearance of the women was their lip-ornament, consisting of a ring of ivory or tin, either hollovir Qv made iiito a cup, inserted in the upper lip. TO LINYANTI AND BACK. I47 Africa. But the curse of the slave-trade was al- ready on it. . They met Arabs with chain-gangs. The ]\Iakololo appealed to the Doctor : "Why won't you let us choke them ? You call us bad, but are we like these fellows ?" To liberate these slaves would have been useless, as the neighboring villagers would have retaken and sold them again, so the Doctor sorrow^fully refused ; but the glorious country seemed to inspire him, and he wrote home : 'T have a strong desire to commence a system of colonization among the honest poor; I would give £2,000 or £3,000 for the purpose. Colo- nization from such a country as ours ought to be one of hope, not of despair. It ought not to be looked on as the last shift a family can come to, but the per- formance of an imperative duty to our blood, our country, our religion, and to humankind. . , . I wonder why we can't have the old monastery sys- tem without celibacy. In no part of the world I have been in does the prospect seem so inviting and promise so much influence." Again he had to turn back, and on October 6, 1859, they reached the ship once more. He now felt that the time had come for taking back the Makololo, but before starting west had to run down to Kongone for supplies and letters. These arrived in H. M. ship "Lynx," Captain Berke- ley, but unluckily the letter-bags were lost in the capsizing of a boat in the surf on the bar. With the 148 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. efficient help of Captain Berkeley, the "Asthmatic" was once more patched up, and they returned to Tette.* Leaving her there, with the remaining two English sailors, the Doctor started west on May 15th. Several of the Makololo had married slaves and had children. By the Portuguese law all bap- tized children are free, but the law was of no force on the Zambesi. The officers laughed and said, "Lisbon laws are very stringent, but somehow, pos- sibly from the heat, here they lose all their force." Only one woman, the wife of a Makololo, accom- panied them. Several men stayed at Tette, while the rest started, though they were told they could stay if they liked. "Contact with slaves had de- stroyed their sense of honor; they would not go in *A month later he writes to Sir Roderick Murchison, from Kongone, loth March, i860, that he is sending Rae home for a vessel: "I tell Lord John Russell that he (Rae) may thereby do us more service than he can now in a worn-out steamer, with 35 patches, covering at least 100 holes. I say to his Lordship, that after we have, by patient investigation and experiment, at the risk of life, rendered the fever not more formidable than a common cold; found access, from a good harbor on the coast, to the main stream; and discovered a pathway into the magnificent Highland lake region, which promises so fairly for our commerce in cotton, arid for our policy in suppressing the trade in slaves, I earnestly hope that he will crown our efforts by securing our free passage through those parts of the Zambesi and Shire of which the Portuguese make no use, and by enabling us to introduce civilization in a manner which will extend the honor and influence of the English nam©." TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 149 daylight, but decamped in the night, in only one instance, however, taking our goods. By the time we had got well into the Kebrabasa hills, thirty men, nearly one-third of the party, had turned back." Livingstone was never so happy as on one of these long tramps, where the camp was made up in the most orderly manner night after night, each group having their allotted place and fire under their head- man, with the fire of the Englishmen in the centre. He recounts the quaint talk which he heard on many subjects. Political discussions, as at home, moved them most. ''The whole camp is roused, and the men shout to one another from the different fires. The misgovernment of chiefs furnishes an inexhaus- tible theme. 'We could govern ourselves better,' they cry. 'What is the use of chiefs at all ? They don't w^ork. The chief is fat and has plenty of wives, w^hilst we do the hard work, have hunger and only one wnfe, more likely none. Now this must be bad, unjust, and wrong.' All shout a loud ehe, equivalent to our 'Hear, hear.' Next the head-men, Kanyata and Tuba, with his loud voice, take up the question on the loyal side. 'The chief is the father of his people. Can there be people without a father, eh? God made the chief. Who says the chief is not wise? He is wise, but his children fools.' Tuba goes on generally till he has silenced all oppo- sition." 150 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. They averaged two and a half miles an hour, and marched six hours a day, the Doctor trying in all ways to make the march a pleasure. The four Englishmen had to do the shooting for food, and yet were surprised to find that they could tire their men out. The European constitution, Livingstone thinks, "has a power of endurance, even in the tropics, greater than that of the hardiest meat-eating Afri- cans." Parts of the country, formerly populous, they found deserted. Lions abounded at many places. The ''majestic sneak," as the Doctor names the king of beasts, would come near the camp and roar, at- tracted by the smell of meat. On these occasions the men, who half believed the superstition that he is a chief in disguise, would remonstrate. Tuba : ''You a chief, eh? You call yourself a chief, do you? What kind of chief are you, to come sneak- ing round in the dark trying to steal our buffalo meat? Are you not ashamed of yourself? A pretty chief truly; you are like the scavenger beetle, and think of yourself only. You have not the heart of a chief. Why don't you kill your own beef ?" An- other sedate man, who seldom spoke : "We are trav- elling peaceably through the country back to our own chief. We never killed people or stole anything. The buffalo meat is ours, and it does not become a great chief like you to be prowling about in the dark like a hyena to steal the meat of strangers. Go and TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 151 hunt for yourself. There is plenty of game in the forest."* In June they came amongst old acquaintances, Pangola and Mpende ; and still travelling on, sighted Semalembore's mountains on July 9th. They sent him a present, and soon were in bracing air, three thousand feet above sea-level, with superb views of the great Zambesi Valley. From Kafue to the Falls they were amongst friends, and plentifully supplied, the men clapping their hands as they entered and left the villages, and the women lulilooing with the shrill call of "let us sleep" or ''peace." Alas! there was cause for the cry, for here Livingstone became aware that Portuguese slave-dealers were following in his footsteps. ''We were now so fully convinced," he writes, "that in opening the country through which no Portuguese durst pass previously, we were made the unwilling instruments of spreading the slave- *Wherever they go, Dr. Livingstone has his eye on the trees and plants and fruits of the region, with a view to com- merce ; while he is no less interested to watch the treatment of fever, when cases occur, and greatly gratified that Dr. Kirk, who had been trying a variety of medicines on himself, made rapid recovery when he took Dr. Livingstone's pills. He used to say if he had followed Morison, and set up as pill-maker, he might have made his fortune. Passing through the Bazi- zulu he had an escape from a rhinoceros, as remarkable though not quite as romantic as his escape from the lion; the animal came dashing at him, and suddenly, for some unknown reason, stopped when close to him, and gave him time to escape, as if it had been struck by his color, and doubtful if hunting a white man would be good sport. 152 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. trade, that had we not promised to return with the Makololo we should have left the Zambesi and gone to the Rovuma or some other inlet to the interior." They reached Sekeletu's country on August 4th, and soon saw^ the columns rising from the Victoria Falls, making a detour to visit them again and make a more careful inspection. Here they found Mr. Baldwin, a Natal gentleman, in a sort of durance to Mashot- lane, the neighboring head-man. He had arrived without a guide by the aid of a pocket-compass, and, while Mashotlane was ferrying him over, jumped in and swam ashore. ''If he had been devoured by a crocodile, the English would have blamed us. He nearly did us a great injury, therefore we said he must pay a fine." From Mr. Baldwin, Livingstone heard news which deeply grieved him. Mr. Baldwin had found a mis- sionary party bound for Linyanti, at a well in the desert, starving. He shot game for them and en- abled them to get to Linyanti. Here Mr. Helmore, the chief missionary, at xe began active work preaching and teaching, but in a few weeks his wife sickened of fever and died. He held on gallantly himself, but was soon down and dead within a month, as were also three other of the nine Euro- peans in the mission. Helmore's associate mission- ary, who was young and ignorant of the language, went back with their native servants, four of whom also had died. The Doctor felt that if he had been a TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 153 few months earlier all might have been saved, for he had now almost a specific for the fever. Dr. Kirk, after experimenting on himself with results which threatened disaster, had recovered almost at once on taking Livingstone's pills.* They found a sad state of things at Sesheke, where they met Sekeletu. He had been struck by leprosy and was isolated. He believed himself be- witched, and had put several chief men to death, had altered Sebituane's policy of conciliating the tribes he had subdued or attracted, and advanced none but pure Makololo. Moreover, there had been a long drought, which had scattered the people in search of food; the inferior chiefs were setting up for them- selves, and Sebituane's empire was fast crumbling to pieces. However, Sekeletu received them most hospitably, was pleased with the presents they brought, and insisted on their treating him for his *0n going to Linyanti, Dr. Livingstone found the wagon and other articles which he had left there in 1853, safe and sound, except from the effects of weather and the white ants. The expressions of kindness and confidence toward him ohj the part of the natives greatly touched him. The people were much disappointed at not seeing Mrs. Livingstone and the children. But this confidence was the result of his way of dealing with them. "It ought never to be forgotten that in- fluence among the heathen can be acquired only by patient continuance in well-doing, and that good manners are as nec- essary among barbarians .as among the civilized." The Mako- lolo were the most interesting tribe that Dr. Livingstone had ever seen. While now with them he was unwearied in his efforts for their spiritual good. 154 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. leprosy. They did not entirely cure him, but left him in better spirits and health. Dr. Livingstone went on to Linyanti to get medicines and other I things out of the wagon he had left there in 1853. He was received with every demonstration of joy, the town-crier proclaiming before dawn, ''I have dreamed! I have dreamed! that Monare" (the Doc- tor) ''was coming, and that the tribe would live if you prayed God and gave heed to the word of Monare,'' and Sekeletu's wives supplying abundant provisions. All was as he had left it, except that the white ants had eaten one of his wagon wheels. He returned to Sesheke, where they stayed till Septem- ber, holding regular services as well as doctoring chief and people. On the i6th they started west again, accompanied by men selected by Sekeletu, who behaved splendidly. Thus on the canoes com- ing suddenly into rapids where the waves began to fill them, two men out of each jumped out at once and swam alongside, guiding the canoes. They then ordered a Batoka man to jump out, as ''the white men must be saved." "I can't swim," said the Batoka man. "Jump out then, and hold on to the canoe," which he did at once, and they got safely down. They reached Tette and the "Asthmatic" on No- vember 2 1 St, having been absent six months. The two sailors were well, and had kept the steamer afloat by constant patching, besides exercising other indus- TO LINYANTI AND BACK. 155 tries. Two sheep and two dozen fowls had been left with them, but they had bought two monkeys, who ate all the eggs till the natives stole the fowls. A hippopotamus came up one night and laid waste their vegetable garden; the sheep broke into their cotton-patch when it was in flower and ate all but the stems, and then the crocodiles got the sheep. They also set up as smiths, and a Portuguese brought them a double-barreled rifle to be browned. "I think I knows how," said one, whose father was a blacksmith, "you've only to put the barrels in the fire." This was done, and to Jack's amazement the barrels came asunder. They stuck them together with resin and sent them back with a message; "it was all they could do," they said, "and they wouldn't charge him for the job." They would only pay market-price for provisions, and if the traders raised if they brought out a chameleon, of which the natives have a great dread, and the moment they saw it jumped overboard. They now started in the "Asthmatic" for Kon- gone, to meet the new steamer, which they expected from England. On the way down, that remarkable vessel was plainly on her last voyage. "Our engi- neer has been doctoring her bottom with fat and patches, and pronounces it safe to go down the river slowly. Every day a new leak breaks out, and he is in, plastering and scoring, the pump going con- stantly. I never expected to find her afloat, but the 156 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. ' engineer had nothing else to do, and it saves us from buying dear canoes from the Portuguese." She held out until December 20th, when the Journal notes: ''One day above Senna the 'Ma Robert' stuck on a sandbank and filled, so we had to go ashore and leave hen" CHAPTER IX. THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 1861-62. As he neared Kongone, Livingstone was rejoicing in the thought of the Universities Mission, which was on its way out, and from which he hoped great things, and wrote : 'T am greatly dehghted at the prospect of a Church of England Mission to Central Africa." He had not long to wait, as the "Pioneer" arrived off the bar, with Bishop Mackenzie and his staff, on January 31, 1861. The only fault of the "Pioneer" was that she drew too much water for the Shire at this season ; and this, together with the wish of the home government, turned him from the immediate planting of the Mission on or near its banks to the exploration of the Rovuma. The mouth of that river is north of the Portuguese boun- dary, and it seemed likely that it came from the north of Lake Nyassa. If this were so, it might prove in many ways the best route for the interior, and so the best situation for the Mission. Accord- ingly they sailed for the Rovuma in the "Pioneer," and, with the "Lyra" accompanying, explored some hundred miles of its banks, until, the March floods 157 158 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. being over, they could get no higher and returned to the Zambesi. Livingstone now resolved to settle the Mission on the Shire, and then explore Lake Nyassa, and the Rovuma from the lake downward. When they reached the Upper Shire the water was low, and the toil of getting the 'Tioneer" over the frequent sandbanks excessive. Anchors had to be laid out ahead, and the capstans worked. Living- stone's friendship for the Bishop and his compan- ions, Scudamore and Horace Waller, grew rapidly as he saw them ever ready and anxious to lend a hand in hauling, and working as hard as any one on board. But the clouds were already gathering. As they approached the Manganja country on their way to Chibisa, the most powerful chief of the tribe, they heard sad tidings. The slave-gangs from Tette and other Portuguese settlements were in the country. They had followed Livingstone's steps in i860, and on pretense of being "his children," had first cajoled the natives, and then set tribe against tribe, buying captives from both sides and marching them off in gangs to the coast. Everywhere they found vil- lages, populous and prosperous on their last visit, deserted and pillaged. On July 15th they halted at the village of their old friend, Mbame. News came that a slave-gang would be passing presently. A hurried consultation w^as held. "Shall we inter- fere ?" In a few minutes the long line of manacled men, women, and children came wending their way THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 159 round the hill and into the valley, on the side of which the village stood. The black drivers, armed with muskets and bedecked with various articles of finery, marched jauntily in the front, middle, and rear of the line, some of them blowing exultant notes out of long, tin horns. ''The instant the fellows caught sight of us they bolted like mad into the for- est. The chief of the party alone remained, as he, from being in front, had his hand tightly grasped by a Makololo." He proved to be a well-known slave of the Commandant of Tette, the successor of Liv- ingstone's friend. Major Sicard, who had been re- called. The slaves, eighty- four in number, were lib- erated; all but four proved to be captives taken in war. *'The others tied and starved us," a small boy said. "You cut the ropes and bid us eat. What sort of people are you? Where did you come from?" The Bishop had been away bathing, but on his return approved, and attached the whole to his Mission. In the next few days' progress they scat- tered several more slave-gangs. The Bishop now /accepted the offer of Chigunda, a friendly Manganja chief, to settle at Magomero, his village. Befoie leaving the Mission, Livingstone agreed with the Bishop to visit the Ajawa chief, who was making war on the Manganja. They started on the 226., met crowds of Manganja in flight, found villages they had left prosperous two years before deserted and destroyed, the corn poured out in cartloads along 160 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. the pathsc At two o'clock they came on a burning v^illage, and heard triumphant shouts mingled with the wail of the Manganja women over their slain, ^'The Bishop then engaged us in fervent prayer ; and on rising from our knees, we saw a long line of Ajawa warriors with their captives coming round the hillside/' The head-man left the path and stood on an ant-hill. He was told that they had come for a peaceful interview, but the Ajawa, flushed with success, yelled, ''Nkondo, Nkondo" (war, war), and closed round till within fifty yards, shooting poi- soned arrows, one of which passed between the Bishop and Livingstone. Some four of the Ajawa who had guns now opened fire, and then 'Sve were obliged in self-defense to fire and drive them off. Orily two captives escaped to us, but probably most of the prisoners fled elsewhere in the confusion. We returned to the village we had left in the morning after a hungry, fatiguing, and most unpleasant day," It was now debated whether the Mission should aid the Manganja against the Ajawa. "No," was Livingstone's advice, "don't interfere in native quar- rels." Early in August he left the Mission, on a^ pleasant site at Magomero, surrounded by stately shady trees. Everything promised fairly. The weather was delightful. Provisions poured in very cheap. "The Bishop, with characteristic ardor, began learning the language; Mr, Waller began building, and Mr. Scudamore improvised a sort of THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 161 infant school for the children, than which there is no better way for acquiring an unwritten tongue." It was November before Livingstone saw the Bishop again, on his return from Lake Nyassa, which he now resolved to explore thoroughly. He started with Dr. Kirk, Charles Livingstone, and one white sailor, and a Makololo crew for the four-oared gig of the "Pioneer," which was carried by hired natives past the forty miles of the rapids which he named the Murchison Falls, in which the Shire descends twelve hundred feet. Above them the Shire was broad and deep, with a current of only one mile an hour, and practically a southern exten- sion of the lake, into which they sailed on September 2d. From Cape Maclear they found the lake up- ward of two hundred miles long, and surrounded by a dense population, industrious and friendly on all the central and southern banks. Livingstone com- pares it to the Sea of Gahlee. In the northern part all was changed. The lawless tribe of the Mazitu (Zulus) who dwelt in the highlands swept down on the lake tribes almost at will, plundering and enslav- ing; and there was a regular crossing-place for the Arab dhows with their cargoes of slaves. All about the lake was now examined with earnest eyes. The population was denser than he had seen anywhere else. The people were civil, and even friendly, but undoubtedly they were not handsome. At the north of the lake they were lawless, and at one point the 162 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. party were robbed in the night — the first time such a thing had occurred in Livingstone's African life.* He learnt afterward from the Consul at Zanzibar that *In "The Zambesi and its Tributaries," Livingstone gives a grave account of the robbery. In his letters to his friends he makes fun of it, as he did of the raid of the Boers. To Mr. F. Fitch he writes: "You think I cannot get into a scrape. . , . . For the first time in Africa we were robbed. Ex- pert thieves crept into our sleeping-places, about four o'clock in the morning, and made off with what they could lay their hands on. Sheer over-modesty ruined me. It was Sunday, and such a black mass swarmed around our sail, which we used as a hut, that we could not hear prayers. I had before slipped away a quarter of a mile to dress for church, but see- ing a crowd of women watching me through the reeds, I did not change my old 'unmentionables' — they were so old, I had serious thoughts of converting them into — charity ! Next morn- ing early all our spare clothing was walked off with, and there I was left by my modesty nearly through at the knees, and no change of shirt, flannel, or stockings. After that, don't say that I can't get into a scrape !" The same letter thanks Mr. Fitch for sending him Punch, whom he deemed a sound di- vine! On the same subject he wrote at another time, regret- ting that Punch did not reach him, especially a number in which notice was taken of himself. "It never came. Who the miscreants are that steal them I cannot divine. I would not grudge them a reading if they would only send them on after- ward. Perhaps binding the whole year's Punches would be the best plan; and then we need not label it 'Sermons in Lent," or -Tracts on Homoeopathy,' but you may write inside, as Dr. Buckland did on his umbrella, 'Stolen from Dr. Livingstone.* We really enjoy them very much. They are good against fever. The 'Essence of Parliament,' for instance, is capital. One has to wade through an ocean of paper to get the same information, without any of the fun. And by the time the newspapers have reached us, most of the interest in public matters has evaporated.'* THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 163 nineteen thousand slaves passed yearly through that custom-house from this region. After a survey of the lake, and noting all the principal features, he re- turned to the "Pioneer" at Chibisa's early in Novem- ber, impressed more than ever with the value of Lake Nyassa as the key of Central Africa. Here the Bishop came to see him, reporting cheerfully of the prospects at Magomero, and of his hope of peace with the Ajawa, whom the Manganja had defeated with the aid of the Mission. Livingstone had his misgivings, but, after making an appointment to meet the Bishop in January, when he hoped to bring up Miss Mackenzie and other English, started for the coast. It proved a long and tedious journey, the 'Tioneer" being stranded on one sandbank of the Shire for five weeks. Here occurred the first death in the expedition, that of the carpenter's mate. When they reached the sea, early in January, 1862, they found that H. M. S. "Gorgon," with Miss Mac- kenzie on board, and the sections of the "Lady Nyassa" steamer for the lake, had been off the bar, but not finding them, had sailed for Mozambique. There was nothing for it but to wait, and on the last of January the "Gorgon" hove in sight again, tow- ing a brig, and the "Pioneer" started out to meet hen "I have steamboat in the brig," signaled the "Gor- gon." "Welcome news," Livingstone answered. "Wife aboard," came next. "Accept my best thanks," Livingstone answered. Mrs. Livingstone, 1G4 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Miss Mackenzie, with others for the Mission, and the Rev. James Stewart, sent out by the Committee of the Scotch Free Church to survey for a Mission station, came on shore next day.* Captain Wilson, of the "Gorgon," threw himself into the work zealously, and, leaving his ship at the bar, went up with them in the "Pioneer" to Shu- panga, where his men put the "Lady Nyassa" to- gether for Livingstone. While this was in progress the Captain himself started in boats to take Miss Mackenzie, Mrs. Burrup, and the rest up to the Bishop at Magomero. On the way he met the news of the Bishop's death on January 31st, and returned to Shupanga with the sad news and the two poor ladies, reaching it on March nth. It was from the Makololo, who had settled at the junction of the Shire and the Ruo, the Bishop's river, that they heard the story. The Bishop had sent a party to find a shorter route to the Shire from Magomero. They were attacked in a slave-trading ^Livingstone's letters show him a little out of sorts at the manifold obstructions that had always been making him "too late" — "too late for Rovuma below, too late for Rovuma above, and now too late for our own appointment," but in greater trouble because the "Lady Nyassa" had not been sent by sea, as he had strongly urged, and as it afterward appeared might have been done quite well. To take out the pieces and fit them up would involve heavy expense and long delay, and perhaps the season would be lost again. But Livingstone had always a saving clause, in all his lamentations, and here it is; "I know that all was done for the best." THE UNIVERSITIES MISSION. 165 village and two Manganja carriers captured. The wives came to the Bishop, imploring him to rescue them. At last he complied, and, taking with him a guard of the Makololo (who were delighted with the chance of ''eating the sheep of the slave-trad- ers"), rescued the captives, and burned the village of the captors. The Bishop and his party returned to Magomero. He was ill and exhausted, but though unfit for travelling, started at once with Mr. Burrup to keep an appointment at Chibisa's. On the way his canoe upset, and he lost all his medicines, tea, coffee, and clothing. They got to a small island on the Ruo, where the Bishop died after three weeks' prostration. Mr. Burrup, after burying his chief, was carried back by the faithful Makololo to Magomero, where he, too, died. 'This will hurt us all," Livingstone mused sadly, resting his head on his hand in the little cabin of the "Pioneer." When the news reached home an angry controversy arose, some blaming the Bishop, some Livingstone. Though bound to admit that he had given counsel to the Mission never to interfere in native quarrels, the Doctor, with characteristic gen- erosity, declared that had he been there he should have taken the same view as the Bishop. "The blow is quite bewildering," he wrote to the Bishop of Cape Town. "The two strongest men so quickly cut down, and one of them, humanly speaking, indis- 166 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. pensable to success. ... I cannot help feeling sadly disturbed, in view of the effect the news may have at home. I shall not swerve a hair's breadth from my work while life is spared, and I trust the supporters of the Mission may not shrink back from all they have set their hearts to." CHAPTER X. RECALL VOYAGE TO INDIA. 1863-64. It was with a sad heart that Livingstone carried Captain Wilson and the bereaved ladies down to Kongone to meet the ''Gorgon." She had been obliged to leave the bar from stress of weather, and the 'Tioneer" was detained at that most unhealthy spot till April 4th, when she returned, and Captain Wilson sailed away, taking with him the heartfelt gratitude of Livingstone for his splendid help and sympathy. The ''Pioneer" steamed back to Shu- panga on April nth, bearing a fever-stricken freight. Then came the last few days of his mar- ried life. There had always been in their intercourse "what would be thought by some more than a de- corous amount of merriment and play. ... I said to her a few days before her fatal illness, *We old bodies ought now to be more sober, and not play so much.' 'Oh, no/ she said ; 'you must always be as playful as you have always been. ... I have always believed it to be the true way, to let the head grow wise, but keep the heart young and playful.' " We are now arrived at the last illness and the 167 168 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. death of Mrs. Livingstone. After she had parted from her husband at the Cape in the spring of 1858, she returned with her parents to Kuruman, and in November gave birth there to her youngest child, Anna Mary. Thereafter she returned to Scotland, to be near her other children. Some of them were at school. No comfortable home for them all could be formed, and though many friends were kind, the time was not a happy one. Mrs. Livingstone's de- sire to be with her husband was intense ; not only the longings of an affectionate heart, and the necessity of taking counsel with him about the family, but the feeling that when overshadowed by one whose faith was so strong her fluttering heart would regain its steady tone, and she would be better able to help both him and the children, gave vehemence to this desire. Her letters to her husband tell of much spiritual darkness ; his replies were the very soul of tenderness and Christian earnestness. Providence seemed to favor her wish ; the vessel in which she sailed was preserved from imminent destruction, and she had the great happiness of finding her husband alive and well On the 2 1 St of April she was stricken with the fever, on the 25th she became delirious, on the 27th (Sunday) she died, and Mr. Stewart found the man who had "faced so many deaths, and braved so many dangers, now utterly broken down, and weeping like a child." "Oh, my Mary, my Mary! how often we RECALL— VOYAGE TO INDIA. 169 have longed for a quiet home since you and I were cast adrift at Kolobeng. . . . She rests by the large baobab tree at Shupanga, sixty feet in circum- ference. The men asked to be allowed to mount guard till we had got the grave built with bricks dug from an old house." *'Kongone, May nth. — My dear, dear Mary has been this evening a fortnight in Heaven. . . . For the first time in my life I feel willing to die. D. L." So comments the Journal. The heading of the last extract, *'Kongone," shows that even this sorrow was not allowed to in- terrupt his work. He had gone down again to bring up the last portions of the "Lady Nyassa," which w^as now finished and launched on June 23d, too late for ascending the Shire. The December rains must set in before she could be got up to the Murchison Falls. He turned once more to the Rovuma, as- cending one hundred and fifty-six miles in boats, in the hope that it might be found to come from the northern end of Lake Nyassa. Helped by the cap- tain of H. M. S. ''Orestes," he now satisfied himself that there was no waterway to the east coast from that lake. On the upper part the character of the people changed. They became treacherous and hos- tile, and there was no trade, for here the baleful track of the Arab slave-dealers crossed the river. Living- stone returned to the ship, a more determined enemy than ever of the traffic, which was ruining the whole 1^0 tHE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. regioHo He reached the Zambesi in November, but only got up to Shupanga by December 19th. He was evidently rather relieved to find that the Zam- besi must remain the highway to Lake Nyassa and the country beyond. ''It may seem weak," he wrote to Sir R. Murchison, ''to feel a chord vibrating to the dust of her who rests on the banks of the Zam- besi, and to think that the path by that is consecrated by her remains."* In January, 1863, he was working up the Shire *Livingstone had the satisfaction of knowing that his ac- count of the trip to Lake Nyassa had excited much interest in the Cabinet at home, and that a strong remonstrance had been addressed to the Portuguese Government against slave- hunting. But it does not appear that this led to any improve- ment at the time. While stung into more than ordinary energy by the atro- cious deeds he witnessed around him, Livingstone was living near the borders of the unseen world. He writes to Sir Thomas Maclear on the 27th of October, 1862: "I suppose that I shall die in these uplands, and somebody will carry out the plan I have longed to put into practice. I have been thinking a great deal since the departure of my beloved one about the regions whither she has gone, and im- agine from the manner the Bible describes it we have got too much monkery in our ideas. There will be work there as well as here, and possibly not such a vast difference in our being as is expected. But a: short time there will give more in- sight than a thousand musings. We shall see Him by whose inexpressible love and mercy we get there, and all whom we loved, and all the lovable. I can sympathize with you now more fully than I did before. I work with as much vigor as I can, and mean to do so till the change comes ; but the pros- pect of a home is all dispelled." RECALL-VOYAGE TO INDIA. m once more in the "Pioneer," the "Lady Nyassa" in tow, meaning to unscrew the latter, carry her past the Murchison Falls, and launch her on the lake. All his former experience was dwarfed in horror on this voyage. The banks, so flourishing eighteen months before, were now a desert, the few survivors cowering in the river-swamps. In the morning the paddles had to be cleared of corpses. "The corpses we saw floating down the river were only a remnant of those that had perished, whom their friends from weakness could not bury, nor the over-gorged croco- diles devour." They visited the Bishop's grave, and found the relics of the Mission. Dickenson, Scuda- more, and Thornton were dead since the higher land of Magomero had been abandoned. What wonder that Dr. Kirk and Charles Livingstone broke down now and had to be sent home, though not till the former had seen Livingstone through a bad attack of dysentery! He had, however, been joined by Young, from the "Gorgon," and Rae, the engineer, still held out — the last Englishman left of the origi- nal expedition. But nothing could daunt the old hero, who prepared to unscrew the "Lady Nyassa" and carry her sections past the falls, there to be put together again. He had prepared the first part of the road over which she was to be carried when a despatch recalling the expedition was received from Lord Russell. For this he was not unprepared. The local Portu- in THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. guese authorities had roused their government, wha had been pressing at the English Foreign Office their objections to his action in Africa. The failure of the Universities Mission probably hastened Lord Russell's action. "The Government has behaved well to us throughout," Livingstone wrote, "and I feel thankful to them for enabling us to carry on the experiments But the Portuguese dogged our foot- steps, and, as is generally understood, with the ap- probation of their home government, neutralized our labors." To Mr. Waller he wrote: 'T don't know whether I am to go on the shelf or not. If I do, I make Africa that shelf. If the Tady Nyassa' is well sold, I shall manage." He had spent £6,000 on her — more than half of all he had earned by his writings. It was, however, impossible to get the "Pioneer" down before December, when she was to be handed back to the Government ; so in the mean- time he resolved on another exploring trip. He fixed on the north-northwest, in order to satisfy him- self whether any large river flowed into Nyassa from Central Africa; and hoped to get as far as Lake Bemba, not yet reached by any white man, and to get information as to the great slave-route to the west coast, which he had already crossed to the east of Lake Nyassa.* *At no previous time had Dr. Livingstone been under greater discouragements than now. The Expedition had been recalled; his heart had not recovered from the desolation RECALL— VOYAGE TO INDIA. 173 He started on August 15th with one European companion and five Makololo, whom he held to be worth fifty of any of the eastern tribes. The men of that tribe whom he had brought from Central Africa had formed a strong settlement, with others who had joined them, near the Murchison Falls, and having guns, were unmolested by the slave-traders. These caused by the death of the Bishop and his brethren, as well as the Helmores in the Makololo country, and still more by the removal of Mrs. Livingstone, and the thought of his moth- erless children ; the most heart-rending scenes had been wit- nessed everywhere in regions that a short time ago had been so bright; all his efforts to do good had been turned to evil, every new path he had opened having been seized as it were by the devil and turned to the most diabolical ends ; his coun- trymen were nearly all away from him; the most depressing of diseases had produced its natural effect ; he had had wor- ries, delays, and disappointments about ships and boats of the most harassing kind, and now the "Lady Nyassa" could not be floated in the waters of which he had fondly hoped to see her the angel and the queen. It is hardly possible to exaggerate the noble quality of the heart that, undeterred by all these troubles, resolved to take this last chance of explor- ing the banks of Nyassa, although it could only be by the weary process of trudge, trudge, trudging; although hunger, if not starvation, blocked the path, and fever and dysentery flitted around it like imps of darkness ; although tribes, de- moralized by the slave-trade, might at any moment put an end to him and his enterprise — not to speak of the ordinary risks of travel, the difficulty of finding guides, the liability to bodily hurt, the scarcity of food, the perils from wild beasts by night and by day — risks which no ordinary traveller could think of lightly, but which in Livingstone's journeys drop out of sight, because they are so overtopped and dwarfed by risks that ordinary travellers never know. lU THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. had been driven back from another tract of country through which they now passed. Livingstone found the people friendly, but suspicious. He was re- freshed on this part of the journey by hearing again the merry laugh of the women, "the sound of which does me good." It proved to be a wondrously fertile country, with occasional scenes of great beauty ; one, the Vale of Goa, reminding him of the Thames at Richmond. On September 5th their course was altered to the northeast, and after touching Lake Nyassa again, they entered regions devastated by the slave-trade. Following the great slave-route over fine hill country, where the bracing air revived the Englishmen and prostrated their companions, they had to turn back on September 30th, when only ten days' march from an unexplored lake called Bemba.* The temptation to go on was great, but Livingstone knew that there would be no more wages for his men after December, so reluctantly turned back. They reached the ships on November ist, having marched seven hundred and sixty miles in fifty-five travelling days, an average of twelve miles a day. The flood did not come for nearly two months, but what tried Livingstone far more than the delay was a letter from the new Bishop, Tozer, informing him that the Mission w^as to be withdrawn to Zanzibar. *The reader will see that Livingstone subsequently discov- ered this lake, which is Bangweolo ; his heart lies buried at Ilala, on its southern shore. RECALL-VOYAGE TO INDIA. 175 "I hope, dear Bishop," he wrote, ''you will not deem me impertinent in writing to you with a sore heart. If you go, the best hopes for this wretched, down- trodden people disappear, and I again entreat you 'from the bottom of my heart to reconsider the mat- ter." The Bishop, however, persisted. Livingstone felt this far more than his own recall — ''could hardly write of it" — "felt more inclined to sit down and cry." All he could do was to arrange that some thirty children, who seemed likely to be abandoned, should be sent to the Cape. He took them down to the coast in the "Pioneer," from whence, under Mr. Waller's care, they were forwarded to the Cape.* On February 13th they reached the coast, and the "Pioneer" was handed over to the captain of H.M.S. "Orestes." The "Ariel," her consort, took the "Lady Nyassa" in tow for Mozambique. Captain Chapman offered Livingstone a berth on the "Ariel," but he chose to remain in the "Lady Nyassa," with the three English sailors and the native crew. On *And thus, for Livingstone's life-time, ended the Universi- ties Mission to Central Africa, with all the hopes which its bright dawn had inspired, that the great Church of England would bend its strength against the curse of Africa, and sweep it from the face of the earth. Writing to Sir Thomas Maclear, he said that he felt this much more than his own recall. No mission had ever had such bright prospects; notwithstanding all that had been said against it, he stood by the climate as firmly as ever, and if he were only young, he would go him- self and plant the gospel there. It would be done one day without fail, though he might not live to see it. 176 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. the 15 th they were caught in a hurricane, which drove the "Ariel" back straight on the "Lady Nyassa," while the towing hawser got round her screw and stopped it. "We on the little vessel saw no chance of escape, but she glided past our bow, and we breathed fi;eely again. We had now an oppor- tunity of witnessing man-of-war seamanship. Cap- tain Chapman, though his engines were disabled, did not think of abandoning us in the heavy gale, but crossed the bows of the 'Lady Nyassa' again and again, dropping a cask with a line to give us another hawser. We might never have picked it up had not a Krooman jumped overboard and fastened a second line to the cask. We passed a terrible night, but the Tady Nyassa' did wonderfully well, rising like a little duck over the foaming waves. Captain Chap- man and his officers pronounced her the finest little sea-boat they had ever seen." What was to be done now ? The "Lady Nyassa" must be sold. The Portuguese wished to buy her, but this Livingstone would not hear of, as she would have been used as a slaver. The nearest possible market was Bombay, twenty-five hundred miles off across the Indian Ocean. He had been captain and pilot on the Zambesi and Shire for years, why not on the open sea? Accordingly, on April 30th, he started for Bombay with fourteen tons of coal on board, himself for captain and pilot, the three Eng- lish sailors, seven native men, and two boys, who RECALL— VOYAGE TO INDIA. 177 proved themselves capital sailors, though they never had seen the sea till now. It was an exploit worthy of the man. Spite of squalls and calms, for they wxre obliged to keep most of their coal for the Indian coast, he ran into the harbor of Bombay on June 13, 1864. 'The vessel was so small that no one noticed our arrival.'* After rewarding and providing for his crew he started for England, and arrived at Charing Cross Station on July 21st.* *Looking back on the work of the last six years, while deeply grieved that the great object of the Expedition had not been achieved, Dr. Livingstone was able to point to some important results : 1. The discovery of the Kongone harbor, and the ascer- taining of the condition of the Zambesi River, and its fitness for navigation. 2. The ascertaining of the capacity of the soil. It was found to be admirably adapted for indigo and cotton, as well as tobacco, castor-oil, and sugar. Its great fertility was shown by its gigantic grasses, and abundant crops of corn and maize. But every fine feature of the country was bathed in gloom by the slave-trade. The image left in Dr. Livingstone's mind was not that of the rich, sunny, luxuriant country, but that of the woe and wretchedness of the people. The real service of the Expedition was. that it had exposed slavery at its fountain-head, and in all its phases. First, there was the in- ternal slave-trade between hostile native tribes. Then, there were the slave-traders from the coast, Arabs, or half-caste Portuguese, for whom natives were encouraged to collect slaves by all the horrible means of marauding and murder. And further, there were the parties sent out from Portuguese and Arab coast towns, with cloth and beads, muskets and am- munition. The destructive and murderous effects of the last were the climax of the system. CHAPTER XL SECOND VISIT HOME. 1864-650 On the afternoon of July 21, 1864, Livingstone reached the Tavistock Hotel, Covent Garden, and after a hasty dinner, walked down to call on Sir R. Murchison. It was the last year of Lord Palmer- ston's last administration, and the evening of one of the remarkable weekly gatherings in Piccadilly, which made his Government so strong socially, and did so much to rally to him every notable English- man outside of politics. ''Sir Roderick," the Jour- nal notes, "took me off with him, just as I was, to Lady Palmerston's reception. My lady very gra- cious. Gave me tea herself. Lord Palmerston look- ing very well. Had two conversations with him about the slave-trade. Sir Roderick says he is more intent on maintaining his policy on that than on any other thing. And so is she. A wonderfully fine, matronly lady." He found all London again at his feet, bought a dress suit, and stayed for a week, find- ing Lord Russell at the Foreign Office cold, and Mr. Layard "warm and frank." On August 1st he was with his mother and chil- 178 SECOND VISIT HOME. 179 dren at Hamilton, all but his eldest, Robert, a boy of eighteen, with a ''deal of the vagabond nature of his father in him." He had got out to Natal, in the hope of reaching his father ; but, failing in that, had crossed to America and enlisted in the Federal Army. After seeing some hard service, he was taken prisoner, badly wounded, and, dying in hospi- tal, was buried in the National Cemetery at Gettys- burg, opened by President Lincoln with the speech which rivals Pericles' funeral oration. "Heard the sad news that Robert is in the American army," the Journal notes at this time.* After a visit to the Duke of Argyll at Inverary — "the most delightful I ever paid" — and a day in Ulva, where he found the home his grandfather lived *"2d August. — Reached Hamilton. Mother did not know me at first. Anna Mary, a nice sprightly child, told me that she preferred Garibaldi buttons on her dress, as I walked down to Dr. Loudon to thank him for his kindness to my mother. "3d August. — Agnes, Oswald, and Thomas came. I did not recognize Tom, he has grown so much. Has been poorly a long v/hile; congestion of the kidney, it is said. Agnes quite tall, and Anna Mary a nice little girl." The next few days were spent with his family, and in visits to the neighborhood. He had a consultation with Professor Syme as to a surgical operation recommended for an ailment that had troubled him ever since his first great journey; he was strongly urged to have the operation performed, and prob- ably it would have been better if he had ; but he finally declined, partly because an old medical friend was against it, but chiefly, as he told Sir Roderick, because the matter would get into the liewspapers, and he did not like the public to be speaking of his infjrmiti?§. 180 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. In — ^'Uahm, or the Cave, a sheltered spot with basal- tic rocks jutting out of the ground below the cave ; the walls of the house remain, and the corn and potato patches are green, but no one lives there" — he came south to visit his old African comrade, Mr. Webb, the great hunter, at Newstead Abbey. Here, with his daughter Agnes, he remained for eight months. At first he refused his host's proposal that he should occupy the Sussex tower in the Abbey, as he must get to work on his book. Where could he work at it better, Mr. and Mrs. Webb urged, and prevailed. So there he stayed till it was finished, in ''the Livingstone room," his host and hostess, with his daughter Agnes, helping to copy. On April 15, 1865, he called Agnes to write the ''Finis" at the end of the MS., and on the 25th left Newstead. "Parted with our good friends, the Webbs. And may God bless and reward them and their family," runs the Journal. He could now turn to his plans for the future, and did so with his usual single-mindedness. He had given a lecture to the British Association at Bath in the autumn of 1864, in which he had thrown down the gauntlet to the Portuguese. It had been taken up by a Senhor Lacerda, in the official journal of Portugal, in a series of articles republished in Eng- land by the Portuguese Government. Livingstone's object, it urged, under the pretext of spreading the Word of God and the advancement of geography SECOND VISIT HOME. 181 and natural science, was really to cause the loss of the commerce of the interior to the Portuguese, and in the end that of their provinces. "It was obvi- ous," the official writer summed up, "from what he declared as his own intentions, that such men ought to be efficiently watched, and their audacious and mischievous actions restrained.'" His new book, Livingstone w^ell knew, would rouse even deeper hos- tility, and his future work must be outside Portu- guese territory. Sir Roderick, on behalf of the Geographical Soci- ety, was anxious that he should go out purely as an explorer, to settle finally the question of the water- sheds of South Africa, beginning at the Rovuma, and so getting to Lake Tanganyika. If he could then get to the west and come out on that coast, or could reach the White Nile to the north, he "would bring back an unrivaled reputation, and have settled all the disputes now pending." ''Answered Sir Roderick about going out," the Journal notes. "Said I could only feel in the way of duty by work- ing as a missionary." Then came an informal mes- sage from Lord Palmerston, to inquire w^hat the Government could do for him. 'Tree access to the highlands beyond by the Zambesi and Shire, secured by treaty with Portugal," was his answer. The Premier had made the inquiry with a view^ to pro- pose a pension.* *It was at this time that Mr. Hayward, Q.C., while on a 182 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. In May, while his preparations were going on, he was before a Committee of the House of Commons on the West Coast of Africa, where he protested vigorously against Britain's ''monstrous mistake as to missionaries." ''I told the Committee," he wrote to Webb, ''that I had heard people say that Chris- tianity made the blacks worse, but did not agree with them. I might have said it was 'rot'; and truly I can stand a good deal of bosh, but to tell me that Christianity makes people worse — Ugh! Tell that to the young trouts. You know on what side I am, and I shall stand to my side, old Pam fashion, through thick and thin. I don't agree with all my side say and do. I won't justify many things, but for the great cause of human progress I am heart and soul, and so are you."* visit to Newstead, brought an informal message from Lord Palmerston, who wished to know what he could do- for Liv- ingstone. Had Livingstone been a vain man, wishing a handle to his name, or had he even been bent on getting what would be reasonable in the way of salary for himself, or of allow- ance for his children, now was his chance of accomplishing his object. But so single-hearted was he in his philanthropy that such thoughts did not so much as enter his mind; there was one thing, and one only, which he wished Lord Palmer- ston to secure — free access to the highlands, by the Zambesi and Shire, to be made good by a treaty with Portugal. It is satisfactory to record that the Foreign Office has at last made arrangements to this effect. *Dr. Livingstone was asked at this time to attend a public meeting on behalf of American freedom. It was not in his power to go, but, in apologizing, he was at pains to express SECOND VISIT HOME. 183 In June he got a telegram announcing his mother's death. He had only left her a few days, and was at Oxford lecturing. He hurried back to the funeral. "In 1858 she said to me she would like one of her laddies to lay her head in the grave. It so happened I was there to pay the last tribute to a dear, good mother." A few days later he was persuaded with difficulty to go to the examination of the school where his son Oswell was. He had to speak to the boys, and his his opinion on the capacity of the negro, in connection with what was going on in the United States : *'Our kinsmen across the Atlantic deserve our warmest sympathy. They have passed, and are passing, through trials, and are encompassed with difficulties which completely dwarf those of our Irish famine, and not the least of them is the question, what to do with those freedmen for whose existence as slaves in America our own forefathers have so much to answer. The introduction of a degraded race from a barba- rous country was a gigantic evil, and if the race cannot be ele- vated, an evil beyond remedy. Millions can neither be amalga- mated nor transported, and the presence of degradation is a contagion which propagates itself among the more civilized. But I have no fears as to the mental and moral capacity of the Africans for civilization and upward progress. We who suppose ourselves to have vaulted at one bound to the extreme of civilization, and smack our lips so loudly over our high elevation, may find it difficult to realize the debasement to which slavery has sunk those men, or to appreciate what, in the discipline of the sad school of bondage, is in a state of freedom real and substantial progress. But I, who have been intimate with Africans who have never been defiled by the slave-trade, believe them to be capable of holding an honorable rank in the family of man," 184 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. last words to them — indeed the last words he ever spoke in Scotland publicly — were, 'Tear God, and work hard." His arrangements with the Government and the Geographical Society were finished early in August. Each of them gave him £500, to which a private friend added £1,000. He was continued as Consul, but without salary. Shabby terms enough, as he knew well himself, for £2,000 would be quite insuffi- cient to pay his, necessary expenses. But he was too proud to remonstrate, and meant to provide the defi- ciency by selling the "Lady Nyassa" at Bombay. Dr. Livingstone's last weeks in England were passed under the roof of the late Rev. Dr. Hamilton, author of ''Life in Earnest," and could hardly have been passed in a more congenial home. Natives of the same part of Scotland, nearly of an age, and re- sembling each other much in taste and character, the two men drew greatly to each other. The same Puritan faith lay at the basis of their religious char- acter, with all its stability and firmness. But above all, they had put on charity, which is the bond of perfectness. In Natural History, too, they had an equal enthusiasm. In Dr. Hamilton, Livingstone found what he missed in many orthodox men. On the evening of his last Sunday, he was prevailed on to give an address in Dr. Hamilton's church, after having in the morning received the Communion with the congregation. In his address he vindicated his SECOND VISIT HOME. 185 character as a missionary, and declared that it was as much as ever his great object to proclaim the love of Christ, which they had been commemorating that day. His prayers made a deep impression ; they were like the communings of a child with his father. At the railway station, the last Scotch hands grasped by him were those of Dr. and Mrs. Hamilton. The news of Dr. Hamilton's death was received by Liv- ingstone a few years after, in the heart of Africa, with no small emotion. Their next meeting was in the better land. On August nth he took leave at the Foreign Office; on the next day dined at Wimbledon with Mr. Murray, his publisher, and started on the 15th to place his daughter Agnes at a school in France. "Mr. and Mrs. Oswell came up to say farewell," the Journal records. ''He offers to go over to Paris at any time to bring Agnes home, or do anything that a father would. Dr. Kirk and Mr. Waller go down to Folkstone to take leave of us there. This is very kind. The Lord puts it into their hearts to show kindness, and blessed be His Name." He left Agnes at her school in Paris, and em- barked at Marseilles for Bombay on August 19th, reaching it on September nth. CHAPTER XII. LAKES MOERO^ BANGWEOLO^ AND TANGANYIKA. 1865-71. The object for which Dr. Livingstone set out on his third and last great African journey is thus stated in the preface to 'The Zambesi and its Tribu- taries :" "Our Government have supported the pro- posal of the Royal Geographical Society made by my friend Sir Roderick Murchison, and have united with that body to aid me in another attempt to open Africa to civilizing influences, and a valued private friend has given a thousand pounds for the same object. I propose to go inland, north of the terri- tory which the Portuguese in Europe claim, and en- deavor to commence that system on the East which has been so eminently successful on the West Coast : a system combining the repressive efforts of Her Majesty's cruisers with lawful trade and Christian missions — the moral and material results of which have been so gratifying. I hope to ascend the Ro- vuma, or some other river north of Cape Delgado, and, in addition to my other work, shall strive, by passing along the northern end of Lake Nyassa, and round the southern end of Lake Tanganyika, to ascertain the watershed of that part of Africa.'* 186 MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 187 The first part of the scheme was his own, the second he had been urged to undertake by the Geo- graphical Society. The sums in aid contributed by Government and the Geographical Society were only £500 each; but it was not thought that the work would occupy a long time. Livingstone reached Bombay in September, 1865, was cordially welcomed, and became the guest of Sir Bartle Frere, the Governor.* He had come to sell the *'Lady Nyassa" and prepare for his x^frican cam- paign. He had to accept £2,600 for his steamer, less than half she had cost him, and lost the whole by the failure of the Indian bank in which he deposited it. **The whole of the money she cost was dedicated to the great cause for which she was built — we are not responsible for results," was his comment. He ex- plored the caves at Salsette, in a party under the guidance of Mr. A. Brown, who wrote: ''Living- stone's almost boyish enjoyment of the whole thing impressed me greatly." He lectured at Poona and Bombay, and roused a deep interest in missionary . *From a Bombay gentleman who was his fellow-traveller to India a little anecdote has casually come to our knowledge illustrating the unobtrusiveness of Livingstone — his dislike to be made a lion of. At the tahle-d'hote of the hotel in Mar- seilles, where some Bombay merchants were sitting, the con versation turned on Africa in connection with ivory — an extensive article of trade in Bombay. One friend dropped the remark, "I wonder where that old chap Livingstone is now." To his surprise and discomfiture, a voice replied, "Here he is They were fast friends all through the voyage that followed 18^ THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. work, though sHghtly scandalizing his clerical breth- ren by his costume. ''He dressed more like a post- captain or admiral," one of them wrote. And again : "At the communion on Sunday (he sat on Dr. Wil- son's right hand) he wore a blue surtout with Gov- ernment gilt buttons, shepherd tartan trousers, and a gold band round his cap." By Sir Bartle Frere's advice he visited Nassick^ the Government school for Africans, from which he got nine volunteers. He also accepted a draft of sepoys from the Marine Battalion. With these he sailed for Zanzibar in January, 1866, in the "Thule," a steamer which he was to present to the Sultan, with a letter from Sir Bartle Frere, as a pleasure-yacht. "For a pleasure-yacht she is the most incorrigible roller ever known. The whole 2,000 miles has been an everlasting see-saw, shuggy-shoo, enough to tire a chemist — the most patient of all animals," he wrote from Zanzibar, where he had to wait for two months for H.M.S. "Penguin," which was to take him to the Rovuma. The Sultan was cordial during his stay, and gave him a firman to all his subjects trad- ing in the interior, a well-meant sanction, which in the end, however, worked more harm than good. Zanzibar life was very monotonous — "It is the old, old way of living — eating, drinking, sleeping; sleeping, drinking, eating. Getting fat; slaving- dhows com.ing and slaving-dhows going away; bad smells ; and kindly looks from English folks to each MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 189 Other." The sight of slaves in the Zanzibar market, and the recognition of some who had been brought from Nyassa, did not enhven his visit, though it un- doubtedly confirmed his purpose and quickened his efforts to aim another blow at the accursed trade. Always thinking of what would benefit Africa, he v/rites to Sir Thomas Maclear urging very strongly the starting of a line of steamers between the Cape, Zanzibar and Bombay : "It w^ould be a most profita- ble one, and would do great good, besides, in eating out the trade in slaves." The 'Tenguin" came at last to pick him up, and landed him and his company on the Rovuma toward the end of March. They consisted of thirteen sepoys, ten Johanna men, nine Nassick boys, and two Shu- panga and two Waiyau men, of whom Susi had been a wood-cutter on the 'Tioneer," and Chumah, one of the slaves rescued in 1861. It was well that these two were amongst them, as the rest proved quite unfit for the v/ork. He had no Englishman with him, but started for the long tramp in high spirits. **The mere animal pleasure of travelling in a wild unexplored country i? very great . . . the body soon becomes well knit, the muscles grow as hard as board; the limbs seem to have no fat, and there is no dyspepsia." So the Journal runs; and he is also full of interest as to how^ the camels, tame buffaloes, mules, and donkeys, wdiich he had brought from India at a large cost, would resist the tsetse-fly and 190 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. stand the African climate. The poodle Chitanpe completes his live stock, a most engaging beast, thor- oughly alive to the importance of the expedition and his own duty, running up and down the line of march and chasing away the pariah dogs who dared to approach, and keeping his master's tent jealously at night. Poor faithful Chitanpe, after the African sun had burnt his coat a brown red, was drowned in crossing an overflowed river in the following Jan- uary, 1867 — after a mile's wading his master in- quired for him and he was gone. He swam as long as he could, and then the men "supposed he must have just sunk." No small addition to Livingstone's trials, which were thick enough by that time. The sepoys proved complete failures, sulky, and brutal to the animals, and only able to march five miles a day. The Johanna men were little better, and thieves — even the Nassick boys were troublesome. With such a band the march dragged heavily on, till in July, in disgust at their laziness and cruelty to the animals, he sent the sepoys back to the coast. They had now reached a splendid district, three thousand four hun- dred and forty feet above the sea, and the watershed from which the Rovuma ran down to the coast, and the smaller streams westward to Lake Nyassa.* As *This question of the watershed had fascinated his mind, for he had a strong impression that the real sources of the Nile were far higher than any previous traveller had supposed —far higher than Lake Victoria Nyanza, and that it would be a service to religion as well ^^^ science to discover the fotm- MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 191 good a site for a settlement this plateau, Livingstone thought, as Magomero, but nearly depopulated by the slave-trade. He descended westward, reaching Lake Nyassa on August 8th, and bathing in its bright waters felt again "quite exhilarated." "All the Arabs fly me," he notes ; and being thus unable to cross the lake, as they owned all the boats, he marched round the southern end. Here, about the outflow of the Shire, he found matters rather worse than he had left them two years before, and remon- strated with some of the chiefs on the reckless inter- tribal raids, fostered by the Arabs, which were ruin- ing their country. Now, in September, the Johanna men, headed by Musa, an old sailor on the "Lady Nyassa," scared by the Arabs' lying account of the dangers ahead, deserted and returned to Zanzibar. There they tains of the stream on whose bosom, in the dawn of Hebrew history, Moses had floated in his ark of bulrushes. A strong impression lurked in his mind that if he should only solve that old problem he would acquire such influence that new f weight would be given to his pleadings for Africa. But what- ever might be his views or aims, it was ordained that in the wanderings of his last years he should bring within the sympathies of the Christian world many a poor tribe otherwise unknown ; that he should witness sights, surpassing all he had ever seen before of the inhumanity and horrors of the slave- traffic — sights that harrowed his inmost soul ; and that when his final appeal to his countrymen on behalf of its victims came, not from his living voice but from his tomb, it should gather from a thousand touching associations a thrilling power that would rouse the world, and fixially root out the accursed thing. 192 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. spread a circumstantial story of Livingstone's death, which was credited and forwarded to England. Young and Horace V^aller, who had known Musa for a liar on the Shire, refused to believe, and were supported by Sir R. Murchison. At his instance the Geographical Society sent out a search-expedition under Young. In eight months Young returned from the Shire and Lake Nyassa with the news that the Doctor had passed on toward the northwest. Young had in that short time carried the "Search" in pieces past the Murchison Cataracts and launched her on Lake Nyassa, by the splendid help of the Makololo whom Livingstone had planted on the Shire banks, and who were now masters in the dis- trict Meantime Livingstone was forcing his way on slowly far beyond to the northwest. The country proved miserably poor, with baleful traces of the Arabs everywhere. The villages were depopulated and the people starving. He had now to hire car- riers, having so few men left, and characteristically allowed them to overcharge him, noting in his Jour-( nal, "Is not this what is meant by 'Blessed is he that, considereth the poor and needy' ? These poor have much good in them." As he pushed on indomitably toward Lake Tanganyika he was reduced to a diet of African maize with goat's milk. For some days in December he was too ill to march. On Christmas Day his goats were stolen, and he had no more milk MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA, 193 — his one luxury. "Took my belt up three holes to relieve hunger/' is the note in the Journal. But worse was in store in the early new year. January l^th, — "Poor poodle Chitanpe drowned. We had to cross a marsh a mile wide and waist-deep. I went over first, and forgot to give directions about the dog. All were too much engaged in keeping their balance to notice that he swam among them till he died." On January 20, 1867, his medicine-chest was stolen. "Felt as if I had received my death sen- tence."* February ist. — "We got a cow yesterday. I am to get milk to-morrow." February lyth. — "Too ill with rheumatic fever to have service. The first attack I have ever had with no medicine. The Lord healeth His people." March loth. — "111 of fever still. Can scarcely keep up, though formerly always first in the line. I have singing in my ears, and can scarcely hear the tick of the chronometers." In April he reached the shores of Lake Liemba, which proved to be the southern end of Lake Tan- ganyika; the country was lovely and peaceful, but, hearing of war in front, he turned south. His object was to reach Lake Moero, which he heard of in this district, and which might prove the solution of his *The loss of the medicine-box was probably the beginning of the end; his system lost the wonderful power of recovery which it had hitherto shown ; and other ailments — in the lungs, the feet, and the bowels, that might have been kept under in a more vigorous state of general health, began hereafter to prevail against him. 194 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. doubts as to the watershed of the Nile and Congo. In June he came on the Ubungu, "a. tribe of gentle- men, universally polite, governed they are and very well," but how exactly he could not satisfy himself; certainly not by fear. In August came three months' delay through illness and helplessness. At last, in November, an Arab, Mohamed Mogharib, arrived, a slave-trader, but a favorable specimen of the class, who acknowledged the Sultan's firman and offered escort, which Livingstone accepted. Mohamed's first gift was a meal of vermicelli, oil, and honey. "I had not tasted sugar and honey for two years,'* the Journal notes. On November 8, 1867, they reached Lake Moero. Here he spent some months exploring, when not too ill, and found Lake Moero. forty miles wide. To the south, however, he hears of another lake, Bang- weolo, even larger. This must be explored. In vain Mohamed Bogharib remonstrated, and his men, all but five, refused to go on with him.* Though *They had been considerably demoralized by contact with the Arab trader and his slave-gang. Dr. Livingstone took this rebellion with wonderful placidity, for in his own mind he could not greatly blame them. It was no wonder they were tired of the everlasting tramping, for he was sick of it him- self. He reaped the fruit of his mildness by the men coming back to him, on his return from the lake, and offering their services. It cannot be said of him that he was not disposed to make any allowance for human weakness. When recording a fault, and how he dealt with it, he often adds, "conscious- ness of my own defects makes me lenient," *'I also have my weaknesses." MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 195 without letters for two years, and longing to turn northward to Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika, where he might get letters and supplies, he will still go for- ward. And so he trudges on, in constant pain and trouble, to the south. On June 25, 1868, he comes across a solitary grave in a forest clearing, over which he muses : "I have nothing to do but to wait till He who is over all decides w^here I have to lay me down and die. Poor Mary lies on Shupanga brae, *and beeks foment the sun.' " On July i8th he was rewarded for his toil by the sight of Lake Bang- weolo, "a splendid piece of water." August 2gth. — ^'Thanks for what I have discovered. There is still much to do, and if life and protection be granted, I shall make a complete thing of it." So the old hero writes, and starts again on his northern tramp to make as complete a thing of it as he can. Again he falls in with the Arab traders, and marches with them painfully, sore in soul as well as body. In the neighborhood of Lake Moero they reach the town of Casembe, a powerful and friendly chief, who was threatened by a marauding army of Mazitu from the south. The Arabs sided with the invaders, and were driven north, Livingstone following with his five faithful men. In November they once more came across Mo- hamed Bogharib, on his way to Ujiji, Livingstone's runaways with him. They express penitence and he takes them back, with the remark, 'T have faults 196 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. myself." In the last days of November Mohamed's caravan was attacked by hostile natives. Living- stone sat at his tent-door armed, to defend his bag- gage if necessary, and noting the courage of the attacking party. "V. C. men truly many of them," he writes, as he sees them rush to carry off their wounded under heavy fire. New Year's Day, 1869, finds him still on his way to Ujiji, too ill to march, and carried in a rude litter."^ In February he reaches the western shore of Lake Tanganyika, and crosses to Ujiji on the 14th, to find it a den of thieves, all his supplies plundered, and only two old letters. He had still medicines and stores at Unyanyembe, thir- *New Year's Day, 1869, found Livingstone laboring under a worse attack of illness than any he had ever had before. For ten weeks to come his situation was as painful as can be conceived. A continual cough, night and day, the most dis- tressing v\'eakness, inability to walk, yet the necessity of mov- ing on, or rather of being moved on, in a kind of litter ar- ranged by Mohamed Bogharib — where, with his face poorly protected from the sun, he was jolted up and down and sideways, without medicine or food for an invalid — made the situation sufficiently trying. His prayer was that he might hold out to Ujiji, where he expected to find medicines and stores, with the rest and shelter so necessary in his circum- stances. So ill was he, that he lost count of the days of the week and the month. 'T saw myself lying dead in the way to Ujiji, and all the letters I expected there — useless. When I think of my children, the lines ring through my head per- petually : " *I shall look into your faces, And listen to what you say; And be often very near you When you think I'm far away.* " MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGAN i^IKA. 197 teen days' distance, but cannot send foi them as war is raging. So, writing for fresh supplies to Dr. Kirk at Zanzibar, he once more turned northward to the Manyuema country. His object was to track down the Lualaba, if possible, to a point which would decide whether it is the western arm of the Nile or the eastern head-water of the Congo. In July he is again well enough to start, and reaches Bambarre, the capital of the Manyuema country, on October 25th. "In this journey," the Journal now sums up, "I have endeavored to follow with unswerving fidelity the line of duty. My course has been an even one, swerving neither to the right nor left, though my route has been tortuous enough. All the hardship, hunger, and toil were met with the full conviction that I was right in persevering to make a complete work of the exploration of the sources of the Nile. I had a strong presentiment during the first three years that I should not live through the enterprise; but it weakened as I came near to the end of the journey, and an eager desire to discover any evidence of the great Moses having visited these parts bound me — spell-bound me, I may say. I have to go down the Central Lualaba or Webb's Lake River, then up the Western or Young's Lake River to Katanga head-waters, and then retire — I pray that it may be to my native home. ... I received informa- tion of Mr. Young's search-trip up the Shire and 198 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Nyassa only in February, 1870, and now take the first opportunity of offering hearty thanks in a de- spatch to H.M. Government and all concerned in kindly inquiring as to my fate."* At Bambarre he is delayed, waiting for men, for more than three months, noting in his enforced leis- ure the habits of birds and beasts, and manners and customs of the people, with all particulars he can learn as to the products and geography of the coun- try. Here again the baleful influence of the Arab traders and their open raids for slaves were daily be- fore him. "The strangest disease I have seen in this country," he writes, "seems really to be broken- heartedness, as it attacks only the free who are cap- tured, and never slaves ; it seems to be really broken- heartedness of which they die. Even children who showed wonderful endurance in keeping up with *0n the 2ist of September he arrived at Bambarre, in Man- yuema, the village of the Chief Moenekuss. He found the people in a state of great isolation from the rest of the world, with nothing to trust to but charms and idols — both being bits of wood. He made the acquaintance of the soko or gorilla, not a very social animal, for it always tries to bite off the ends of its captor's fingers and toes. Neither is it particu- larly intellectual, for its nest shows no more contrivance than that of a cushat dove. The curiosity of the people was very great, and sometimes it took an interesting direction. "Do people die with you?" asked two intelligent young men. "Have you no charm against death? Where do people go after death?" Livingstone spoke to them of the great Father, and of their prayers to Him who hears the cry of his children^" mi the^ thought thjs to be natwral. MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 199 the chained gangs would sometimes hear 'the sound of dancing and the merry tinkle of drums in passing near a village;' then the memory of home and happy days proved too much for them, they cried and sobbed, the broken heart came on, and they rapidly sank." At last, on January 28, 1871, a large caravan under Hassani and Abed, two Arabs he had known at Ujiji, arrived, and on February 4th his ten men, who, however, brought only one letter, forty being lost. This first experience was ominous. They re- fused to go north, and on the nth struck for higher w^ages. ''The ten men," the Journal runs, "are all slaves of the Banians, who are British subjects, and they come with a lie in their mouth. They will not help me, and swear the Consul told them not to go forward, but to force me back. They swore so pos- itively that I actually looked again at Dr. Kirk's letter to see if his orders had been rightly understood by me. But for fear of pistol shot they would gain their own and their Banian masters' end — to baffle me completely. They demand an advance of $1 to $6 a month, though this is double freemen's pay at Zanzibar." However, he had them in order enough by Febru- ary 1 6th to justify a start. And now his old men — the deserters — who had been hanging round the trader's camp, waked up. "They came after me with inimitable effrontery, believing that though I sajcj 200 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. I would not take them, they were so valuable I was only saying what I knew to be false." He would not take a man back this time, though probably he would have been better served had he done so. On February 25th they came on the Lualaba flow- ing west-southwest, causing him to write, "I have to suspend my judgment, so as to find it after all per- haps the Congo." As indeed it has proved to be, though he did not live to know it. "March ist. — The Arabs asked me to take seven of their people who know the new way, going to buy biramba." To this he consented, and advanced through a lovely country with frequent villages "standing on slopes," and as yet having no direct experience of the Arabs or the slave-trade. 'T hear the Manyuema telling each other that I am 'the Good One.' I have no slaves, and I owe the good name to the report of the Zanzibar slaves, who are anything but good themselves. I have seen slaves of these seven Arabs slap the cheeks of grown men who offered food for sale. It was done in sheer wantonness, till I threatened to thrash them if I saw it again." "March ^fh. — We came to some villages amongst beautiful tree-covered hills called Basilange, or Mo- basilange. They are very pretty standing on slopes. The main street lies generally east and west, to allow the bright sun to stream his clear hot rays from one end to the other, and lick up quickly the MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 201 moisture from the frequent showers which is not drawn off by the slopes. A Httle veranda is often made in front of the doors, where the family gathers round a fire, and while enjoying the heat needed in the cold which always accompanies the first darting of the sun's rays across the atmosphere, inhale the delicious air and talk over their little domestic affairs. The various-shaped leaves of the forest all round their village are spangled with myriads of dewdrops. The cocks crow vigorously, and strut and ogle ; the kids gambol and leap on their dams quietly chewing the cud. Other goats make- believe fighting. Thrifty wives often bake their new clay pots in a fire made by lighting a heap of grass roots; they extract salt from the ashes, and so two birds are killed with one stone. The beauty of this peaceful morning scene is indescribable. Infancy gilds the fairy picture with its own lines, and it is probably never forgotten, for the young, taken up from slavers and treated with all philanthropic mis- sionary care and kindness, still revert to the period of infancy as the finest and fairest they have known. They would go back to freedom and enjoyment as fast as would our own sons of the soil, and be heedless of the charms of hard work and no play, which we think so much better for them if not for us.'' But the oasis is sadly limited. On the next page comes, 'Tn some cases we find the villages all de- S02 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. serted ; the people had fled at our approach in dread of the repetition of the outrages of Arab slaves." The Arabs proved a bad bargain. They knew the country, but their slaves were committing atrocities along the line which their masters vainly tried to conceal from him, and which he found himself pow- erless to prevent. "March 26th. — Met a party of traders with eighty-two captives after ten days' fighting. We shall be safe only when past all this bloodshed and murder. I am heartsore and sick of human blood." "March 2Sth. — The Banian slaves are again try- ing compulsion. It is excessively trying, and so many difficulties have been put in my way I doubt whether the Divine favor is on my side." However, on March 29th he reaches Nyangwe, the chief town of the district, in the midst of a dense population, and the point where he hoped to cross to the left bank of the Lualaba, which flows past the town. Here he found Abed and Hassani, two Arab traders, with a large slave-following. He had met them before, and now : ''Abed said my words against blood-shedding had stuck into him, and he had given 'orders to his people to give presents to chiefs, but never to fight unless actually attacked." "March ^ist. — I went down to take a good look at the Lualaba here. It is narrower than it is higher up, but still a mighty river, at least 3,000 yards broad and always deep. It can never be waded at MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 203 any point, or at any time of the year. It has many large islands, and at these it is about 2,000 yards, or one mile. The banks are steep and dark; there is day and a yellow-clay schist in their structure. The current is about two miles an hour." ^' April 2id. — The river is said to overflow all its banks annually, as the Nile does farther down. I sounded across yesterday, and near the bank it is 9 feet, the rest 15 feet, and one cast in the middle was 20 feet, between the islands 12 feet, and 9 again inshore. It is a mighty river truly. ... I tried to secure a longitude by fixing a weight on the key of the watch, and so helping it on. I will try this in a quiet place to-morrow. The people all fear us, and they have good reason." He began at once to frequent the market as the best way of inspiring confidence. On the first occa- sion he notes: ''To-day the market contained over 1,000 people, carrying earthen pots and cassava grass cloth, fishes and fowls; they were alarmed at my coming among them, and were ready to fly; many stood afar off in suspicion." The various phases of his long struggle with his slaves and their Arab abettors, of his attempts to win the confidence of the Manyuema, to get canoes and so finish his work, can only be indicated by a few extracts from the Journals. ''April Sth. — The Ujijian slavery is an accursed system ; but it must be admitted that the Manyuema 204 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. too have faults, the result of ignorance of other peo- ple; their isolation has made them as unconscious of danger in dealing with the cruel stranger as little dogs in the presence of lions." "April iSth. — Chitoka, or market to-day. I counted upward of 700 passing my door. With market-w^omen it seems to be a pleasure of life to haggle and joke, or laugh and cheat. Many come eagerly, and retire with careworn faces; many are beautiful and many old." "April 12th. — My new house is finished; a great comfort, for the other was foul and full of vermin." "April i6th. — Kahembe (a chief from left bank) came over and promises to bring a canoe. They all think that my buying a canoe means carrying war to the left bank, and now my Banian slaves encour- age the idea. 'He does not wish slaves or ivory/ they say, 'but a canoe in order to kill Manyuema.' Need it be wondered at that people who had never seen a white man till I popped down among them believe the slander?" "April igth. — Weary waiting, but Abed promises to join and trade along with me. This will render our party stronger, and he will not shoot people in my company." "May 3(^. — This tribe use large and very long spears very expertly in the long grass and forest of their coimtry, and are terrible fellows among them- selves, and when they become acquainted with fire- MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 205 arms will be terrible to the strangers who now mur- der them. The Manyuema say truly, "If it were not for your guns, not one of you would ever return to your country/ My slaves have mutinied three times here." "May i6fh. — At least 3,000 people at market to- day, and my going among them has taken away the fear engendered by the slanders of slaves and trad- ers, for all are pleased to tell me the names of fishes and other things. "It was pleasant to be among them compared to being with the slaves, who are all eager to go back to Zanzibar. I see no hope of getting on with them. Abed heard them plotting my destruction. If forced to go on they would watch till the first difficulty arose with the Manyuema, then fire off their guns, run away, and as I could not run as fast as they, leave me to perish.' Abed overheard them talking loudly, and advised me strongly not to trust myself to them any more, as they would be sure to cause my death. He has all along been my sincere friend." "May iSfh. — I was on the point of disarming my slaves and driving them away when they relented, and professed to be willing to go anywhere; so, being eager to finish my geographical work, I said I would run the risk of their desertion. I cannot state how much I was worried by these wretched slaves, who did much to annoy me with the sympathy of all the slavery crew." 206 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. ''June 14th. — 'Hassani' (the most bigoted of the Moslem traders) got nine canoes and put sixty-five persons in three. I cannot get one." Now he hears news which he hopes will solve his difificulties. ^'Jiine 20th. — Dugumbe arrives with large party. Among the first words Dugumbe said to me were, *Why, your own slaves are your greatest enemies! I will buy you a canoe, but the Banian slaves' slan- ders have put all them against you.' I knew that this was true, and that they are conscious of having the sympathy of the Ujijian traders, who hate to have me here." This Dugumbe was the best of the Arab traders, and an old acquaintance. ''July ^th. — I offer Dugumbe $2,000, or £400, for ten men to replace my Banian slaves, and enable me to go up the Lomame to Katanga and the under- ground dwellings, then return and go up by Tan- ganyika to Ujiji, and I added I would give all the goods I had at Ujiji besides. He took a few days to consult his associates." "7w/y yth. — I was annoyed by a woman frequently beating a slave near my house, but on my reproving her she came and apologized. I told her to speak softly to her slave, as she was now the only mother the girl had. The slave came from Lomame, and was evidently a lady in her own country." His opinion of the Manyuema as the finest tribe MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 207 he had met with after the Makololo, grew with ac- quaintance. He notes : ''Many of the men have as finely formed heads as could be found in London. We English, if naked, would make but poor figures beside the strapping forms and finely shaped limbs of the Manyuema men and women. Their cannibalism is doubtful, but my observations raise grave suspicions. A Scotch jury would say 'Not proven.' The women are not guilty. 'The Manyuema are untruthful, but very honest. We never lose an article by them. Fowls and goats are untouched, and if we lose a fowl we know that it has been stolen by an Arab slave." "July i^th. — The Banian slaves declared before Dugumbe that they would go to the river Lomame, but no farther. He spoke long to them, but they will not consent to go farther. When told they would thereby lose all their pay, they replied, 'Yes, but not our lives,' and walked oflf muttering, which is insulting to one of his rank. I then said, 'I have goods at Ujiji; take them all, and give me men to finish my work ; if not enough I will add to them, out do not let me be forced to return, now I am so near the end of my undertaking.' He said he would make a plan in conjunction with his associates, and report to me." The final crisis and end of the long struggle came at last. On July 14th the only entry is, "I am dis- 208 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. tressed and perplexed what to do so as not to be foiled, but all seems against me." For Dugumbe's men had quarreled with the other Arabs and their leaders Tagamoio and Manilla, who had been before them on the left bank. To this they had crossed, though Livingstone could get no canoes, and by way of punishing their rivals were now harrying the vil- lages near the river. "July i^th. — The reports of guns on the other side of the Lualaba all the morning tell of the people of Dugumbe murdering those who had mixed blood" (the Manyuema way of making a treaty) ''with Manilla, o . . About 1,500 people came to mar- ket, though many villages of those who usually come to market were now in flames. It was a hot sultry day, and when I went into the market I saw three of the men who had lately come with Dugumbe. I was surprised to see these three with their guns, and felt inclined to reprove them for bringing weapons into the market, but I attributed it to their ignorance, and being very hot, I was walking away to go out of the market when I saw one of the fellows haggling about a fowl, and seizing hold of it. Before I had got thirty yards out, the discharge of two guns in the middle of the crowd told me that slaughter had begun; crowds dashed off from the place, threw down their wares in confusion, and ran. At the same time that the three opened fire on the mass of people at the upper end of the market-place, volleys MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 209 were discharged on the panic-stricken women who dashed at the canoes. These, some fifty or more, were jammed in the creek, and the men forgot their paddles in the terror that seized all. The canoes could not be got out, for the creek was too small for so many; men and women wounded by the balls poured into them, and leaped and scrambled into the water, shrieking. A long line of heads in the river show^ed that great numbers struck out for an island a full mile off. In going toward it they had to put the left shoulder to a current of about two miles an hour ; if they had struck away diagonally to the op- posite bank the current would have aided them, and, though nearly three miles off, some would have reached land; as it was, the heads above water showed the long line of those who would inevitably perish. Shot after shot continued to be fired on the helpless and perishing. Some of the long line of heads disappeared quietly, while other poor creatures threw their arms on high, as if appealing to the great Father above, and sank. By and by all the heads dis- appeared ; some had turned down stream toward the bank and escaped. Dugumbe put people into one of the deserted boats to save those in the water, and saved twenty-one. . . . The Arabs themselves estimated the loss of life at between 330 and 400 souls. The shooting party near the canoes were so reckless that they killed two of their own peo- ple. . . . My first impulse was to pistol the 210 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. murderers, but Dugumbe protested against my get- ting into a blood feud, and I was thankful after- ward that I took his advice. . . = After the terrible affair in the water the party of Taga- moio, the chief perpetrator, continued to fire on the people on the other side, and to burn their villages. As I write I hear the wails on the left bank over those who are there slain, ignorant of their many friends now in the depths of the Lualaba. Oh, let Thy kingdom come ! No one will ever know the exact loss on this bright sultry summer morning ; it gave me the impression of being in hell. . . . Some escaped to me, and were protected. I sent men with our flag to save some. . . . Who could ac- company the people of Dugumbe and Tagamoio to Lomame and be free from blood-guiltiness ? . . . I proposed to Dugumbe to catch the murderers, and hang them up in the market-place, as our protest against these bloody deeds before the Manyuema. If, as he and others added, it was committed by Manilla's people, he would have consented, but it was done by Tagamoio's people, and others of this party headed by Dugumbe. This slaughter was peculiarly atrocious, inasmuch as we have heard that women coming to or from market have never been known to be molested, even when two districts are at war. . . . Twenty-seven villages were destroyed." "July i6th. — I restored upward of thirty of the rescued to their friends. Dugumbe seerned to ^ct in MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 311 good faith. = , o Many of the head-men who have been burned out by the foray came over to me, and begged me to come back with them, and appoint new locaHties for them to settle in, but I told them I was so ashamed of the company in which I found myself that I could scarcely look a Manyuema in the face. They had believed I wished to kill them. What did they think now? I could not remain among bloody companions, and would flee away, I said, but they begged me hard to stay until they were again settled. . , . Dugumbe saw that by kill- ing the market-people he had committed a great error. I could not remain to see to their protection, and Dugumbe being the best of the whole horde, I advised them to make friends, and then appeal to him as able to restrain to some extent his infamous underlings. ... I see nothing for it but to go back to Ujiji for other men. I wished to speak to Tagamoio about the captive relations of the chiefs, but he always ran away when he saw me coming." "July lyth. — All the rest of Dugumbe's party offered me a share of every kind of goods they had. I declined everything save a little gunpowder. . . , It is a sore affliction, at least forty-five days in a straight line, equal to 300 miles, or by the turnings and windings 600 miles English, and all after feed- ing and clothing those Banian slaves for twenty-six months ! But it is for the best, though ; if I do not 212 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. trust to the riff-raff of Ujiji I must wait for other men at least ten months there." '^July i8th. — The terrible scenes of man's inhu- manity to man brought on severe headache, which might have been serious had it not been relieved by a copious discharge of blood. I was laid up all yes- terday afternoon with the depression the bloodshed made. It filled me with unspeakable horror. 'Don't go away,' said the Manyuema chiefs to me; but I can't stay here in agony." "Jttly igth. — Dugumbe sent me a fine goat, a manch of gunpowder, a manch of fine blue beads, and 230 cowries to buy provisions on the way. . . . A few market-people appeared to-day ; formerly they came in crowds, about 200 in all, chiefly those who have not lost relatives, one very beautiful woman with a gun-shot wound in her upper arm, tied round with leaves. Seven canoes came instead of fifty ; but they have great tenacity and hopefulness; an old- established custom has much charms for them, and the market will again be attended if no new outrage is committed." Next day he started on the weary return journey to Ujiji. "I start back for Ujiji. All Dugumbe's people came to say good-by, and convey me a little way. I made a short march, for being long inactive it is unwise to tire oneself on the first day, as it is then difficult to get over the effects." Ophthalmia was now added to his other ailments, and this march MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 213 back proved the most miserable of all his travels. The country was up, and twice he fell into an am- bush, escaping he hardly knew how. "I became weary with the constant strain of danger, and — as I suppose happens with soldiers on the field of battle — not courageous, but perfectly indifferent whether I were killed or not." ''October 2^d. — At dawn off, and go to Ujiji. Welcomed by all the Arabs. I was now reduced to a skeleton, but the market being held daily, and all kinds of goods brought to it, I hoped that food and rest would soon restore me; but in the evening my people came and told me that Shereef had sold off all my goods. He had not left a single yard of calico out of 3,000, nor a string of beads out of 700 lbs. This was distressing. T had made up my mind, if I could not get people at Ujiji, to wait till men should come from the coast, but to wait in beggary was what I never contemplated, and I now felt miser- able." ''October 24th. — I felt in my destitution as if I were the man who went down from Jerusalem to Jericho and fell among thieves ; but I could not hope for Priest, Levite, or Good Samaritan to come by on either side ; but one morning Sayd bin Majid, a good man, said to me, 'Now this is the first time we have been alone together. I have no goods, but I have ivory; let me, I pray you, sell some of the ivory and give the goods to you.' This was encouraging, but 214 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. I said, 'Not yet, but by and by.' I had still a few barter goods left, which I had taken the precaution to deposit with Mohamed ben Salih before going to Manyuema, in case of returning in extreme need. But when my spirits were at their lowest ebb the Good Samaritan was close at hand, for one morn- ing (October 20th) Susi came running at the top of his speed, and gasped out, 'An Englishman! I see him !' and off he darted to meet him. The American flag at the head of a caravan told of the nationality of the stranger. Bales of goods, baths of tin, huge kettles, cooking pots, tents, etc., made me think this must be a luxurious traveller, and not one at his wit's end like me. It was Henry Moreland Stanley, the travelling correspondent of the New York Herald, sent by James Gordon Bennett at an expense of more than £4,000 to obtain accurate information about Dr. Livingstone if living, and if dead to bring home my bones. ... I really do feel extremely grate- ful, and at the same time am a little ashamed at not being more worthy of the generosity. Mr. Stanley has done his work with untiring energy; good judg- ment in the teeth of very serious obstacles. His helpmates turned out depraved blackguards, who by their excesses at Zanzibar and elsewhere had ruined their constitutions and prepared their systems to be fit provender for the grave." Livingstone stood outside his house and lifted his cap with the gold b^nd tQ the newcomer when Susi MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 215 led him up in triumph, and they went in together to ' the hut. Before closing this chapter and entering on the last two years of Livingstone's life, which have so lively an interest of their own, it will be convenient to glance at the contributions to natural science which he continued to make to the very end. In doing this, we avail ourselves of a very tender and Christian tribute to the memory of his early friend, which Professor Owen contributed to the Quarterly Re- viczi), April, 1875, ^^ter the publication of Living- stone's "Last Journals." Mr. Owen appears to have been convinced by Liv- ingstone's reasoning and observations, that the Nile sources were in the Bangweolo watershed — a suppo- sition now ascertained to have been erroneous. But what chiefly attracted and delighted the great natu- ralist was the many interesting notices of plants and animals scattered over the "Last Journals." These Journals contain important contributions both to eco- nomic and physiological botany. In the former de- partment, Livingstone makes valuable observations on plants useful in the arts, such as gum-copal, papyrus, cotton, india-rubber, and the palm-oil tree ; while in the latter, his notices of "carnivorous plants," which catch insects that probably yield nourishment to the plant, of silicified wood and the like, show how carefully he w^atched all that throws light on the life and changes of plants. In zoology 216 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. he was never weary of observing, especially when he found a strange-looking animal with strange habits. Spiders, ants, and bees of unknown varieties were brought to light, but the strangest of his new ac- quaintances were among the fishy tribes. He found fish that made long excursions on land, thanks to the wet grass through which they would wander for miles, thus proving that "a fish out of water" is not always the best symbol for a man out of his element. In his love of nature, and in his careful observa- tion of all her agencies and processes, Livingstone, in his last journeys, was the same as ever. He looked reverently on all plants and animals, and on the solid earth in all its aspects and forms, as the creatures of that same God whose love in Christ it was his heart's delight to proclaim. His whole life, so varied in its outward employments, yet so simple and transparent in its one great object, was ruled by the conviction that the God of nature and the God of revelation were one. While thoroughly enjoying his work as a naturalist, Professor Owen frankly admits that it was but a secondary object of his life. "Of his primary work the record is on high, and its im- perishable fruits remain on earth. The seeds of the Word of Life implanted lovingly, with pains and labor, and above all with faith ; the out-door scenes of the simple Sabbath service ; the testimony of Him to whom the worship was paid, given in terms of such simplicity as were fitted to the comprehension MOERO, BANGWEOLO, TANGANYIKA. 217 of the dark-skinned listeners — these seeds will not have been scattered by him in vain. Nor have they been sown in words alone, but in deeds, of which some part of the honor will redound to his succes- sors. The teaching by forgiveness of injuries — by trust, however unworthy the trusted — ^by that con- fidence which imputed his own noble nature to those whom he would win — by the practical enforcement of the fact that a man might promise and perform — might say the thing he meant — of this teaching by good deeds, as well as by the words of truth and love, the successor who treads in the steps of Liv- ingstone, and accomplishes the discovery he aimed at, and pointed the way to, will assuredly reap the benefit." CHAPTER XIIL STANLEYo 187I. The letter-bag marked November i, 1870, which had been lying at Unyanyembe in charge of Kaif- Halek ("How do you do?"), a servant of Living- stone whom Stanley had brought up with him, lay across the Doctor's knees when they sat down in the hut. He opened it, read one or two of his children's letters, and then asked for the news,* *There was one piece of news brought by Stanley to Liv- ingstone that was far from satisfactory. At Bagamoio, on the coast, Stanley had found a caravan with supplies for Living- stone that had been dispatched from Zanzibar three or four months before, the men in charge of which had been lying idle there all that timxC on the pretext that they were waiting for carriers. A letter- bag was also lying at Bagamoio, al- though several caravans for Ujiji had left in the meantime. On hearing that the Consul at Zanzibar, Dr. Kirk, was com- ing to the neighborhood to hunt, the party at last made off. Overtaking them at Unyanyembe, Stanley took charge of Livingstone's stores, but was not able to bring them on ; only he compelled the letter-carrier to come on to Ujiji with his bag. At what time, but for Stanley, Livingstone would have got his letters, which after all were a year on the way, he could not have told. For his stores, or such fragments of them as might remain, he had afterward to trudge all the way to Unyanyembe. His letters conveyed the news that Govern- 218 STANLEY. 219 "No, Doctor ; read your letters first." "Ah, I have waited years for letters, and have been taught patience. I can wait a few hours longer. Tell me the news. How is the world getting on?" "The news he had to tell,'' Livingstone writes, '*to one who had been two full years without any tidings from Europe, made my whole frame thrill. The ter- rible fate that had befallen France; the telegraphic cables successfully laid in the Atlantic; the election of General Grant ; the death of good Lord Clarendon, my constant friend; the proof that H.M.'s Govern- ment had not forgotten me in voting £i,ooo for sup- plies, and many other points of interest, revived emotions that had lain dormant in Manyuema." This flood of news was poured out on the Doctor by his companion as they sat at their first meal to- gether. The Arabs, noting the turn in the tide, sent in their best dishes — Mohamed ben Salih, a curried chicken; Moene Kheri, stewed goat's meat, etc. "Liv- ingstone, who had been able to take nothing but tea for some days, ate like a vigorous and healthy man, and as he vied with me in demolishing the pancakes, kept repeating, 'You have brought me new life, you have brought me new life !' " Stanley sat opposite, enjoying his well-earned success, and presently ment had voted a thousand pounds for his relief, and were besides to pay him a salary. The unpleasant feeling he had had so long as to his treatment by Government was thus at last somewhat relieved. 220 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. / called out : " 'Oh, by George ! I have forgotten. Selim, bring that bottle and the silver goblets.' They were brought, and we pledged one another in Sillery champagne." That night the Doctor sat up late reading his budget, but was up before his visitor to greet him in the veranda with, '' 'Good-morning, Mr. Stanley. I hope you rested well. You have brought me good and bad news. But sit down,' making room for me by his side. 'Yes, many of my friends are dead. My eldest son has met with a bad accident — that is my boy Tom. My second son, Oswell, is at College studying medicine, and is doing well, I am told. Agnes, my eldest daughter, has been enjoying herself in a yacht with ''Sir Parafine" Young and his fam- ily. Sir Roderick is well, and hopes he shall soon see me. You have brought me quite a budget.' " After explaining his mission, and eliciting the Doctor's thankful acknowledgment that he had come just at the right time, for "I was beginning to think I should have to beg from the Arabs," Stan- ley ordered his servant Ferajji to bring breakfast, excellent tea, and hot "dampers," served in silver on a Persian carpet. The Doctor watched admir- ingly, and, while doing justice to the soft cakes — a delightful change from the uncooked corn-ears which he had been living on of late, and which had loosened all his teeth — remarked, "You have given me an appetite. Halimah is my cook, but she never STANLEY. 221 can tell the difference between tea and coffee." Hal- imah was the wife of one of his four men who had remained faithful. ''Instead of my spare tasteless two meals a day," the Journal runs, "1 ate four times a day, and soon began to feel strong. I am not a demonstrative man, as cold, in fact, as we islanders are reputed to be, but the disinterested kindness of Mr. Bennett, carried into eft'ect by Mr. Stanley, was simply overwhelming." The intimacy grew apace, and the strong impul- sive young correspondent was soon under the spell of Livingstone's character — "a character," he writes, "that I venerated, that called forth all my enthusiasm and sincerest admiration. He is about sixty years old, though after he was restored to health he looked like a man who had not passed his fiftieth year. His hair has a brownish color yet, but is here and there streaked with gray lines over the temples ; his whis- kers and mustache are very gray. He shaves his chin daily. His eyes, which are hazel, are remarkably bright; he has a sight keen as a hawk. His teeth alone indicate the weakness of age; the hard iare\ has made havoc in their lines. His form, which soon assumed a stoutish appearance, is a little over the ordinary height, with the slightest possible stoop in the shoulders. When \valking he takes a firm but heavy tread, like that of a fatigued man. He is accustomed to wear a naval cap, by which he has been identified throus^hout Africa. His dress when 222 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. first I saw him exhibited traces of patching and re- pairing, but was scrupulously neat. . c o There is a good-natured abandon about him. Whenever he began a laugh, there was a contagion about it that compelled me to imitate him. It was such a laugh as Herr Teufelsdrockh's — a laugh of the whole man from head to heel. If he told a story his face was lit up by the sly fun it contained." Soon the old traveller was anxious to be up and away, to finish his task; but he had only four male followers left, and a few yards of cloth. In re- counting his travels to Stanley he had mentioned that he had never explored the northern part of Lake Tanganyika. The choice had lain between this and verifying the central line of drainage of the Lualaba. This latter he held to be the more important, and to that he had turned when, as we know, he pushed on to the west, where he had followed the great river over seven degrees northward into the Manyuema coun- try. He had been baffled there and obliged to turn back ; but this was the work he must go back to, and 1 finish. Is the Lualaba the western source of the Nile? That was the great question. As for Tanganyika, he believed it would be found to be connected with the Albert Nyanza by a river, the Lusize or Rusizi, flowing out of its northern extremity. This was his belief, based on the reports of Arabs and a test as to the flow of the lake which he had made with water- plants, but he had hardly given it a thought. STANLEY, 22-d *Why not explore the northern end before you leave Ujiji?" Stanley suggested. "I have twenty men who understand boating, and plenty of guns, cloth, and beads." "I am ready whenever you are," Livingstone an- swered. *'No, I am at your command. Don't you hear my men call you 'the great master' and me 'the little master' ? It would never do for the little master to command." Stanley's statement that Sir Roderick was inter- ested settled the question finally tha;t they should em- bark on "this picnic," as the Doctor called it. Having borrowed a canoe capable of carrying twenty-five men and stores from Sayd bin Majid, of whom Livingstone had said, "If ever there was an Arab gentleman, he was one," they started for the northern end of Lake Tanganyika on November i6, 1871. They rowed to the extreme north of the lake, and ascertained that the river Lusize flowed into the lake and not out of it, as did all the other rivers whose moutlis they passed. Thus the Arab testimony again broke down. No outlet to the lake could be found ; but the Doctor retained his firm belief that an out- let must exist, though he had been unable to find it.* *It was agreed that the two travellers should make a short excursion to the north end of Lake Tanganyika, to ascertain whether the lake had an outlet there. This was done, but it 224 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. On December 13 th they returned to Ujiji, having made the circuit of the whole of Lake Tanganyika north of that town. To Livingstone it had been a time of rest and recruiting, though he had one sharp bilious attack, while Stanley was twice struck down by severe fever. The incidents of the voyage were few, but the way in which they impressed the two travellers, and are severally recounted by them, illustrates the charac- ters of the two men, and the hold which the elder was getting on the younger. The following may serve as specimens. was found that instead of flowing out, the river Lusize flowed into the lake, so that the notion that the lake discharged itself northward turned out to be an error. Meanwhile, the future arrangements of Dr. Livingstone were matter of anxious consideration. One thing was fixed and certain from the be- ginning: Livingstone would not go home with Stanley. Much though his heart yearned for home and family — all the more that he had just learned that his son Thomas had had a dan- gerous accident — and much though he needed to recruit his strength and nurse his ailments, he would not think of it while his work remained unfinished. To turn back tO' those dreary sponges, sleep in those flooded plains, encounter anew that terrible pneumonia which was "worse than ten fevers," or that distressing hcnemorrhage which added extreme weak- ness to extreme agony — might have turned any heart; Living- stone never flinched from it. What a reception awaited him if he had gone home to England ! What v/elcome from friends and children, what triumphal cheers from all the great societies and savants, what honors from all who had honors to confer, what opportunity of renewing efforts to establish mis- sions and commerce, and to suppress the slave-traffic ! Then he might return to Africa in a vear. and finish his work. STANLEY. 225 Livingstone. — ''November 20th. — Passed a very crowded population, the men calling to us to land and be fleeced and insulted; they threw stones, and one, apparently slung, lighted close to the canoe. The lake narrows to about ten miles, as the western mountains come toward the eastern range, that being about N.N.W. magnetic. Many stumps of trees killed by water show an encroachment by the lake on the east side. A transverse range seems to shut in the north end, but there is open country to the east and west of its ends." Stanley. — "About half-way between Cape Kisan- we and Murembeve is a cluster of villages which has a mutare (head-man), who is in the habit of taking honga (tribute). They called to us to come ashore, threatening us with the vengeance of the great Wami if we did not halt. As the voices were any- thing but siren-like, we obstinately refused. Find- ing threats of no avail, they had recourse to stones, and flung them at us in a most hearty manner. As one came within a foot of my arm, I suggested that a bullet should be sent in return in close proximity to their feet, but Livingstone, though he said nothing, showed clearly that he did not approve of this." Livingstone. — ''November 21st. — Landed under a cliff to rest and cook, but a crowd came and made inquiries ; then a few more came as if to investigate more perfectly. They told us to sleep, and to-mor- row friendship should be made. We put our lug- 226 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. gage on board, and set a watch on the cliff. A num- ber of men came along, cowering behind rocks, and we slipped off quietly; they called after us as men balked of their prey." Stanley. — ''Our kettle was boiling for tea, and the men had built a little fire for themselves, and had filled their earthen pot with water for porridge, when our look-outs perceived dark forms creeping toward our bivouac. Being hailed, they came for- ward and saluted us with the native Vake.' Our guides explained that we were Wangwana (whites), and intended to camp till morning, when, if they had anything to sell, we would trade. They said they were rejoiced to hear this, and after they had ex- changed a few words more — during which we ob- served that they were taking notes of the camp — went away. Three other parties followed, and re- tired in like manner. We had good cause to be sus- picious at this going backward and forward, and, as our supper had been despatched, we thought it high time to act. The men were hurried into the canoe, and when all were seated, and the look-outs em- barked, we quietly pushed off, but not a moment too soon. As the canoe glided from the darkened light that surrounded us, I called the Doctor's attention to dark forms, some crouching behind the rocks on our right, others scrambling over them, and directly a voice hailed us from the top of the bank under which we had been lately resting. 'Neatljr done,' said thq STANLEY. 227 Doctor, as we shot through the water, leaving the discomfited would-be robbers behind us. Here again my hand was stayed from planting a couple of shots as a warning to them, by the presence of the Doctor/' Livingstone. — ''November 2^th. — We came to some villages on a high bank, where Makunga is liv- ing. The chief, a young, good-looking man, came and welcomed us. War rages between Makunga and Uasmasene, a chief between this and Lusiger. Ten men were killed by Makunga' s people a few days ago. Vast numbers of fishermen ply their call- ing night and day as far as we can see. I gave Alakunga nine dotis and nine fundos." Stanley. — ^^Our second evening at Makunga's, Susi, the Doctor's servant, got gloriously drunk through the chief's liberal and profuse gifts of pombe. Just at dawn next morning I was awakened by several sharp, crack-like sounds. I listened, and found the noise was in our hut. It v/as caused by the Doctor, who, tow^ard midnight, had felt some one come and lie down by his side on the same bed, and, thinking it was I, had kindly made room, and lain on the edge of the bed. But in the morning, feeling cold, he had thoroughly awakened, and ris- ing on his elbow to see who his bed-fellow was, dis- covered, to his astonishment, that it was Susi, who, having taken possession of his blankets and folded them about himself, was occupying almost the whole 228 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. bed. The Doctor, with the gentleness characteristic of him, instead of taking a rod, contented himself with slapping Susi on the back, saying, 'Get up, Susi, will you ! You're in my bed. How dare you, sir, get drunk after I have told you so often not to? Get up! You won't! Take that, and that, and that.' Still Susi slept and grunted, so the slapping continued, till even Susi's thick hide began to feel it, and he was thoroughly wakened to his want of devo- tion to his master, and looked very much crestfallen at this expose of his infirmity before 'the little mas- ter,' as I was called. 'T had seen nothing to compare to these fishing settlements under the shade of a grove of palms and plantains, banians, and mimosas, with capsoa gar- dens to the right and left, looking down on a quiet bay, whose calm waters reflected the beauties of the hills which sheltered them from the rough tempests which so often blew without. The fishermen evi- dently think themselves comfortably situated. Na- ture has supplied them bountifully with all that a man's heart or stomach can desire. It is while look- ing at what seems com.plete and perfect happiness that the thought occurs, how must these people sigh, when driven across the dreary wilderness between the lake country and the sea-coast, for such homes as these; bought by Arabs for two doti, and driven to Zanzibar to pick cloves or do hamal work." Livingstone, — ''December 9^/^.— Leave New York STANLEY. 229 Herald Islet and go south to Lubumba Cape. The people now are the Basansos along the coast. Some men here were drunk and troublesome. We gave them a present, and left them about half-past four in the afternoon, and went to an islet in the north end in about three hours' good pulling; afterward in eight hours to eastern shore. This makes the lake, say, twenty-eight or thirty miles broad. We coasted along to Makunga's and rested." Stanley. — "After breakfast we lay down as usual for an afternoon nap. I soon fell asleep, and was dreaming away in my tent in happy oblivion, when I heard a voice hailing me : 'Master ! master ! get up quick. Here's a fight going to begin.' I sprang up, snatched my revolver-belt from the gun-stand, and went outside. Sure enough, there appeared to be considerable animus between a noisy, vindictive- looking set of men and our people. Seven or eight of our people had taken refuge behind the canoe, and had their guns half pointing at the passionate mob, momentarily increasing in numbers ; but I could not see the Doctor anywhere. " 'Where's the Doctor?' I asked. " *Gone over the hill, sir, with his compass/ said Selim. " *Any one with him ?' " *Susi and Chumah.' " 'You, Bombay, send off two men to warn the Doctor, and tdl him to hurry up here/ 230 THE LIFE OE DAVID LIVINGSTONE. "Just then the Doctor and his two men appeared on the brow of the hill, looking down in a most com- placent manner on the serio-comic scene which 4:he little basin we were in presented. A naked young man, perfectly drunk, barely able to stand, beating the ground with his only loin-cloth, screaming and storming away like a madman, declaring by this and by that, in his own choice language, that no Arab should halt one moment on the sacred soil of Umsisi. His father, the Sultan, was as drunk as he, though not quite so violent. "Selim slipped my Winchester rifle, with the magazine full of cartridges, into my hand, as the Doctor arrived on the scene and. asked calmly what was the matter. He was answered that they were at war with the Arabs since Mombo, the young son of Kisesa, Sultan of Mazimu, the large island nearly opposite, had been beaten to death by an Arab at Ujiji for looking into his harem. The Doctor, baring his arm, said he was not an Arab, but a white man from whom no black man had ever suffered in- jury. This seemed to produce great effect, for after a little gentle persuasion the drunken youth and his no less drunken sire were induced to sit down and talk quietly. They frequently referred to Mombo, who was brutally murdered: 'Yes, brutally mur- dered,' they exclaimed several times in their own tongue, illustrating by faithful pantomime hpw th^ unlucky jrouth had cii^d- STANLEY. 231 "Livingstone continued talking to them in a mild, paternal way, when the old Sultan suddenly rose up, and began to pace about in an excited manner, and in one of his perambulations deliberately slashed his leg with the sharp blade of his spear, exclaiming that the Arabs had wounded him. 'It was evident that there was little needed to cause all the men in that hollow to begin a most san- guinary strife. The gentle and patient bearing of the Doctor had more effect than anything else in making all forbear bloodshed, and in the end pre- vailed. The Sultan and his son were both sent on their way rejoicing.'^ To sum up the results of this ^'Tanganyika picnic" to the two travellers. The Doctor had taken careful observations of the whole of the lake north of Ujiji, had ascertained that there was no outlet north, by the Lusize or any other river, and had satisfied him- self that here also were regions well fitted for mis- sion stations and for the residence of white men. He had also recovered much of his bodily health and elasticity of spirits, in this last fellowship he was destined to enjoy with one of his own race. The younger man had gained that most precious of all experiences — to him who can profit by it — daily intimate contact with a thoroughly noble and pious life; and his manly admiration had grown into enthusiasm and hero-worship, till he can write de- liberately : "You may take any point in Dr. Living- 232 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. stone^s character, and analyze it carefully, and I will challenge any man to find a fault in it." And he had discovered Livingstone's secret. "His relig- ion," he writes, "is a constant, earnest, sincere prac- tice. It is neither demonstrative nor loud, but mani- fests itself in a quiet, practical way, and is always at work. In him religion exhibits its loveliest features ; it governs his conduct not only toward his servants, but toward the natives, the bigoted Mahomedans, and all who come in contact with him. Without it, Livingstone, with his ardent temperament, his en- thusiasm, his high spirit and courage, must have be- come uncompanionable and a hard master. Relig- ion has tamed him and made him a Christian gentle- man, the most companionable of men and indulgent of masters." Above all, Stanley had received and mastered a noble lesson in the treatment of the natives. He had learnt that the "soft answer turneth away wrath" with blacks as with whites; and that, wher- ever the blight of the slave-trade had not passed, kindliness, honesty, and family affection were scarcely rarer amongst black than amongst white folk. Having regard to Stanley's subsequent career in Africa as Livingstone's successor*, it is difficult to exaggerate the value of those few weeks. CHAPTER XIV. grO UNYANYEMBE WITH STANLEY. 1871-72. From the 14th to the 27th of December the two travellers rested at Ujiji. At meals they sat on the black bearskin and gay Persian carpet, their backs to the wail, sipping their tea, and chatting on the inci- dents of ''the picnic," as the Doctor persisted in call- ing it. The Doctor's spare time was spent in pre- paring despatches and letters for home; Stanley's, when not down with fever, in preparing for his march, and looking after his friend's interests as he understood them. His soul was vexed by the pres- ence of the mutineers, who had baffled the Doctor and forced him to turn back from Nyangwe. The words, "li I could only have gone one month farther I could have said, 'My work is done,' " rang in his ears, and he fretted at the sight of the men swagger- ing round Ujiji with the Doctor's Enfield rifles. At last he could stand it no longer, and having obtained the Doctor's permission, with the aid of Susi, recov- ered them all without coming to blows. And now came serious debates as to the future. Every argu- ment the younger man could ^hink of was urged to ^34 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. shake the Doctor's resolution. "Your family are longing to see you." "I promise to carry you every foot of the way back to the coast. You shall have the finest donkey in Unyanyembe to ride." ''Let the sources of the Nile go. Come home and rest. Get well, and then come back and finish what you have to do." "Mr. Stanley," runs the Journal, "used some very strong arguments in favor of my going home, re- cruiting my strength, getting artificial teeth, and then returning to finish my task; but my judgment said, 'AH your friends will wish you to make a com- plete work of the sources of the Nile before you retire.' My daughter Agnes says, 'Much as I wish you to come home, I had rather you finished your work to your satisfaction than return merely to gratify me.' Rightly and nobly said, my darling Nannie. Vanity whispers pretty loudly, 'She's a chip of the old block. My blessings on her and all the rest.' " So the old explorer set his face as a flint ; but as a compromise agreed to go with Stanley to Unyan- yembe, where he had left stores and would find let- ters* There he would wait till Stanley could send him up a band of free men from Zanzibar, with whom he could hope to complete his work. Livingstone's Diary. — "December 26th. — Had but a sorry Christmas yesterday." Stanley. — "Christmas came, and the Doctor and I TO UNYANYEMBE WITH STANLEY^ 235 had resolved to keep the blessed and time-honored day, as at home, with a feast. The fever had quite gone from me the night before, and on Christmas morning I was up and dressed, and lecturing Ferajji on the importance of the day to white men, and try- ing to instil into the sleek and pampered animal some secrets of the culinary art. But, alas, for my weak- ness! Ferajji spoilt the roast, and our custard was burned. The dinner was a failure. That the fat- brained rascal escaped a thrashing was due only to my inability to lift my hands, but my looks were capable of annihilating any one except Ferajji. He only chuckled, and I believe had the subsequent gratification of eating the pies, custards, and roast his carelessness had spoiled for European palates." Next day the preparations were completed. Liv- ingstone left everything to his young comrade, in- cluding the route. The boldness of that chosen, with no assistance but the chart Stanley had made of his outward journey, elicited at once his hearty ap- proval. Its plan was to take boat to the south end of Lake Tanganyika, and then to push straight east through a new country to Imrera on the direct route from Unyanyembe to Ujiji, thus avoiding disturbed districts and those of exacting chiefs, who had plun- dered and hindered Stanley on his upward march to Ujiji. They had a prosperous and merry voyage of seven days, in two canoes, the first carrying Livingstone 236 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. and his five servants (who in reward for their faith- fulness were taken as passengers and exempted from carrying anything on the march), with the Union Jack at the stern, the second, Stanley, under the Stars and Stripes. On January 7th they left the lake, and on the i6th reached Imrera, leaving it again on the i8th, and arriving at Unyanyembe on February i8th. The Doctor, though a guest, marched the whole way, declining the ''finest donkey in Unyan," which had been thoughtfully provided for him. There was, as usual, much wild, rough work in jungle and forest, but with glimpses of better things, such as had cheered him in so many untrodden parts of Cen- tral Africa. Thus in his Journal : "January 10th. — Across a very lovely green country of open forest, all fresh, like an English gentleman's park. Game plentiful. Tree-covered mountains right and left, and much brown haematite on the levels." "January 16th. — A very cold night, after long and heavy rain. Our camp was among brackens. Went E. and by S. along the high land, and then saw a village in a deep valley, to which we descended. Then up another ridge to a valley, and along to a village well culti- vated. Up again at least 700 feet, and down to Mereras village, hid in a mountainous nook, about one hundred and forty huts with doors on one side. The valleys present a lovely scene of industry, all the TO UNYANYEMBE WITH STANLEY. 237 people being eagerly engaged in weeding and hoe- ing, to take advantage of the abundant rains which have drenched us every afternoon." This first ten days' march across the unexplored country proved a severe trial to Stanley, out of which he came with flying colors. "Against the col- lective counsel of the guides I have persisted in being guided only by the compass and my chart. They strenuously strove to induce me to alter my course, and the veterans asked if I were determined to kill them with famine, as the road was N.E. ; but I pre- ferred putting my trust in the compass. No sun shone on us as we threaded our way through the primeval forest. A thick haze covered the forests; rain often pelted us; the firmament was an un- fathomable depth of gray vapor. The Doctor had perfect confidence in me, and I held on my way." On their arrival at Imrera he writes : ''By noon we were in our old camp. The natives gathered round, bringing supplies of food, and to congratu- late us on having gone to Ujiji and back, but it was long before the last of the expedition arrived. The Doctor's feet were very sore and bleeding from the weary march. His shoes were in a very worn-out state, and he had so cut and slashed them to ease his blistered feet that any man of our force would have refused them as a gift, no matter how ambitious he might be to encase his feet a la Umsimga." ^'January igth. — Mpokwa's deserted village. The 238 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Doctor's feet were very much chafed and sore by the marching. He had walked on foot all the way, though he owned a donkey; while I, considerably to my shame be it said, had ridden occasionally to hus- band my strength, that I might be able to hunt after arrival at camp." In this important pursuit, for the force depended on him for meat, Stanley found new ground for his hero-worship. He hunted with the Doctor's Reilly rifle. He was often successful, and "when I returned to camp with meat I received the congratulations of the Doctor, which I valued above all others, as he knew from long experience what shooting was." On January 20th they halted, and Stanley stalked and hit a giraffe, which went off notwithstanding. **The Doctor, who knew how to console an ardent young hunter, attributed my non-success to shooting with leaden balls, which were too soft to penetrate the thick hide of the giraffe, and advised me to melt my zinc canteens, with which to harden the lead. It was not the first time I had cause to thank the Doc- tor. None knew so well how to console one for bad luck; how to elevate one in his own mind. If I killed a zebra, did not his friend Oswell — the South African hunter — and himself long ago come to the conclusion that zebra's was the finest meat in Africa ? If I shot a buffalo, she was sure to be the best of her kind, and her horns worth carrying home as speci- mens, and was she not fat? If I returned without TO UNYANYEMBE WITH STANLEY. 239 anything, the game was very wild, or the people had made a noise and the game had been frightened, and who could stalk animals already alarmed? Indeed, he was a most considerate companion, and knowing him to be literally truthful, I was proud of his praise when successful, and when I failed was easily con- soled." Three days later he killed a giraffe with the zinc bullet. In the evening of the same day the Doctor was employed from ten till midnight in tak- ing observations from the Star Canopus, which showed Mpokwa to be in S. latitude 6° i8' 40", dif- fering three miles only from the result Stanley had arrived at on his upward journey by dead reckoning. "January 2yth. — We set out for Missonghi. About half way I saw the head of the expedition on the run, and my donkey began to lash behind with his heels. In a second I was aware of the cause by a cloud of bees buzzing round my head, three or four of which settled on my face and stung me fright- fully. We raced madly for half a mile, behaving as wildly as the poor, bestung animals. As this was an unusually long march, I doubted if the Doctor could make it, as his feet were so sore, so I sent four men back with the litter ; but the stout old hero refused to be carried, and walked all the way to camp, eighteen miles. He had been stung dread- fully in the head and face; the bees had settled in handfuls in his hair; but, after a cup of warm tea and some food, he was as cheerful as if he had never 240 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. traveled a mile. . . . Under that way-worn ex- terior lay a fund of high spirits and inexhaustible humor; that rugged frame enclosed a young and most excellent soul. Every day I heard innumerable jokes and pleasant anecdotes, hunting stories in which his friends, Oswell, W^ebb, Vardon, and Gor- don Gumming, were almost always the chief actors. At first I was not sure but this joviality, humor, and abundant animal spirits were the result of joyous hysteria, but as I found they continued while I was with him, I was obliged to think them natural." On January 3 1 st they met a caravan from Unyan- yembe, and Stanley learnt that Shaw, whom he had left there, was dead. He was ill of fever himself, and broke out : " *Ah, Doctor ! there are two of us out of three gone; I shall be the third if this fever lasts.' *0h, no, not at all,' he replied. *If you would have died from fever, you would have died at Ujiji, when you had that severe attack of remittent Don't think of it. Your fever now is only the result of exposure to wet. I never travel during the wet season. This time I have traveled because I did not wish to detain you at Ujiji.' Besides, the Doctor added, he had stores of jellies and potted soup, fish, ham, waiting at Unyanyembe, which he would share with me, whereupon I was greatly cheered." *^ February 6th. — Marching through Ukamba for- est, the Doctor said he could never pass through an African forest, with its solemn serenity and stillness, TO UNYANYEMBE WITH STANLEY. 241 without wishing to be buried quietly under the dead leaves. In England there was no elbow-room, and graves were often desecrated, and ever since he had buried his wife in the woods at Shupanga, he had sighed for such a grave, where his bones would get the rest they needed." And so they went on to Unyanyembe, the Doctor sturdily marching all the way, but otherwise giving in to being the petted guest ; taking no thought for the morrow, but leaving food, route, and discipline on the march to his young friend, while he just took his observations, and made short entries in his big Letts's diary. On February 14th they marched into Unyanyembe with flags flying and guns firing. To his great annoyance Livingstone found that his stores had been broken into and plundered, so that he could not regale his companion upon any- thing but crackers and hard cheese. What the Arabs had left had been destroyed by white ants, which had eaten even the stocks of two valuable rifles, and the locks and barrels had become useless from neglect and rust. Stanley's storeroom had also been broken into and plundered, with the con- nivance of, if not by order of, the Governor, who would not face the outraged travellers. However, Stanley had still sufficient stores to set up his com- panion. Livingstone's Journal. — ^^ February iSth. — My losses by the Banian-employed slaves are more than 242 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. made up by Mr. Stanley. Indeed, I am quite set up, and as soon as he can send me men, not slaves, from the coast, I go to my work with a fair prospect of finishing it." "February 20th. — To my great joy, I got four flannel shirts from Agnes, and I was delighted to find that two pairs of fine English boots had most considerately been sent by my kind friend Mr. Waller." ''February 22d. — Service this morning, and thanked God for safety thus far. Got a packet of letters from an Arab." In answering these letters, and writing despatches to Lords Granville, Claren- don, and Sir R. Murchison, the days were spent. To Mr. Gorden Bennett also he wrote a grateful ac- knowledgment for timely succor. ''March 14th. — Mr. Stanley leaves. I commit to his care my Journal, sealed with five seals; the im- pressions are those of an American gold coin, anna, and half-anna, and cake of paint with royal arms, positively not to be opened." Stanley. — ''At dawn we were up. The bales and baggage were taken outside, and the men prepared themselves for their first march homeward. We had a sad breakfast together. I couldn't eat, my heart was too full; nor did my companion seem to have any appetite. We found something to do which kept us together. At eight I was not gone, anc} I h^cj thought to have been off at five A. M» TO UNYANYEAIBE WITH STANLEY. 243 'Doctor, ril leave two of my men. Maybe you've forgotten something in the hurry. I'll halt a day at Tara for your last word and your last wish. Now, we must part. There's no help for it. Good-by.' " 'Oh, I'm coming with you a little way. I must see you on the road.' " Thank you. Now, my men, home ! Kirangoze, lift the flag. March !' "On the walk Livingstone once more told his plans, and it was settled that his men should be hired for two years from arrival at Unyanyembe, to give ample margin for the completion of his work.* *Dr. Livingstone's last act before Mr. Stanley left him was to write his letters — twenty for Great Britain, six for Bombay, two for New York, and one for Zanzibar. The two for New- York were for Mr. Bennett of the New York Herald, by whom Stanley had been sent to Africa. Mr. Stanley has freely unfolded to us the bitterness of his heart in parting from Livingstone. "My days seem to have been spent in an Elysian field; otherwise, why should I so keenly regret the mear approach of the parting hour? Havs I not been battered by successive fevers, prostrate with agony day after day lately? Have I not raved and stormed in mad- ness? Have I not clenched my fists in fury, and fought with the wild strength of despair when in delirium? Yet, I regret to surrender the pleasure I have felt in this man's society, though so dearly purchased. . . . March 14th. — We had a sad breakfast together. I could not eat, my heart was too full ; neither did my companion seem to have an appetite. We found something to do which kept us longer together. At eight o'clock I was not gone, and I had thought to have been off at five A. M. . . . We walked side by side; the men lifted their voices in a song. I took long locks at Livingstone, %o impress his features thoroughly on my niemory." S44: THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. " 'Now, my dear Doctor, the best friends must part. You have come far enough.' " 'Well, I will say this to you. You have done what few men could do ; far better than some great travellers I know. And I am grateful to you for what you have done for me. God guide you safe home, and bless you, my friend.' " 'And may God bring you safe back to us all, my dear friend. Farewell.' " TarewelL' "We wrung each other's hands, and I had to tear myself away before I was unmanned. But Susi, and Chumah, and Hamaydah, the Doctor's faithful fellows, they must all shake and kiss my hands ; be- fore I could quite turn away I betrayed myself." Stanley resolutely turned his face eastward, but now and then would take a look round at the de- serted figure of an old man in gray clothes, who with bended head and slow steps was returning to his soli- tude. A drop in the path came which would hide him from view. "I took one more look at him. He was standing near the gate of Kwihaha, with his servants near him. I waved a handkerchief to him, and he responded by lifting his cap." This was Livingstone's last sight of a white man. It is well that we have so vivid a picture of the bent figure in gray standing at the gate of Kwihaha. The old world has borne on her surface few nobler or more pathetic figures since time began. On the 17th TO UNYANYE:^>tBE WITH STANLEY. 243 Susi and Hamaydah reached Stanley at the ap- pointed halt, with one letter for Sir Thomas iNIaclear and another for himself. The latter ran: "Kwihaha, March 15, 1872. — Dear Stanley — If you can telegraph, on your arrival in London, be particular, please, to say how Sir Rod- erick is. You put the matter exactly yesterday, when you said I w^as 'not yet satisfied about the sources, but, as soon as I shall be, I shall return and give satisfactory reasons fit for other people.' This is just as it stands. I wish I could give you a better word than the Scotch one 'to put a stout heart to a stey brae,' but you will do that, and I am thankful that before going aw^ay the fever had changed into the intermittent, or safe form. I would not have let you go but with great concern had you still been troubled with the continued type. I feel comfort- able in commending you to the guardianship of the good Lord and Father of all. Yours gratefully, "David Livingstone.'" "P. 5*. — -March i6th. — I have written a note this morning to Mr. Murray, the publisher, to help you if necessary in sending the Journal by book post or otherwise to Agnes. If you call on him, you will find him a frank gentleman. A pleasant journey to you. D. L, "To Henry M. Stanley, Esq., "Wherever he may be found." 246 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. ''March lyth. — Sent the men after Mr. Stanley, and two more to bring back his last words, if any." ''March igth. — My birthday. My Jesus, my King, my Life, my All ! I again dedicate my whole soul to Thee. Accept me. And grant, oh Gracious Father, that ere this year is gone, I may finish my work. In Jesus' name I ask it. Amen." "March 2^th. — Susi brought letter from Mr. Stanley. He had a little fever, but I hope will go on safely." When Stanley reached England, it was not to be overwhelmed with gratitude. At first the Royal Geographical Society received him coldly. Instead of his finding Livingstone, it was surmised that Liv- ingstone had found him. Strange things were said of him at the British Association at Brighton. The daily press actually challenged his truthfulness; some of the newspapers affected to treat his whole story as a myth. Stanley says frankly that this re- ception gave a tone of bitterness to his book — "How I Found Livingstone" — which it would not have had if he had understood the real state of things. But the heart of the nation was sound; the people be- lieved in Stanley and appreciated his service. At last the mists cleared away, and England acknowl- edged its debt to the American. The Geographical Society gave him the right hand of fellowship "with a warmth and generosity never to be forgotten." TO UNYANYEMBE WITH STANLEY. 247 The president apologized for the words of suspicion he had previously used. Her Majesty the Queen presented Stanley with a special token of her regard. Unhappily, in the earlier stages of the affair, wounds had been inflicted which are not likely ever to be wholly healed. Words were spoken on both sides which cannot be recalled. But the great fact re- mains, and will be written on the page of history, that Stanley did a noble service to Livingstone, earn- ing thereby the gratitude of England and of the civ- ilized world. CHAPTER XV. WAITING AT UNYANYEMBE. 1872. The evening of life doses in sorrowfully (as men count sorrow) on the lonely old explorer from the day of Stanley's march for the coast. Five weary months he waited at Unyanyembe before the arrival of the escort whom Stanley enlisted and sent up from Zanzibar. But, though sorely tried by the de- lay, all the work which could be done on a halt went on as usual. No correspondence or observations were neglected which could forward any branch of his work, scientific, philanthropical, or religious, and every available resource, such as his few books afforded, used to the utmost.* *When Stanley left Livingstone at Unj^anyembe there was nothing for the latter but to wait there until the men should come to him who were to be sent up from Zanzibar. Stanley left on the 14th March ; Livingstone calculated that he would reach Zanzibar on the ist May, that his men would be ready to start about the 22d May, and that they ought to arrive at Unyanyembe on the loth or 15th July. In reality, Stanley did not reach Bagamoio till the 6th May. The men were sent oflf about the 25th, and they reached Unyanyembe about the 9th August. A month more than had been counted on had to be spent at Unyanyembe, and this delay was all the more 248 WAITING AT UNYANYEMBE. 249 Journal. — ''March igth. — Very rainy. Am read- ing Mungo Park's 'Travels' ; they look so truthful." "April 1st. — Read Young's 'Search after Living- stone' ; thankful for many kind words about me. He writes like a gentleman." "April 2d. — Making a sounding line out of lint left by Stanley. Whydah birds building their nests. The cock bird brings fine grass and seed stalks. He takes the end inside the nest and pulls it all in, save the ear. The hen keeps inside, constantly arranging the grass with all her might, sometimes making the whole nest move by her efforts. Feathers are laid in after the grass." "April 4th. — Copying astronomical observations for Sir T. Maclean" "April i^th. — Hung up sounding line on poles one fathom apart, and tarred it." News came now of the destruction by natives of the party of Arabs in Manyuema whom he was trying because it brought the traveller nearer to the rainy- season. The intention of Dr. Livingstone, when the men should come, was to strike south by Ufipa, go round Tanganyika, ^ then cross the Chambeze, and bear away along the southern shore of Bangweolo, straight west to the ancient fountains; from them in eight days to Katanga copper mines; from Ka- tanga, in ten days, northeast to the great underground excava- tions, and back again to Katanga, from which n.n.w. twelve days to the head of Lake Lincoln. "There I hope devoutly," he writes to his daughter, "to thank the Lord of all, and turn my face along Lake Kamolondo, and over Lualaba, Tangan- yika, Ujiji, and home." 250 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. nearly joining a year before. "April i6th. — To go with them to Lomame, as my slaves were willing to do, was so repugnant to me that I preferred to re- ^ turn that weary 600 miles to Ujiji. I mourned over ' being baffled and thwarted all the way, but tried to believe it was all for the best. This news showed that, had I gone, I could not have escaped the Bakuss spears, for had I gone I could not have run like the routed fugitives." "May 1st. — Bought a cow for eleven dotis of Merikano; she gives milk, and this makes me inde- pendent. Herdman of Baganda from whom I bought her said, 'I go off to pray.' He has been taught by Arabs, and is the first proselyte they have gained. Baker thinks the first want of Africans is to teach them to want. Interesting, seeing that he was bored almost to death by Kamrasi wanting everything he had! . . . Finished a letter to the New York Herald, to elicit American zeal to stop the East Coast slave-trade. I pray for a bless- ing on it from the All-Gracious." The last sentence of this letter is inscribed on his tomb in Westmin- ster Abbey. ''All I can add in my loneliness," it runs, "is, may Heaven's rich blessings come down on every one, American, English, or Turk, who will help to heal the open sore of the world." "May 4th. — Many palavers about Mirambo's death. Arabs say he is a brave man, and the war is not near its end. Some northern natives called WAITING AT UNYANYEMBE. 251 Bagoze get a keg of powder and a piece of doth, go and attack a village, wait for a month or so eating the food of the captured place, and come back for stores again. Thus the war goes on. Prepared tracing paper to draw map for Sir Thomas Maclean Lewale invites me to a feast." "Maj nth. — A serpent of dark olive color found dead at my door, killed by a cat. Puss approaches very cautiously and strikes her claw into the head with a blow delivered as quick as lightning; then holds the head down with both paws, heedless of the wriggling mass of coils behind it ; she then bites the neck and leaves it, looking at the disfigured head as if she knew that there had lain the hidden power of mischief. She seems to possess a little of the nature of the Ichneumon, which was sacred in Egypt from its destroying serpents. The serpent is in pursuit of mice when killed by puss." *'May lyth. — Waiting wearily. Ailing. Making cheeses for the journey ; good, but sour rather, as the milk soon turns in this climate, and we don't use ren- net, but let the milk coagulate of itself; and it does thicken in half a day." ''May 22,d. — A family of ten Whydah birds come to the pomegranate trees in our yard. The eight young ones are fed by the dam as young pigeons are. The food is brought up from the crops without the bowing and bending of the pigeon. They chirrup briskly for food. The dam gives most, while the 252 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. red-breasted cock gives one or two and then knocks the rest away." A passage in Speke that the women in Kasenge, an island in Tanganyika, sold their children, draws a long comment from the Doctor, in which he enters on the missionary topic, and draws a picture of what active men could do in this region. "In crossing Tanganyika three times I was detained on Kasenge about ten weeks in all. On each occasion Arab trad- ers were presenL, all eager to buy slaves, but none were offered, and they assured me they had never seen the habit alleged to exist by Speke. I would say to missionaries, 'Come on, brethren, to the real heathen. You have no idea how brave you are till you try. Leaving the coast tribes and devoting yourselves heartily to the savages, as they are called, you will find, with some drawbacks and wickedness, a very great deal to admire and love. Many state- ments made about them require confirmation. You will never see women selling their infants. The Arabs never did, nor have L' " And after going into practical details : ''It would be a sort of Robin- j son Crusoe life, but with abundant materials for sur- rounding oneself with comforts and improving the improvable amongst the natives. Clothing would require but small expense. Four suits of strong tweed served me comfortably for five years." May 2yth. — After noticing the arrival of another pair of V\^hydahs with brood, in which the cock bird WAITING AT UNYANYEMBE. 253 feeds all the brood: "The young ones lift up a feather as a child would a doll, and invite others to do the same, in play. So, too, with another pair; the cock skips from side to side with a feather in his bill, and the hen is pleased. Nature is full of en- joyment. . . . Cock Whydah bird died in the night. The brood came and chirruped to it for food, and tried to make it feed them, as if not knowing death." There are troubles even amongst the few faithful servants left with him. ''May 2gth. — Halimah ran away in a quarrel with Ntaoeka. I went over to Sultan bin Ali, and sent a note after her, but she came back of her own accord and only wanted me to come outside and tell her to enter. I did so, and added, 'You must not quarrel again.' She has been extremely good ever since I got her at Katombo. I never had to reprove her. She is always very attentive and clever, and never steals, nor would she allow her husband to steaL She is the best spoke in the wheel ; this, her only escapade, is easily forgiven, and I gave her a warm cloth for the cold by way of assuring her that I feel no grudge against her." Within a few days Ntaoeka had been taken in hand with equal success. *'When Ntaoeka chose to follow us rather than go to the coast, I did not like to have a fine-looking woman among us unattached, and proposed that she should marry one of my three 254 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. worthies, Chumah, Gardiner, or Mabruki, but she smiled at the idea. Chumah was evidently too lazy ever to get a wife. The other two were contemptible in appearance, and she has a good presence and is buxom. Chumah promised reform. He had been lazy, he admitted, because he had no wife, and on my speaking to her again she consented. ... I have noticed her ever since working hard from morning to night, the first up in the morning, mak- ing fire, hot water, and wood, sweeping, cooking. '' Occasionally his Journal gives a gleam of humor : ^'June i8th. — The Ptolemaic map defines people ac- cording to their food — the Elephantophagi, the Struthiophagi, the Ichthiophagi, and the Anthro- pophagi. If we followed the same sort of classifica- tion, our definition would be by the drink, thus : the tribe of stout-guzzlers, the roaring potheen-fuddlers, the whiskey-fishoid-drinkers, the vin-ordinaire bib- bers, the lager-beer-swillers, and an outlying tribe of the brandy cocktail persuasion." ''June igth. — Whydahs, though full-fledged, still gladly take a feed from their dam, putting down the breast to the ground, cocking up the bill, and chir- ruping in the most engaging way they know. She gives them a little, but administers a friendly shove, too. They all pick up feathers and grass, and hop from side to side of their mater, as if saying, 'Come, let us play at making little homes.' The w^agtail has shaken her young quite off, and has a new nest WAITING AT UNYANYEMBE. 255 She warbles prettily, very much like a canary, and is very active in catching flies, but eats crumbs and bread and milk too. Sun birds visit the pomegran- ate flowers, and eat insects therein too, as well as nectar. The young Whydah birds crouch closely to- gether at night for heat. They look like a woolly ball on a branch. By day they engage in pairing and coaxing each other. They come to the same twig every night. Like children, they try to lift heavy weights of feathers above their strength.'' ''June 2ist. — Lewale off to the war with Mirambo. He is to finish it now ! a constant fusilade along the line of his march west will expend much powder, but possibly get their spirits up. If successful, wx shall get Banyamweze pagazi in numbers. Mirambo is reported to have sent one hundred tusks and one hundred slaves toward the coast to buy powder." ''June 24th. — The medical education has led me to a continual tendency to suspend the judgment. What a state of blessedness it would have been had I pos- sessed the dead certainty of the homoeopathists, and as soon as I found Lakes Bangweolo, Moero, and Kamalondo pouring their waters down the great- central valley, bellowed out, 'Hurrah ! Eureka !' and got home in firm and honest belief that I had settled it, and no mistake. Instead of that I am even now not cocksure that I have not been following down what may after all be the Congo." *'July 2d — Make up a packet for Dr. Kirk and 2B6 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Mr. Webb, of Zanzibar. Explain to Kirk, and beg him to investigate and punish, and put blame on right persons" (for the robberies of his goods). ^'Write Sir. B. Frere and Agnes. Send large packet of astronomical observations and sketch map to Sir T. Maclear by native, Suleiman." "July 2)d. — Received note from Oswell, written April last, containing the sad news of Sir Roderick's departure from amongst us. Alas ! alas ! this is the only time in my life I have ever been inclined to use the word, and it speaks a sore heart. The best friend I ever had — true, warm, abiding. He loved me more than I deserved. He looks down on me still. I must feel resigned by the Divine Will ; still I regret and mourn."* *This entry indicates extraordinary depth of emotion. Sir Roderick exercised a kind of spell on Livingstone. Respect for him was one of the subordinate motives that induced him to undertake this journey. The hope of giving him satisfac- tion was one of the subordinate rewards to which he looked forward. His death was to Livingstone a kind of scientific widowhood, and must have deprived him of a great spring to exertion in this last wandering. On Sir Roderick's part the affection for him was very great. ''Looking back," says his biographer. Professor Geikie, "upon his scientific career when, not far from its close, Murchison found no part of it which brought more pleasing recollections than the support he had given tc African explorers — Speke, Grant, and notably Living- stone. 'I rejoice,' he said, 'in the steadfast tenacity with which I have upheld my confidence in the ultimate success of the last-named of these brave men. In fact, it was the confidence I placed in the undying vigor of my dear friend Livingstone which has sustained me in the hope that I might live to en- WAITING AT UNYANYEMBE. 257 ^'July 5^/?.— Weary! weary!" "July yth. — Waiting wearily here, and hoping that the good and loving Father of all may favor me, and help me to finish my work quickly and well. Temperature at six a. m. 6i° ; feels cold." Here, as though to divert his sad thoughts, comes a vivid de- scription of the Makombwe, the hereditary hippo- potamus-hunters, and their method of hunting, end- ing: "This hunting requires the greatest skill, cour- age, and nerve that can be conceived — double-armed and three-fold brass, or whatever the 'VTLneid" says. The Makombwe. are certainly a magnificent race of men, hardy and active in their habits, and well fed, as the result of their brave exploits ; being a family occupation, it has no doubt helped in producing fine physical development. Though all the people amongst whom they sojourn would like the profits they secure, I have met with no competitors to them except the Wayeiye, of Lake Ngami and adjacent rivers. I have seen our dragoon officers perform fencing and managing their horses so dexterously that every muscle seemed trained to its fullest power, and perhaps had they been brought up as Makombwe joy the supreme delight of welcoming him back to his own country.' But that consummation was not to- be. He himself was gathered to his rest just six days before Stanley brought news and relief to the forlorn traveller on Lake Tanganyika. And Livingstone, while still in pursuit of his quest, and within ten months of his death, learned in the heart of Africa the tidings which he chronicled in his Journal." 258 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. they might have equaled their daring and consum- mate skill. But we have no sport, except perhaps Indian tiger shooting, requiring the courage and coolness their enterprise demands. The danger may be appreciated if one remembers that no sooner is blood shed in the water than all the crocodiles below are immediately drawn up stream by the scent, and are ready to act the part of thieves in a London crowd, or worse." Then he relieves the weary waiting by a disserta- tion on the prospects of a mission station one hun- dred miles from the east coast, warmly advocating it. "A couple of Europeans beginning a mission without a staff of foreign attendants implies coarse country fare, it is true, but it would be nothing to those who at home amuse themselves with fasts, vigils, etc. A great deal of powxr is thus lost to the Church. Fastings and vigils without a special ob- ject are time run to waste, made to minister to a kind of self-gratification instead of being turned to ac- count for the good of others. They are like groan- ing in sickness. Some people amuse themselves when ill by continuous moaning. The forty days of Lent might be spent in visiting adjacent tribes, and bearing unavoidable hunger and thirst with a good grace. Considering the greatness of the end to be attained, men might go without sugar, coffee, tea, etc.; I went from September, 1866, to December, 1868, without either." WAITING AT UNYANYEMBE. 259 ^^Jiily 1 2 th. — When endeavoring to give some ac- count of the slave-trade of East Africa, it was neces- sary to keep far within the truth in order not to be thought guilty of exaggeration ; but in sober serious- ness, the subject does not admit of exaggeration. The sights I have seen, though common incidents in the traffic, are so nauseous that I strive to drive them from my memory. In most cases I can succeed in time, but the slaving scenes come back unbidden, and make me start up at dead of night, horrified by their vividness." A long paper of notes on the geology of Central Africa serves to while away the time while his escort creeps slowly up, and the war all round him between the Arabs and Mirambo drags on. One incident in this war of the kites and crows may be noted. ''July lyfh. — Went over to Sultan bin AH yester- day. Very kind as usual. He gave me guavas and a melon called 'matange.' It is reported that one of Mirambo's men, Sorura, set sharp sticks in concealed holes, which acted like Bruce's *crow toes' at Ban- nockburn, and wounded several. This has induced the Arabs to send for a cannon they have, with which to batter Mirambo at a distance. The gun is borne past us this morning, a brass seven-pounder, dated 1679. Carried by the Portuguese commander to China in 1679, or one hundred and ninety-three years ago, and now used to beat Mirambo by Arabs who have very little interest in the war !" 2G0 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. "July 2ist. — Bought two milch cows with calves for seventeen dotis, or thirty- four fathoms. Bagan- das packing up to leave for home. They take a good deal of brandy and gin for Mtesa from the Moslems. Temperature at noon, 96°, Another nest of wag- tails flown ; they eat bread-crumbs. I wish my men would come and let me off this waiting. , . . Some philosophizing is curious. It represents our Maker forming the machine of the universe; setting it a-going, and able to do nothing more outside cer- tain of His own laws. He, as it were, laid the tgg of the whole, and, like an ostrich, left it to be hatched by the sun. We can control laws, but He cannot! A fire set to this house would consume it, but we throw on water and consume the fire. We control the elements fire and water: is He debarred from doing the same, and more, who has infinite wisdom and knowledge?" At last, on July 31st, he hears that his escort are only twelve days off, and notes that he is ''thankful even for this in my wearisome waiting." ''August ^th. — In some parts one is struck by the fact of the children having so few games. Life is a serious business, and amusement is derived from imitating the vocations of the parents — hut building, making little gardens, bows and arrows, shields and spears. Elsewhere boys are very ingenious little fellows, and have several games; they also shoot birds with bows, and teach captured linnets to sing. WAITING AT UNYANYEMBE, 261 They make play-guns of reeds, which go off with a trigger and spring with a cloud of smoke. The boys shoot locusts with small toy guns very cleverlyo A couple of rufous, brown-headed, and dirty speckle- breasted swallows appeared to-day for the first time this season and lighted on the ground. This kind builds here in houses, and as far south as Shupanga." ''August 6th. — Wagtails begin to discharge their young, which feed themselves. I can think of noth- ing but Vhen will these men come?' Sixty days was the period named; now it is eighty- four. It may be all for the best in the good providence of the Most High." "August gth. — I do most devoutly thank the Lord for His goodness in bringing my men near to this. Three came to-day, and how thankful I am I cannot express. It is well ; the men who went with Stanley come again to me. 'Bless the Lord, oh, my soul, and all that is within me bless His holy Name, amen.' " "August l$th. — ^The men came yesterday, having been seventy-four days from Bagamoio. Most thankful I am to the Giver of all good. I have to give them a few days' rest, and then start." "August 20th. — Weighed all the loads again, and gave an equal load of fifty pounds to each, and half to the Nassickers. Mabruki Speke is left at Taborah with Sultan bin AH. He has long been sick, and unable to go with us/' 262 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. ''August 2ist. — Gave people an ox, and to a dis- carded wife a cloth, to avoid exposure by her hus- band stripping her. She is somebody's child !" All is now ready for the start. Once more, for- ward, brave old heart ! CHAPTER XVI. THE LAST ADVANCE DEATH. 1872-73. On August 25, 1872, all was ready, and the ol3 traveller marched out of Unyanyembe at the head of a party of fifty-six men sent him by Mr. Stanley. ''A dutiful son could not have done more than he generously did. I bless him." He writes six months later to Sir Thomas Maclear and Mr. Mann in a last letter, never finished : "The men have be- haved as well as Makololo. I cannot award them higher praise, though they have not the courage of that brave, kind-hearted people." ''Opere peracto ludemus," he wrote about the same date to his old college friend, Mr. James Young, or Sir Parafine, as he playfully called him, ''you remember, in your Latin rudiments, 'lang syne.' It is time for you, and I rejoice to think it is now your portion, after working nobly, to play. May you have a long spell of it ! I am differently situated. I shall never be able to play. To me it seems to be said, 'If thou for- bear to deliver them that are drawn to death, and them that are ready to be slain; if thou sayest, "Behold we know it not," doth not He that ponder- eth the heart consider, and He that keepeth the soul ?63 264 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. doth He not know, and shall He not give every man according to his works?' I have been led unwit- tingly into the slaving field of the Banians and Arabs in Central Africa. I have seen the woes inflicted, and must still do all I can to expose and mitigate the evils. Though hard work is still to be my lot, I look genially on others more favored. I would not be a member of the International, for I love to think of others enjoying life." The men who in a few weeks' time were as good as Makololo were by no means so at first. On the second day two of the Nassickers lost one out of his ten cows, and again on August 30th : "The two Nas- sickers lost all the cows yesterday from sheer lazi- ness. Found a long way off and one cow missing. She was our best milker. Susi gave them ten cuts each with a switch." The Nassickers, however, were in as perfect order as the rest in a few weeks under the superb powers of organization and management of the old explorer, when he writes to Stanley : "I am perpetually reminded that I owe a great deal to you for the men you sent. With one exception, the party is working like a machine. I give my orders to Mwana Sera, and never have to repeat tnem." With these fifty-six men and two women, Living- stone set out from Unyanyembe on his last march on August 25, 1872. It ended on April 30, 1873, i" Chitambo's village of Ilala, on the southwestern shore of Lake Bangweolo. Those who have fol- THE LAST ADVANCE— DEATH. 265 lowed him on the map in his last journey, when he returned baffled and broken down in health from his extreme northwestern point on the Lualaba — far up in Central Africa, and still doubtful whether he was on the sources of the Nile or the Congo — will be sur- prised at the southern direction of his last march. It seems at first sight to have little bearing on the great question, Nile or Congo. His reasons for the route chosen seem to have been as follows: From careful sifting of the reports of native travellers he was inclined to believe that the story told by the priest of Minerva to Herodotus, in the temple of Sais, of the two conical hills in Central Africa, Crophi and Mophi, from the unfathomed fountains at whose feet flowed two rivers, the one to the north through Egypt, the other to Ethiopia, was worth more than the father of history had assigned to it. He would satisfy himself as to this by visiting the two hills due west of Bangweolo. Then turning due north, and visiting the copper mines and under- ground excavations in the Katangas country by the way, he hoped in twelve days to strike the head of ^ the unexplored lake, where he looked for the final solution of his doubts. 'Then I hope devoutly to thank the Lord of all, and turn my face along Lake Kamalondo, and over Lualaba, Tanganyika, Ujiji, and home !'' This last and crowning expedition would there- fore have put a girdle outside his previous explora- 266 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. tions in these districts, keeping to the westward of Lake Moero, and so up north by Lake Lincoln till he struck the Lualaba on its west bank, beyond the point where he had been foiled and turned back two years before. He would have there crossed into the Manyuema territory, and returned to his starting- point round the northern end of Lake Tanganyika. A truly heroic piece of work for a man of sixty, worn by previous hardships and subject to a cruel and exhausting form of dysentery from over-exer- tion or exposure. Knowing the event as we do, it is a pathetic task to follow him. War was raging over much of the district east of Tanganyika through which his path lay, adding greatly to the danger and difficulties of the march, the people being distrustful and unwilling or unable to sell provisions. Sometimes he rode one of the donkeys, but as a rule tramped along till Sep- tember 2ist, when his old enemy, which had already attacked him, had to be seriously met. ''Rest here," runs the entry, "as the complaint does not yield to medicine or fime ; but I begin to eat now, which is a favorable symptom," and then follow notes on the habits of kites, and on the gingerbread palm. And even as disease gains on him, similar notes on the products and people are made day by day, with ob- servations, when these could be taken, the direction of the route and distance traversed, and the daily orders to his men. THE LAST ADVANCE-DEATH. 267 His great loving heart, too, is open all the way. Here it is a poor woman of Ujiji who had followed one of Stanley's men, and been cast off by him ; '*she had quarreled all round; her temper seems too ex- citable ; she is somebody's bairn, nevertheless." ''November iSth. — One of the men picked up a little girl, deserted by her mother. As she was be- numbed by cold and wet, he carried her, but when I came up he threw her into the grass. I ordered a man to carry her, and we gave her to one of the childless women." Every day some of the men are ill and have to be cared for, and loads readjusted. The region is for the most part desolate all round the southern end of Tanganyika. "The population of Myunda must have been prodigious, for all the stones have been cleared and every available inch of soil cultivated. The population are said to have been all swept away by the Watuta." Food was constantly running short. ^'November 3J. — We marched to a village where food was reported. I had to punish two useless men for calling out Tosho ! posho !' rations, as soon as I came near. One is a confirmed bange* smoker. The blows were given lightly, but I promised that the next should be severe." Now and then an undisturbed village occurs, or a friendly chief. *Hemp. 268 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. '^November 2yth. — As it is Sunday, we stay here at N'daris village, for we shall be in an uninhabitable tract to-morrow beyond the Lofu. The head-man cooked six messes for us, and begged us to remain for more food, which we buy. He gave us a hand- some present of flour and a fowl, for which I return him a present of a doti. Very heavy rain and high gusts of wind, which wet us all." The rainy season had set in severely, and the hot ground, which had scorched their feet on the rocky paths near Tanganyika, had turned into a vast sponge or swamp on the eastern and southern shores of Lake Bangweolo, which they were now approach- ing. His humor never forsook him, even in these dreary days. At a large stream beyond the Lofu "a man came to the bridge to ask for toll. As it was composed of one stick only, and unfit for our use, because rotten, I agreed to pay, provided he made it fit for us, but if I remade and enlarged it, I said he ought to give me a goat. He slank away, and we laid large trees across." "2gth. — Chiwe presented us with a small goat with crooked legs and some millet flour, but grum- bled at the cloth I gave. I offered another fathom and a bundle of needles, but he grumbled at this, too, and sent it back. On this I returned his goat and marched." "December Tfd. — We crossed the Kanomba, fifteen THE LAST ADVANCE— DEATH. 269 yards wide and knee deep. Here our guide disap- peared. So did the path." In December the rains come on, and the whole country soon becomes a large sponge. The ominous single word '111" appears in the Journal; still every stream crossed is entered in his pocket-book, with observations when they could be taken, and the marching orders, and direction of route. And no suffering is allowed to interfere with discipline. ^'December iGth. — The pugnacious spirit is one of the necessities of life. When people have little or none of it, they are subjected to indignity and loss. My own men walk into houses where we pass the night without leave, and steal cassava without shame — I have to threaten and thrash to keep them honest ; while if we are at a village where the natives are a little pugnacious, they are as meek as sucking doves. The peace plan involves indignity and wrong. I give little presents to the head-men, and to some ex- tent heal their hurt sensibilities. This is much ap- preciated, and produces profound hand-clapping." *' December 24th. — Sent back Chama's arrows" (a bundle he had taken two days before), "as his fool- ish brother cannot use them against us now. There are 215 in the bundle." "Christmas Day. — I thank the good Lord for the good gift of His Son, Christ Jesus our Lord. Slaughtered an ox, and gave a fundo and a half to each of the party. This is our great day, so we rest. 270 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. It is cold and wet, day and night. The head-man is gracious and generous, which is very pleasant com- pared with awe, awe, and refusing to sell, or stop to speak, or show the way." "2yth. — I killed a snake, seven feet long, here. He reared up before me, and turned to fight. No observations possible through most of this month. A man ill, and unable to come on, was left all night in the rain without fire. Sent men back to carry him." "2gth or 1st January. — Our man Chipangawazi died last night, and was buried this morning ; a good, quiet man. I am wrong two days."* *In the second week of January they came near Bangweolo, and the reign of Neptune became incessant. We are told of cold, rainy weather; sometimes a drizzle, sometimes an inces- sant pour; swollen streams and increasing sponges — making progress a continual struggle. Yet, as he passes through a forest, he has an eye to its flowers, which are numerous and beautiful : "There are many flowers in the forest; marigolds, a white jonquil-looking flower without smell, many orchids, white, yellow, and pink asclepias, with bunches of French-white flowers, clematis — Methonica gloriosa, gladiolus, and blue and deep purple polygalas, grasses with white starry seed-vessels, and spikelets of brownish red and yellow. Besides these, there are beautiful blue flowering bulbs, and new flowers of pretty, delicate form and but little scent. To this list may be added balsams, compositse of blood-red color and of purple; other flowers of liver color, bright canary yellow, pink orchids on spikes thickly covered all round, and of three inches in length ; spiderworts of fine blue or yellow or even pink. Dif- ferent-colored asclepiadesej beautiful yellow and red umbel- I THE LAST ADVANCE-DEATH. ^^1 ^^ January 8th. — We are near Lake Bangweolo and in a damp region." From this time the advance was a constant plunging through morasses and across the ^ many rivers running into Bangweolo. Pushing ' through deserted villages, ''population all gone from the war of Chitoka with Chitunkue," chief of this region. ''No astronomical observations worth nam- ing during December and January; impossible to take any, owing to clouds and rain. It is trying be- yond measure to be baffled by the natives lying and misleading us wherever they can. They fear us very greatly, and with a terror that would gratify an anthropologist's heart." He could now only travel on the shoulders of Susi and others. "The country is covered with bracken, and rivulets occur at least one every hour of the march. These are now deep, and have a broad selvage of sponge." Here is a specimen of their difficulties : "Carrying me across one of the broad, deep, sedgy rivers is really a very difficult task. One we crossed was at least 2,000 feet broad. The first part, the main stream, came up to Susi's mouth, and wetted my seat and legs. One held up my pistol behind, then one after another took a turn ; and when he sank into a deep elephant's footprint he required two to lift him on to the level, which llferous flowering plants ; dill and wild parsnips ; pretty flower- ing aloes, yellow and red, in one whorl of blossoms ; peas and many other flowering plants which I do' not know." 272 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. was over waist deep. Others went on, and bent down the grass to insure some footing on the side of the elephants' path. Every ten or twelve paces brought us to a clear stream, flowing fast in its own channel, while over all a strong current came bodily through all the rushes and aquatic plants. Susi had the first spell, then Farijala, then a tall, stout, Arab- looking man, then Amoda; and each time I was lifted off bodily and put on another pair of broad, willing shoulders, and fifty yards puj them out of breath. No wonder! It was sore on the women folk." In February the chance of starvation was added to his other trials. "ist. — Scouts forced to return by hunger. Killed our last calf, and turn back for four days' hard travel to Chitunkubwe's. I send men on to bring back food." ''4th. — Camp amongst deserted gardens, which afford a welcome supply of cassava and sweet po- tatoes. "5^/1. — We are now at Chitunkubwe's mercy. Returned over those forty-one miles in fifteen hours. I got lunars for a wonder. Chitunkubwe is a fine, jolly-looking man, of a European cast of counte- nance, and very friendly. I gave him two cloths, for which he seemed thankful, and promised good guides to Matipa's. It seems we have been close to human habitations, but did not know it. We have THE LAST ADVANCE— DEATH. 273 lost half a month by this wandering, all owing to the unfriendliness of some and the fear of all." Discipline never slackens. "i4f/i. — Public punishment to Chirango for steal- ing beads; fifteen cuts. It was Halimah who in- formed on Chirango, as he offered her beads, for a cloth, of a kind which she knew had not hitherto been taken out of the baggage. This was so far faithful in her, but she has an outrageous tongue. I remain because of an excessive hsemorrhagic dis- charge. If the good Lord gives me favor, and per- mits me to finish my work, I shall thank and bless Him, though it has cost me untold toil, pain, and travel. This trip has made my hair all gray." "i6th. — Chitunkubwe's men ran away, refusing to wait till we had heard from Matipa," to whom he had sent on Susi and Chumah. "lyth. — Suffered a furious attack at midnight from the red Sirafu or Driver ants. Our cook fled first at their onset. I lighted a candle, and remem- bering Dr. Van der Kemp's idea that no animal will attack man unprovoked, lay still. The first came on my foot quietly. Then some began to bite between the toes. Then the larger ones swarmed over the foot, bit furiously, and made blood start. I went out of the tent and was instantly covered as close as small-pox (not confluent) on a patient. Grass fires were lighted, and my men picked some off my limbs and tried to save me. After battling for an hour or 274 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. two, they took me into a tent not yet invaded, and I rested till they came — the pests — and routed me out there, too. Then came on a steady pour of rain, as if trying to make us miserable. I got back to my tent at nine a. m.^"* Then follows a description of the habits of this ant: "They remained with us till late in the afternoon, and we put hot ashes on the defiant hordes. They retire to enjoy the fruits of their raid, and come out fresh another day." Susi had gone on to Matipa's to negotiate for canoes. "We wait, hungry and cold, and hope the good Lord will grant us influence with this man. If he fails us by fair means, we must seize canoes and go by force. The men say fear of me makes them act very cowardly. I have gone amongst the whole population kindly and fairly, but I fear must now act rigidly; for when they hear we have submitted to injustice, they at once conclude we are fair game. It is, I can declare, not my nature, nor has it been my practice, to go as if my back were up." ^'22d. — I was never in such misty, cloudy weather in Africa. No observations can possibly be taken." "26th. — Susi returned this morning with good news from Matipa, who declares his willingness to carry us to Kabende for the five bundles of brass wire I offered." The canoes arrived next day, but the paddlers proposed to embark only half the party at onc^, "I refused to divide our force. The good THE LAST ADVANCE— DEATH. 275 Lord help me. They say Matipa is truthful. New moon this evening." "March ist. — Embarked women and goods in canoes, and went three hours S.E. to Bangweolo. Heavy rain wetted us all. We went over flooded prairies four feet deep, covered with rushes and two varieties of lotus or sacred lily; both are eaten, and so are papyrus. The men (paddlers) are great cow- ards. I took possession of all their paddles and punt poles, as they showed an inclination to move off from our islet. Plains, extending further than the eye can reach, have four or five feet of clear water and lake; and adjacent lands, for twenty or thirty miles, are level. We are surrounded by scores of miles of rushes, an open sward, and many lotus plants but no mosquitoes." One follows the brave old man, now fast sinking, with sore heart but ever-growing admiration. De- tained at Matipa's village, he is still gathering infor- mation on legends, geography, natural history. ^'Matipa never heard from any of the elders of his people that any of his forefathers ever saw a Euro- pean. He knew perfectly about Pereira, Lacerda, and Monteiro, going to Casembe, and my coming to the islet Mpabala. The following is a small snatch of Babisa lore, and told by an old man who came to try for some beads, and seemed much interested about printing. He was asked if there were any marks made on the rocks in any part of the country, 276 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. and this led to the story. Lukeranga came from the west, a long time ago, to the river Lualaba. He had with him a little dog. When he wanted to pass over, he threw his mat on the water, and this served for a raft. When he reached the other side there were rocks at the landing-place, and the mark is still to be seen on the stone, not only of his foot, but of a stick which he cut with his hatchet, and of his dog's feet; the name of the place is Achewa." While waiting wearily at Matipa's, he moved his camp out of the dirty village to the highest point of the island for fresher air. "March nth. — Matipa says: 'Wait, Kabinga Is coming, and he has canoes.' Time is of no value to him. His wife is making him pombe, and he will drown all his cares; but mine increase and plague me. . . . Better news ; the son of Kabinga is to be here to-night, and we shall concoct plans to- gether." ''March 12th. — The news was false; no one from Kabinga. The men strung beads to-day, and I wrote part of my despatch to Earl Granville." No canoes or messengers from Kabinga coming. Livingstone at last loses patience. "iSth. — I made a demonstration by taking quiet possession of his village and house; fired a pistol through the roof and called my men, ten being left to guard the camp." ''March i^th (his last birthday). — Thanks to the THE LAST ADVANCE— DEATH. 277 Almighty Preserver of men for sparing me thus far. Can I hope for ultimate success ? So many obstacles have arisen. Let not Satan prevail over me, oh ! my good Lord Jesus." ''2isf. — Gave Matipa a coil of thick brass wire and his wife a string of large neck beads, and ex- plained my hurry to be off. He is now all fair, and promises largely; he has been much frightened by our warlike demonstration.. I am glad I had noth- ing more to do than make a show of force." At last, on the 23d, he gets away. "24^/i. — We punted six hours to a little islet with- out a tree, and no sooner landed than a pitiless, pelt- ing rain came on. We turned up a canoe for shelter. We shall reach the Chambeze to-morrow. The wind tore the tent out of our hands, and damaged it, too. The loads are all soaked, and with the cold it is bitterly uncomfortable. A man put my bed in the bilge, and never said 'bale out,' so I was safe for a wet night ; but it turned out better. No grass, but we made a bed of the loads, and a blanket fortu- nately put into a bag." "2^th. — Nothing earthly will make me give up my work in despair. I encourage myself in the Lord my God, and go forward." Forward ! but with ever-thickening trouble, the men hiarching through water, parallel with his progress in a canoe. ''March ^ist, — Sent Kabinga a cloth and a mes- 278 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. sage, but he is evidently a niggard, like Matipa. We must take him as we find him ; there is no use in growling. . . . Kabinga, it seems, pleased with the cloth — well; will ask for maize from his people and buy it for me." "April 4th. — Sent over to Kabinga to buy a cow, and got a fat one for two and a half dotis, to give my people a feast ere we start. The 'kambari' fish of the Chambeze is 3 feet 3 inches in length. Two others, the 'polwe' and 'lopalakwao,' all go up the Chambeze to spawn when the rains begin. Casem- be's people make caviare of the spawn of the *pumbo.' " "5^/^. — March from Kabinga's on the Chambeze, our luggage in canoes and men on land. We punted on floods 6 feet deep, with many ant-hills all about covered with trees. Course S.S.E. for 5 miles, across River Lobingela, sluggish, 300 yards wide." "6th. — Leave in same wa)'', but men sent from Kabinga to steal the canoes which we paid his brother Mateysa handsomely for . . . our party separated and we pulled and punted six or seven hours in great difficulty, as the fishermen refused to tell us w^here deep water lay. . . . It is quite impossible to tell where land ends and lake begins. It is water, water everywhere. The Nile apparently enacting its inundations even at its sources. . . . A lion had wandered into this world of water and THE LAST ADVANCE— DEATH. 279 ant-hills, and roared night and morning, as if very much disgusted. We could sympathize with him." "loth. — I am pale, bloodless,* and weak from bleeding profusely ever since 31st of March; an ar- tery gives off a copious stream, and takes away my strength." The party are now all together again and march- ing slowly. "i8th. — Crossed two large sponges, and I was forced to stop at a large village after travelling two hours. Very ill all night, but remembered that the bleeding and most other ailments in this land are forms of fever. Took two scruple doses of quinine, and stopped it quite . . . not all pleasure this exploration." And then follows the last note on the country he seems ever to have made: "The Lavusi hills are a relief to the eye in this flat upland. Their forms show you an igneous origin. The river Kazya comes from them, and goes direct to the lake. No observations now, owing to great weakness. I *In the beginning of April, the bleeding from the bowels, from which he had been suffering, became more copious, and his weakness was pitiful ; still he longed for strength to finish his work. Even yet the old passion for natural history was strong; the aqueous plants that abounded everywhere, the caterpillars that after eating the plants ate one another, and were such dumsy swimmers ; the fish with the hook-shaped lower jaw that enabled them to feed as they skimmed past the plants ; the morning summons of the cocks and turtle-doves ; the weird scream of the fish eagle — all engaged his interest. Observations continued to be taken, and the Sunday services were always held. 280 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. can hardly hold a pencil, and my stick is a burden. Tent gone. The men built a good hut for me and the luggage." From this time, though scarcely conscious, he still pushes on. On the 21st he even made an effort to ride the donkey, but felj off directly. Chumah threw down his gun, ran to stop the men ahead, and on his return bent over his master, who said, "Chumah, I have lost so much blood, there is no strength left in my legs; you must carry me." He was lifted on to Chumah's shoulders and carried back to the village. ''From the 22,d to 26th April/' — No entry but the date, but he still struggled forward in the "kitanda" (a rough litter). While halting on the latter day, though prone with pain and exhaustion, he directed Susi to count the bags of beads, and twelve being still in stock, directed him to buy two elephants' tusks to be exchanged for cloth when they reached Ujiji. The last entry, on April 27th, runs. : "Knocked up quite, and remain — recover — sent to buy milch goats. We are on the banks of the Molilamo." The goats could not be bought, and on the 29th, in the last stage of pain and weakness, he was carried to the Molilamo and ferried across. Ilala, the village of Chitambo, a friendly chief, was now close by, but twice on the way he desired to be left where he was, the intense pain of movement having mastered him. The last halt was for an hour in the gardens outside. THE LAST ADVANCE— DEATH. 281 While his men prepared the raised bed of sticks and grass inside, and banked the hut round, a curious crowd gathered round to gaze at the best friend Africa had ever had, and was about to lose. Driz- zling rain was falling, and a fire was lighted outside the door. The boy, Majwara, slept inside the tent. In the morning Chitambo came, but the dying man sent him away, telling him to come next day, when he hoped to be able to talk. At eleven p. m. Susi was called in by the boy. There was shouting in the distance, and Livingstone asked, ''Are our men making that noise?" ''No. The people are scaring a buffalo from their dura fields." A pause. "Is this the Luapula?" "No, Ilala, Chitambo's vil- lage." "How many days to the Luapula?" "I think three days, Bwana (master)." He dozed off again. An hour later Susi again heard the boy's "Bwana wants you, Susi." Susi went in; he was told to boil water, and then to get the medicine chest and hold the candle, and he noticed that his master could hardly see. He selected the calomel with diffi- culty, and was told to put a cup with water, and an- other empty, by the bed. "All right ; you can go out now," in a feeble voice, were the last words he heard. About four A. M. Majwara came again: "Come to Bwana, I am afraid. I don't know if he is alive." Susi, Chumah, and four others were at the tent- 282 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. door in a moment. The Doctor was kneeling by the bed, his face buried in his hands on the pillow, dead.* *Then they laid him on a rough bed in the hut, where he spent the night. Next day he lay undisturbed. He asked a few wandering questions about the country — especially about the Luapula. His people knew that the end could not be far off. Nothing occurred to attract notice during the early part of the night, but at four in the morning, the boy who lay at his door called in alarm for Susi, fearing that their master was dead. By the candle still burning they saw him, not in bed, but kneeling at the bedside with his head buried in his hands upon the pillow. The sad yet not unexpected truth soon became evident: he had passed away on the furthest of all his journeys, and without a single attendant. But he had died in the act of prayer — prayer offered in that reverential attitude about which he was always so particular ; commend- ing his own spirit, with all his dear ones, as was his wont, into the hands of his Saviour; and commending Africa — his own dear Africa — with all her woes and sins and wrongs, to the Avenger of the oppressed and the Redeemer of the lost. CHAPTER XVII. CONCLUSION. There can be no doubt that David Livingstone, as he knelt by the rude bed at Ilala, and commended his soul to God in the early morning of May i, 1873, looked on himself as a beaten man. He had set his heart on finishing off his work in this last journey. When he had fixed the details, while waiting at Unyanyembe for his men, he writes : ''This route will serve to certify that no other sources of the Nile can come from the south without being seen by me. No one will cut me out after this exploration is ac- complished, and may the good Lord of all help me to show myself one of His stout-hearted servants, an honor to my children, and perhaps to my country and race." No one can cut me out after this is done! There is a trace of natural human weakness in the phrase, and as the toilsome journey went on, and strength, though not heart, was failing, there are entries in the Journal such as this on his last birthday: ''March igth. — Thanks to the Almighty Preserver of men for sparing me thus far. Can I hope for ultimate success ? So many obstacles have arisen. Let not Satan prevail over me, oh ! my good Lord Jesus." 284 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. A. feeling which no one would call morbid, but for which it is difficult to find the precise phrase, un- doubtedly grew upon him in these last months, that he was engaged in a personal encounter with a per- sonal power of evil, in which death on the road would mean defeat. Has not the experience of every martyr been the same ? The more perfect the self-sacrifice in life, the more surely would this shadow seem to have hung over the last hours of the world's best and bravest, the only perfect life being not only no exception, but the great exemplar of the law. It is written : "Ex- cept a grain of wheat die it beareth no fruit." Never were those mighty words illustrated more perfectly than in the death of David Livingstone. The first fruits ripened within a few hours of the master's death. Susi and Chumah called the men together outside the hut. Not a man of the fifty-six faltered for a moment ; they had learned much in those nine months. "You are old men," they said, "in travel- ling and hardships. You must be our chiefs. We will do whatever you order." Susi and Chumah justified the trust. The body and all the property must be carried back to Zanzi- bar. So they resolved, and so it was done. They buried the heart and entrails under a tree, on which Jacob Wainwright, one of the Nassicker boys, the scholar of the party, carved the name and date ; Chitambo, who behaved in a most friendly way, CONCLUSION. 285 promising to keep the grass cut and the grave re- spected. They then dried the body and packed it in bark, the process keeping them fourteen days. Jacob Wainwright made an inventory of the con- tents of the two special tin cases, impervious to water and ants. "In the chest," it runs, 'Svas found about a shining and -J, and in other chest his hat, i watch, and 2 small boxes of measuring instrument, and in each box there was one — i compass, 3 other kind of measuring instrument, 4 other kind of measuring in- strument, and in other chest 3 drachmas and half half-scrople." Besides these, there were his rifles, sextants, Bible and church-service, and a number of note-books filled with observations. All were cata- logued, and on February 15, 1874, delivered to the English Consul at Zanzibar, not an article missing except some of the instruments. These had been taken out by Lieutenant Cameron, commanding one of the search-expeditions, on their arrival at Unyan- yembe on October 20th. The Lieutenant advised the burial of the body in Africa. Livingstone, in sight of a forest-grave in June, 1868, had written: "This is the sort of grave I should prefer ; to lie in the still, still forest, and no hand ever to disturb my bones. Poor Mary lies on Shupanga brae, and beeks forenent the sun." But the faithful bearers would not hear of this. They had allowed bulk to be broken, and the familiar instruments taken out, but the body of their master must be taken back 286 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. to his old home, far away across the great waters. Thus they carried Livingstone to the sea, through swamp, desert, and all the intervening tribes — super- stitious, destitute, often hostile — with only one col- lision, when they were attacked first and had to storm a village. The story stands alone in history. The ten thousand had Xenophon still alive to lead them back, and they were soldiers and Greeks; but Livingstone was dead, and his men negroes, and most of them recently freed slaves.* *0n the whole, their progress was wonderfully quiet and regular. Everywhere they found that the news of the Doctor's death had got before them. At one place they heard that a party of Englishmen, headed by Dr. Livingstone's son, on their way to relieve his father, had been seen at Bagamoio some months previously. As they approached Unyanyembe, they learned that the party was there, but when Chuma ran on before, he was disappointed to find that Oswell Living- stone was not among them. Lieutenant Cameron, Dr. Dillon, and Lieutenant Murphy were there, and heard the tidings of the men with deep emotion. Cameron wished them toi bury the remains where they were, and not run the risk of convey- ing them through the Ugogo country; but the men were in- flexible, determined to carry out their first intention. This was not the only interference with these devoted and faithful men. Considering how carefully they had gathered all Liv- ingstone's property, and how conscientiously, at the risk of their lives, they were carrying it to the coast, to transfer it to Ithe British Consul there, it was not warrantable in the new- 'comers to take the boxes from them, examine their contents, and carry off a part of them. Nor do we think Lieutenant Cameron was entitled to take away the instruments with which all Livingstone's observations had been made for a series of seven years, and use them, though only temporarily. CONCLUSION. 2S7 From Zanzibar his bones were carried on board the Queen's ship "Calcutta" to Aden, from thence by P. and O. boat to Southampton, where they wxre received with all honor, and forwarded by special train to London on April i6, 1874.* They were examined by Sir William Fergusson, identified by the false joint in the arm, and buried in the centre of the nave of Westminster Abbey on April 19th, while the heart of England swelled with grief and pride over one of her noblest sons. A few w^ords as to the fruit that grain of martyr- wheat has borne in the last sixteen years, and the prospect of the harvest in 1889, may fitly close our sketch. The Universities Mission claims the first place. We have seen the enthusiasm with which Livingstone's words had been welcomed at Cam- bridge in 1858, 'T know that in a few years I shall for the purpose of his Expedition, inasmuch as he thereby- made it impossible so to reduce Livingstone's observations as that correct results should be obtained from them. *To many persons it had appeared so incredible that the remains should have been brought from the heart of Africa ♦to London, that some conclusive identification of the body seemed to be necessary to set all doubt at rest. The state ot the arm, the one that had been broken by the lion, supplied the crucial evidence. "Exactly in the region of the attach- ment of the deltoid to the humerus" (said Sir William Fer- gusson in a contribution to the Lancet, April 18, 1874), "there were the indications of an oblique fracture. On moving the arm there were the indications of an ununited fracture. A closer identification and dissection displayed the false joint that had so long ago been so well recognized by those who had examined the arm in former days, . . ." 288 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. be cut off in that country, which is now open — do not let it be shut again"; how the first gallant ad- vance led by Bishop Mackenzie, in 1861, ended in his death and the retirement of the headquarters of the mission to Zanzibar under his successor ; how the old pioneer mourned over that retreat. He did not live to see that temporary abandonment of the mainland justify itself. From the island centre at Zanzibar the Mission has now spread over one thousand miles of the neighboring mainland. Its staff, including the bishop and three archdeacons, numbers ninety- seven, of whom two deacons and thirty-two teachers and readers are natives, and nineteen English ladies. Its income for 1887 exceeded £15,500. It has three stations on the island and ten on the mainland. The island stations are : ( i ) The old slave-market in the town of Zanzibar, from which the needs of all the stations are supplied as far as means allow, and in which are the bishop's residence, when in rare inter- vals he rests from his circuit, the theological school, and a large dispensary; (2) Kiungani, where there is a boys' training-school; (3) Mbweni, with its , girls' school and native settlement of freed slaves, for years a great expense, but now not only self- supporting but contributing not a little to the ex- penses of the Mission by the carpentering and other work done there for the mainland stations. These mainland stations fall naturally into three districts — the Rovuma, the Nyassa and the Magila. There CONCLUSION. 289 are four stations in the Rovuma district, besides schools and preaching-huts in many neighboring vil- lages, and six English workers. The superior chief of the dominant tribe, Barnaba Matuka by name, is a convert and a hearty supporter, and there is a large school to which the sons of chiefs and the richer natives come as boarders. ''About twenty boys sat down with us to dinner every day," Bishop Smythies writes in his last report. The chief drawback to this district is the fear of raids by the Gwangwara, but since 1883 there has been no hostile action on the part of this fierce tribe, who have been visited by several of the missionaries at the risk of their lives. The chief station of the Nyassa district is on the island of Lukoma, in the middle of the lake. Here, and at the two neighboring stations on the east coast, nine Englishmen are at work under Archdeacon Maples, one of whom, the Rev. W. P. Johnson, trav- els up and down the eastern lake-shore in the "Charles Janson" steamer, named after a well-loved missionary (''our saintly brother," the bishop calls him), who died on the station some years back. "I hope our cabin," Mr. Johnson writes, "will become more and more of a school class-room and chapel, though it must be a saloon, sleeping-room, library and pantry as well. Several signs of real spiritual influence spreading have encouraged us all." The third, or Magila, district lies in Usumbara. some eighty miles to the north of Zanzibar, and is 290 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. worked by nineteen English under Archdeacon Farlen There are four stations, Magila being the central one, which has a fine stone church and a home for one hundred and fifteen boys. Peace and security reign now all round the Mission.* A mar- ket, attended regularly by from two to three thou- sand traders, is established close by. ''The place is the scene of the busiest activity; English working- men of several trades are here surrounded by Afri- can apprentices, and the African is not only taught to read and brought to know God and His love, but is now willing to work regularly for daily wages." A sisterhood trains large classes of women. ''Three of our most promising teachers," says the last Re- port, "are Mahomedan converts." The difficulty of getting hold of the boys, who at first went off whenever they were spoken to, has been overcome, one is glad to learn, by the Rev. J. C. Key. He en- ticed some of the older boys to play football, and "when they have thoroughly enjoyed that there is some chance of their coming regularly to school. So it is distinctly part of one's work, even in a tropical climate, to play football and amuse children that one may win them." One more extract from the Arch- deacon's letters may be given, in view of recent dis- cussion. "In a number of villages in the neighbor- hood of this station, where I remember seeing a mosque a few years ago, there is now a schof?*' ^November, 1888. All is now changed (March, 1889). CONCLUSION. 291 chapel, while the mosques have fallen down and no one rebuilds them." A glance at the map will show that while the Uni- versities Mission has returned to the mainland, and to the scene of some of Livingstone's best work, it has abandoned the Shire district in which it was first planted, where are the graves of four out of the five leaders,* and from which Mr. Horace Waller, the survivor, led away the remnant of freed men and children to the Cape in 1864. These Shire highlands and the district beyond them, between the western shore of Lake Nyassa and the eastern of Lake Bangweolo, had been very dear to Livingstone. In the former was the spot he had chosen for the first station of the Universities Mis- sion, and here his Makololo followers had settled ; in the latter was the grave at Ilala, where he ended his course and his heart was buried in 1874. If these were to be left as the hunting-ground of the Arab slave-dealers, success in other districts would have lost half its worth. Happily, this has not been so. The Universities Mission has only not returned to them because they have been occupied by Livingstone's own country- men. As early as 1863 the Free Kirk had sent the Rev. Jas. Stewart as a commissioner to report on the prospects of missionary work in Nyassaland. He *Bishop Mackenzie, Rev. H. Scudamore, Rev. H. Burrows, and Dr. Dickenson. 292 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. stayed with Bishop Mackenzie and examined the dis- trict; but the collapse of the first effort made him advise delay; meantime he had become the head of the Missionary College of Lovedale in South Africa. When the news of Livingstone's death thrilled Eng- land and Scotland in 1874 it wa3 felt that the time had come. The advance was sounded by Dr. Stew- art, and, laying aside all ecclesiastical rivalries, the Established Church joined hands with the Free and United Presbyterian Churches in ''The Mission to Nyassa.'' Nobly has that mission been carried out, and promptly. In May, 1875, Mr. 'Young, who had so ably commanded the search for Livingstone, led the advance guard up the Zambesi and Shire to the Murchison Falls, carrying a steamer, the "Hala," in sections. These were carried past the sixty miles of rapids by the Makololo. ''Eight hundred of these men worked, and worked desperately for us," Mr. Young records, "free as air to come or go as they pleased, over a road which furnished at almost every yard an excuse for an accident or hiding-place for thief or deserter, and yet at the end of sixty miles we had everything delivered up to us unhurt and untampered with, and every man merry and content with his well-earned wages." The "Hala" was put together on the Upper Shire, and is still running on Lake Nyassa. That same year a central station was founded and named Blan- tyre, on the Shire highlands, half-way between the CONCLUSION. 293 two deserted stations of the Universities Mission. It has grown into a powerful settlement, marching with the Makololo territory, and extending its in- fluence up to the lake. There is a large school with seventy-five boarders, twenty-five being the sons of chiefs. The neighborhood is well cultivated, all tropical fruits abound in the gardens, and tea and coffee plantations have been successfully started. Besides the church and school, there are four brick houses; £30,000 has been expended at Blantyre. There are sub-stations at N'derani, where is a school of one hundred taught by natives under the superin- tendence of Mr. Scott, the head missionary, and his staff, and at Zomba, on the small lake Shirwa. Here, in the Shire highlands, the Established Church of Scotland has paused, while her sister Churches have carried on the work to the north all along the three hundred and sixty miles of the western shore of Lake Nyassa. Their southernmost station is on the bold promontory at the south end of the lake, named Cape Maclear by Livingstone ; their northern, Mweniwanda, forty miles on the road to Lake Tan- ganyika. The most important station between these two on the western coast is Bandawe, almost oppo- site to the island of Lukoma, the station of the Uni- versities Mission, and in the country of the Angoni, the most warlike tribe of this part of Africa. These, as a rule, haughtily disdain to listen to the Gospel, but allow great numbers of their children to atten'd 294 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. the missionary schools, and themselves use freely the services of the medical missions. These have been established at each station under four ordained medi- cal men, and their progress may be judged by the fact that between 1882 and 1884 the registered num- ber of patients rose from two to ten thousand yearly at Bandawe, the chief medical station. In the twelve years Scotland has sent out forty-three of her sons and daughters, ten of whom have died at their posts, and has expended £45,000 and upward on the Mission, the annual outlay being now upward of £4,000. Perhaps the most noteworthy of all the Scotch missionary work has been done amongst the Angoni by Caffre pupils of Dr. Stewart, trained at Lovedale and sent amongst this tribe, who still retain the Caffre tongue in their northern home. Not content with missionary work, Livingstone's countrymen have been developing legitimate trade, which he held to be only next in importance. The African Lakes Company, founded to assist the Mis- sions and substitute free industries for the slave- trade, have been at work now for more than twelve years. The Company started on a small scale, and have steadily pushed on, with all the shrewdness and per- sistence of their race, until they have twelve trading- stations — the southernmost, Kongone, at the princi- pal mouth of the Zambesi ; the northernmost, Pam- bete, at the southern end of Lake Tanganyika. They CONCLUSION. 295 have thus gone far ahead of the Scotch Missions, having crossed the district between the two lakes, over which they have made a road, named Steven- son's, after one of the pioneers. They have three steamers on the Zambesi, Shire and Lake Nyassa, and have transported a fourth for the London Mis- sionary Society to Lake Tanganyika. They buy ivory, india-rubber, wax, oil and other products from the natives, and have introduced indigo, tea, coffee, chinchona and other valuable plants. Hith- erto they have succeeded in stopping the liquor traffic in the lake districts. Side by side with the Company, the firm of Buchanan Brothers is doing the very work which Livingstone longed to see begun in the Shire high- lands, and on their plantations are growing coffee, sugar and chinchona by native labor, thus pitting freedom against slavery in the most critical point on the whole Dark Continent. Their plantations are, in fact, an offshoot of the Mission, the senior partner having gone out as gardener with the first mission- aries. Their plantations, of one, two and three thousand acres, respectively, are on lands granted by native chiefs, at Blantyre and on Mount Zomba, where the firm have built a house for the Consul whom England still maintains there. Lastly, the Church Missionary Society has taken ground to the northwest, on Lakes Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza, On each of thes^ they have ^ 396 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Steamer, and in spite of the murder of the first bishop have managed to hold their own, though obHged to abandon the station at Ujiji, where Arab influence is paramount. Besides their stations on Victoria Nyanza they have an island on Tanganyika, and an- other station on the highlands to the south of that lake. Such, then, is the position which British devotion and energy have won on the scene of Livingstone's labors in East Central Africa. The general result may be given in the words of an African explorer by no means inclined to be an indulgent critic of mis- sionary work :* 'The steamers of British Missionary Societies may now be seen plying on Tanganyika and Nyassa, the Upper Congo, the Niger, Binne and Zambesi. , . . To British missionaries many districts of tropical Africa owe the orange, lime, mango, the cocoanut palm and pineapple, improved breeds of poultry, pigeons and many useful vege- tables. . . . The arrival of the first missionary is like that of one of the strange, half-mythical per- sonalities which figured in the legends of old Ameri- can empires, the beneficent being who introduces arts and manufactures, implements of husbandry, edible fruits, medical drugs, cereals and domestic animals. . . „ They have made 200 translations of the Bible in native languages, w^ith grammars and dictionaries." These results, however, have not been ♦Mr. H. H. Johnston, Nineteenth Century, 1887, p. 723. CONCLUSION. 297 attained without rousing alarm, enmity and open antagonism. The Arab traders scattered all over Central Africa have, from the first, recognized the fact that the success of British missionary and com- mercial stations and plantations meant in time the certain extinction of the slave-trade, by which their profits are made, and have used every means of ex- citing the fears and jealousies of the native tribes and chiefs. They have never ceased trying to rouse the tribes to drive out the missionaries, but hitherto with no success. Indeed, so far as the Lake Nyassa district is concerned, there were signs till lately that the leading Arabs were abandoning the slave-trade, or carrying it into other districts. But a great change in the situation has occurred during the last year, and a crisis has arisen which has brought to a head the Central and East African controversy between cross and crescent, the slave- trade and free industry. No Englishman will doubt the final issue : "Set the two forces foot to foot, , And every man knows who'll be winner, ' Whose faith in God has any root That goes down deeper than his dinner." But it is equally certain that the victory has yet to be won, and will not be won easily. In this crisis — in these early months of 1889 in its acute phase, and changing almost from day to day — the noblest and wisest missionary work which ^98 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. England has ever done is in sore jeopardy. It is well that this should be known and taken to heart as widely as possible. Had no disturbing influences come from outside, the battle was practically won in the districts of the Universities Central African Mission. Under the influence of Sir John Kirk and his suc- cessor, and of Bishops Sterne and Smythies, the Sul- tan of Zanzibar had become a loyal friend to the English Missions and traders on the coast, where his authority was acknowledged. From the Rovuma in the south to Usumbara in the north, it was exercised frankly in their favor, until every mission station had become a centre of civilization, from which peace and order were spreading. Even in the in- land, or Nyassa, district, where that authority was scarcely recognized, the progress was little less satis- factory. The storm has now, however, burst upon them from two quarters, wath the result that in these early months of 1889 the men at most of the Missions are bravely holding on at the risk of their lives, and the women have been warned by the English Consul to withdraw to Zanzibar. The causes of this outbreak are several. First, the temporary collapse of the Congo Free State in the far northwest. This has revived the internal slave-trade. The Arabs, after taking the chief station on the Upper Congo, have established their supremacy in all the country west CONCLUSION. 299 and south of Lake Tanganyika, while their triumph has been marked by massacres as atrocious as those witnessed by Livingstone in 1871 on the Lualaba. ' As was to be looked for, the wave then swept east- ward, and in the late autumn of 1887 broke on the country in which are the northwesternmost stations of the Free Church of Scotland and the Central African Company. In the autumn of 1887 the Arab invasion came down the Stevenson road, and, after carrying fire and slaughter into the tribes bordering on the road, on November 3d appeared in force before the African Lakes Company's station of Ka- ronga. At that moment there were only two white men there, one being a missionary, the other a ser- vant of the African Lakes Company. On the 4th, fortunately, the steamer brought up Mr. Sharp, an elephant hunter, and two others, and on the 6th Con- sul Hawes and Mr. Nicoll, the agent of the African Lakes Company, came in. They were just in time, for within a few days they were closely besieged, seven Englishmen with a crowd of native fugitives. They had sixty-four guns in all, but for sixteen of these, which were chassepots, only eight rounds of cartridge. After a fortnight of constant alarms, the Arabs tried to storm on the 23d and 24th, but were beaten back. On the 26th a stockade which the Arabs had thrown up close to the defense works was gallantly fired by two natives and entirely destroyed. On the 27th the siege was raised on the approach of 300 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. a large native force from the north, which had ral- lied for the succor of the station. Through 1888 the Company have been able to hold their own, but it is very doubtful how long they may be able to do so. Again, the recent revolution in Uganda has brought that vast district practically once more under Arab control. The English Church Missions and the French Missions have had to be abandoned, and their stations and goods, including large sup- plies and an accumulation of letters waiting for Mr. Stanley, have been destroyed. But the sorest trial and greatest danger have come from the coast, and from an unexpected quarter. Under the treaty, which was the result of the hunger of the nations of Europe for African territory (so remarkably developed since the opening of the Suez Canal), the protectorate over this section of the east coast, including the Rovuma and Usumbara dis- tricts, has passed to the Germans. It is useless to in- quire how the assent of England was gained to this arrangement. It has been given, and the two coun- tries are now in alliance blockading the coast for the suppression of the slave-trade and of the importa- tion of firearms and spirits. Unhappily, the German Government had little sympathy with the national aspiration which resulted in this treaty and protectorate, so a commercial com- pany was entrusted with the work of colonization within the German sphere of influence. Utterly CONCLUSION. 301 unused to such work, without settlements or stations in the country, with no sympathy for the natives, and eager only for the gains which it was supposed would pour in from these rich tropical lands, the German African Company have made a complete failure. It is needless to dwell on their high-handed proceedings, which have roused the whole country and banded the whole native and Arab population together against the Germans. The Company have practically acknowledged their failure by appealing to the German Parliament for help. In the last few weeks this has been granted, but in an utterly inade- quate and half-hearted way. A sum of £100,000 only has been voted, with which Captain Wissman is to equip and organize a force to bring the coast into order and subjection! The Government will take no further responsibility in the matter than the ap- pointment of a commissioner to report at home on the Company's doings. For the rest. Prince Bis- marck declares that he "never was a man for colo- nies," and has grave apprehensions as to this Afri- can adventure; ''Germany being now there must stay, but will take no step in East Africa which Eng- land disapproves." She has the experience which Germany needs, and the two countries are "wedded together" in their policy now, as they have been for one hundred and fifty years ! Such assurances will take Englishmen by surprise, as the great Chancellor's attitude toward England 302 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. has scarcely of late been cordial, still less deferen- tial. They should, nevertheless, be frankly welcomed by England. For, shrink from it as we may, it stands out on the face of recent history that this burthen is one which in God's providence we have to bear. We cannot withdraw from East Africa if we would, and let us hope that if we could there are few Englishmen who would be cowardly enough to coun- sel so unworthy a step ; on the other hand, we cannot now carry out the work single-handed, for already four European Powers, besides Turkey, are engaged on the problem. Of these, Portugal is still, as she was in Livingstone's day, openly conniving at the slave-trade, and has been asserting a claim to close the Zambesi, on which she has never had a station higher than Tette, and the Shire, which she has never explored, and on which she has no station. The French, sad to say, are also conniving at the ocean slave-trade on the east coast, and, moreover, will never work with us while we remain in Egypt, The Italians have their hands full far north of Zan- zibar, and of the English and German ''spheres of influence" where the problem has to be solved. The Germans remain. We are in alliance with them already so far as the blockade is concerned, and their Emin Pacha is still standing manfully to the work which our Gordon left to him in the Soudan. They have already tried their own way and failed. Is it too much to hope that the strong old Chancellor, the CONCLUSION. 303 tnost thoroughly representative man whom Germany has bred since Luther, may be speaking his nation's (mind when he decla|-es that in the future "Germany will take no step in East Africa which England dis- >' approves" ? It may be too good news to be true ; but it is worth accepting as though it were true, and straining every nerve, and making any sacrifice, short of abandoning Livingstone's principles and methods with the na- tives, to make it so. May the noble band of Eng- lishmen, clerical and lay, who are following so faith- fully the path which Livingstone, Mackenzie and Hannington, and the brave men, their fellow-work- ers, have trod before them, recognize this as the pres- ent duty which God who has called them to this mighty and beneficent task now requires of them; and may He who alone can order the unruly wills of statesmen and nations, keep England and Germany true to the mission they have undertaken! Then one of the darkest pages in the world's dark history v/ill have been turned, and our children, if not we, may see a redeemed Africa. [the end.] APPENDIX "Droop half-mast colors, bow, bareheaded crowds, As this plain coffin o'er the side is slung. To pass by woods of masts and ratlined shrouds. As erst by Afric's trunks, liana-hung. "'Tis the last mile of many thousands trod With failing strength but never-faiHng will. By the worn frame, now at its rest with God, That never rested from its fight with ill. "Or if the ache of travel and of toil Would sometimes wring a short, sharp cry of pain From agony of fever, blain, and boil, 'Twas but to crush it down and on again! "He knew not that the trumpet he had blown Out of the darkness of that dismal land. Had reached and roused an army of its own To strike the chains from the slave's fettered hand. "Now we believe, he knows, sees all is well ; How God had stayed his will and shaped his way, To bring the light to those that darkling dwell With gains that life's devotion well repay. "Open the Abbey doors and bear him in To sleep with king and statesman, chief and sage. The missionary come of weaver-kin, But great by work that brooks no lower wage. "He needs no epitaph to guard a name Which men shall prize while worthy work is known ; He lived and died for good — ^be that his fame: Let marble crumble: this is Living — stone." — Punch. 90S 306 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. "London, Feb. i8th, 1874. "Dear Miss Livingstone, — I am only one of all England which is feeling with you and for you at this moment. "But Sir Bartle Frere encourages me to write to you. "We cannot help still yearning to hear of some hope that your great father may be still alive. "God knows ; and in knowing that He knows who is all wisdom, goodness, and power, we must find our rest. "He has taken away, if at last it be as we fear, the greatest man of his generation, for Dr. Livingstone stood alone. "There are few enough, but a few statesmen. There are few enough, but a few great in medicine, or in art, or in poetry. There are a few great travellers. But Dr. Livingstone stood alone as the great Missionary Traveller, the bringer-in of civilization; or rather the pioneer of civilization — he that cometh before — to races lying in darkness. "I always think of him as what John the Baptist, had he been living in the nineteenth century, would have been. "Dr. Livingstone's fame was so world-wide that there were other nations who understood him even better than we did. "Learned philologists from Germany, not at all orthodox in their opinions, have yet told me that Dr. Livingstone was the only man who understood races, and how to deal with them for good ; that he was the one true missionary. We cannot console ourselves for our lc>ss. He is irreplaceable. APPENDIX. 307 "It is not sad that he should have died out there. Perhaps it was the thing, much as he yearned for home, that was the fitting end for him. He may have felt it so himself. "But would that he could have completed that which he offered his life to God to do ! "If God took him, however, it was that his life was completed in God's sight; his work finished, the most glorious work of our generation. "He has opened those countries for God to enter in. He struck the first blow to abolish a hideous slave- trade. "He, like Stephen, was the first martyr. " 'He climbed the steep ascent of heaven. Through peril, toil, and pain; O God ! to us may grace be given To follow in his train!' "To US it is very dreary, not to have seen him again, that he should have had none of us by him at the last ; no last word or message. "I feel this with regard to my dear father and one who was more than mother to me, Mrs. Bracebridge, who went with me to the Crimean war, both of whom were taken from me last month. "How much more must we feel it, with regard to our great discoverer and hero, dying so far off ! "But does he regret it? How much he must know now ! how much he must have enjoyed ! "Though how much we would give to know his thoughts, alone with God, during the latter days of his Jife, 308 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. "May we not say, with old Baxter (somethii alte-red from that verse) ? " 'My knowledge of that life is small. The eye of faith is dim; But 'tis enough that Christ knows all, And he will be with Him.' "Let us think only of him and of his present happi- ♦ness, his eternal happiness, and may God say to us : 'Let not your heart be troubled.' Let us exchange a 'God bless you,' and fetch a real blessing from God in saying so. "Florence Nightingale/^ In glancing at these results of Livingstone's in- fluence in the mission field, we must not forget that of all his legacies to Africa by far the highest was the spotless name and bright Christian character which have become associated everywhere with its great mis- sionary explorer. From the first day of his sojourn in Africa to the last, "patient continuance in well-doing'^ was the great charm through which he sought, with God's blessing, to win the confidence of Africa. Before the poorest African he maintained self-restraint and self-respect as carefully as in the best society at home. No prevailing relaxation of the moral code in those wild, dark regions ever lowered his tone or lessened his regard for the proprieties of Christian or civilized life. Scandal is so rampant among the natives of Africa that even men of high character have sometimes suffered from its lying tongue; but in the case of Livingstone there was such an enamel of purity upon his character that no filth could stick to it, and none was thrown. APPENDIX. -509 tVhat Livingstone did in order to keep his won' to his poor attendants was a wonder in Africa, as it was the admiration of the world. His way of trusting them, too, was singularly winning. He would go up to a fierce chief, surrounded by his grinning warriors, with the same easy gait and kindly smile with which he would have approached his friends at Kuruman or Hamilton. It was the highest tribute that the slave- traders in the Zambesi district paid to his character when for their own vile ends they told the people that they were the children of Livingstone. It was the charm of his name that enabled Mr. E. D. Young, while engaged in founding the Livingstonia settlement, to obtain six hundred carriers to transport the pieces of the Ilala steamer past the Murchison Cataracts, carry- ing loads of great weight for forty miles, at six yards of calico each, without a single piece of the vessel being lost or thrown away. The noble conduct of the band that for eight months carried his remains toward the coast was a crowning proof of the love he inspired. That early and life-long prayer of Livingstone^ s — that he might resemble Christ — was fulfilled in no ordi- nary degree. It will be an immense benefit to all future missionaries in Africa that, in explaining to the people what practical Christianity means, they will have but to point to the life and character of the man whose name will stand first among African benefactors in centuries to come. A foreigner has remarked that, "in the nineteenth century, the white has made a man out of the black; in the twentieth century, Europe will make a world out of Africa.'^ When that world is made, and ^feneration after generation of intelligent 310 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. Africans look back on its beginnings, as England looks back on the days of King Alfred, Ireland of St. Pat- rick, Scotland of St. Columba, or the United States of George Washington, the name that will be encircled by them with brightest honor is that of David Living- stone. Mabotsa, Chonuane, and Kolobeng will be visited with thrilling interest by many a pilgrim, and some grand memorial pile in Ilala will mark the spot where his heart reposes. And when preachers and teachers speak of this man, when fathers tell their chil- dren what Africa owes to him, and when the question is asked what made him so great and so good, the answer will be, that he lived by the faith of the Son of God, and that the love of Christ constrained him to live and die for Africa. PUBLIC HONORS AWARDED TO DR. LIVINGSTONE. A complete list of these honors is not easy to con- struct ; the following may be regarded as embracing the chief, but it does not embrace mere addresses presented to him, of which there were many : 1850. Royal Geographical Society of London award him the Royal Donation of 25 guineas placed by Her Majesty at the disposal of the Council (Silver Chronometer). 1854. French Geographical Society award a Silver Medal. 1854. University of Glasgow confer degree of LL.D. 1855. Royal Geographical Society of London award Patron's Gold Medal. APPENDIX. 311 1857. French Geographical Society award annual prize for the most important geographical dis- covery. '1857. Freedom of city of London, in box of value of 50 guineas, as a testimonial in recognition of his zealous and persevering exertions in the important discoveries he has made in Africa, by which geographical, geological, and their kindred sciences have been advanced ; facts ascertained that may extend the trade and commerce of this country, and hereafter secure to the native tribes of the vast African continent the blessings of knowledge and civilization. t^S7' Freedom of city of Glasgow, presented in testi- mony of admiration of his undaunted intre- pidity and fortitude amid difficulties, priva- tions, and dangers, during a period of many years, while traversing an extensive region in the interior of Africa, hitherto unexplored by Europeans, and of appreciation of the impor- tance of his services, extending to the foster- ing of commerce, the advancement of civiliza- tion, and the diffusion of Christianity among heathen nations. 1857. Freedom of city of Edinburgh, of Dundee, and many other towns. 1857. Corresponding Member of American Geographi- cal and Statistical Society, New York. 1857. Corresponding Member of Royal Geographical Society of Londoa 312 THE LIFE OF DAVID LIVINGSTONE. 1857. Corresponding Member of Geographical Society of Paris. 1857. Corresponding Member of the K. K. Geographic ' cal Society of Vienna. 1857. The Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow "elect that worthy, eminent, and learned Surgeon and Naturalist, David Liv- ingstone, LL.D., to be an Honorary Fellow." 1857. Medal awarded by the Universal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Industry. 1857. University of Oxford confer degree of D.C.L. 1857. Elected F.R.S. 1858. Appointed Commander of Zambesi Expedition and Her Majesty's Consul at Tette, Quili- mane, and Senna. 1872. Gold Medal awarded by Italian Geographical Society. 1874. A memoir of Livingstone having been read by the Secretary at a meeting of the Russian Geographical Society, cordially recognizing his merit, the whole assembly — a very large one — by rising, paid a last tribute of respect to his memory. — Lancet, 7th March, 1874.

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